Season The Philadelphia Orchestra. Friday, March 25,, at 2:00. Saturday, Stéphane Denève Conductor Imogen Cooper Piano - PDF

Season The Philadelphia Orchestra Thursday, March 24,, at 8:00 Friday, March 25,, at 2:00 Saturday, March 26,, at 8:00 Stéphane Denève Conductor Imogen Cooper Piano Dutilleux Métaboles I.

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Season The Philadelphia Orchestra Thursday, March 24,, at 8:00 Friday, March 25,, at 2:00 Saturday, March 26,, at 8:00 Stéphane Denève Conductor Imogen Cooper Piano Dutilleux Métaboles I. Incantatoire II. Linéaire III. Obsessionel IV. Torpide V. Flamboyant Mozart Piano Concerto No. 9 in E-flat major, K. 271 ( Jenamy ) I. Allegro II. Andantino III. Rondeau (Presto) Menuetto (Cantabile) Tempo primo Intermission Debussy Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun Roussel Symphony No. 3 in G minor, Op. 42 I. Allegro vivo II. Adagio Più mosso Adagio III. Vivace IV. Allegro con spirito This program runs approximately 1 hour, 50 minutes. The March 24 concert is sponsored by MEDCOMP. Stéphane Denève is chief conductor designate of the Stuttgart Radio Symphony (SWR), and takes up the position in September He is also music director of the Royal Scottish National Orchestra (RSNO), a post he has held since With that ensemble he has performed at the BBC Proms, the Edinburgh International Festival, and Festival Présences, and at venues throughout Europe, including Vienna s Konzerthaus, Amsterdam s Concertgebouw, and Paris Théatre des Champs-Élysées. Mr. Denève and the RSNO have made a number of acclaimed recordings together, including an ongoing survey of the works of Albert Roussel for Naxos. In 2007 they won a Diapason d'or award for the first disc in the series. Highlights for Mr. Denève in the current season include a concert at the BBC Proms with the Royal Scottish National Orchestra and pianist Paul Lewis; his debut with the Bavarian Radio Symphony; return visits to the Philharmonia Orchestra, the Deutsches Symphonieorchester Berlin, the Los Angeles Philharmonic, the Toronto Symphony, the New World Symphony, and the Hong Kong Philharmonic; and his debut at the Gran Teatre de Liceu in Barcelona, conducting Dukas s Ariane et Barbe-bleue. Mr. Denève s recent engagements have included a European tour with the Royal Scottish National Orchestra and violinist Hilary Hahn; debuts with the NDR Symphony Hamburg, Maggio Musicale Florence, and the London, San Francisco, Barcelona, BBC, and Danish National symphonies; return visits to the Philharmonia and Cleveland orchestras and the Los Angeles, Royal Stockholm, and Rotterdam philharmonics; and his debut at La Scala conducting Gounod's Faust. A graduate of the Paris Conservatory, where he was awarded a unanimous First Prize in 1995, Mr. Denève began his career as Georg Solti's assistant with the Orchestre de Paris and the Paris National Opera. He also assisted Georges Prêtre at the Paris National Opera and Seiji Ozawa at the Saito Kinen Festival. Mr. Denève made his Philadelphia Orchestra debut in Stéphane Denève s appearance on March 25 is generously underwritten by Frank and Mollie Slattery. In the season pianist Imogen Cooper s engagements include an appearance with the Royal Scottish National Orchestra; performances of Schubert s Trout Quintet with the Takacs Quartet in London, Spain, and Germany; and three concerts as part of the Mozart Unwrapped series at Kings Place in London. Last season Ms. Cooper performed with the Toronto and Cincinnati symphonies and made appearances playing with and directing the Northern and Britten sinfonias. During 2008 and 2009 she performed Schubert s late solo piano works as part of the International Piano Series in London, which she also recorded and released on the Avie label. Ms. Cooper has appeared with the New York, London, and Vienna philharmonics; the Gothenburg, London, and NHK symphonies; and the Philharmonia, Royal Concertgebouw, and Leipzig Gewandhaus orchestras. She has also undertaken tours with the Camerata Salzburg and the Australian and Orpheus chamber orchestras. She made her Philadelphia Orchestra debut in Ms. Cooper has premiered works by Thomas Adès and Deirdre Gribbin at the Cheltenham International Festival, and she has also collaborated with members of the Berlin Philharmonic for the premiere of Brett Dean s Voices for Angels. Ms. Cooper is a committed chamber musician and performs regularly with the Belcea Quartet. She has had a long collaboration with baritone Wolfgang Holzmair, which included recitals in venues throughout Europe and several recordings for the Philips label. She also performs frequently with the cellist Sonia Wieder-Atherton; their recordings include a CD set of Brahms sonatas and works by Bach on the RCA label. Mr. Holzmair and Ms. Wieder- Atherton both feature in the box set Imogen Cooper and Friends on Philips. Ms. Cooper has recorded four Mozart piano concertos with the Northern Sinfonia for the Avie label and a solo recital at Wigmore Hall on the Wigmore Live label. Ms. Cooper received a CBE in the Queen s New Year Honors in 2007 and was the recipient of an award from the Royal Philharmonic Society in 2008. FRAMING THE PROGRAM The program today explores a musical French Connection with works by three native composers and by one admiring visitor. Mozart spent a considerable amount of time in Paris between 1763 and 1766 and again in His Piano Concerto No. 9 in E-flat major was long known by the nickname Jeunehomme (young man), which it turns out was a mistaken version of the name Jenamy. Victoire Jenamy, for whom Mozart wrote the Concerto, was the daughter of his good friend Jean-Georges Noverre, a well-known French dancer and choreographer. The concert opens with Métaboles by the eminent French composer Henri Dutilleux, who turned 95 two months ago. After intermission comes Debussy s Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun, one of the earliest and most influential essays in musical Impressionism. Closing the program is Albert Roussel s exhilarating Third Symphony, a work notable for its marvelously inventive use of the orchestra, especially of percussion and harps that give a distinctive flavor. Parallel Events 1777 Mozart Piano Concerto No. 9 Music Haydn Symphony No. 63 Literature Sheridan The School for Scandal Art Gainsborough The Watering Place History Revolutionary War 1894 Debussy Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun Music Dvořák Cello Concerto Literature Kipling The Jungle Book Art Munch Vampire History Bureau of Immigration created 1964 Dutilleux Métaboles Music Stockhausen Plus/Minus Literature Pinter Homecoming Art Magritte The Son of Man History Alaska earthquake Métaboles Henri Dutilleux Born in Angers, January 22, 1916 Now living in Paris Henri Dutilleux is widely regarded as one of the leading composers of our time, securely ensconced in the pantheon of 20th- and early-21st-century composers alongside Debussy, Ravel, Roussel, Poulenc, Messiaen, Boulez, and others. Yet for much of his life, musical politics kept him largely out of the international public eye. Some have cited the exaggerated influence of his countryman Pierre Boulez, whose at times dogmatic serialist outlook scoffed at music that emulated Britten, Bartók, or Stravinsky more than it did Schoenberg. But Boulez is in his mid-80s now, and Dutilleux turned 95 earlier this year; any hard feelings from the past have mellowed as both have achieved near-legendary status. Our relations are now very good, très chaleureux, Dutilleux told a British journalist in Today we can rejoice that Dutilleux s music has found its way to American concert halls with increasing frequency, for no picture of French music is complete without it. His music is constructed with an uncanny intuition for rhetorical discourse and is painted with vivid colors; it often finds comparison to literature or to the visual arts. Dutilleux has said that Marcel Proust s novels and Baudelaire s poetry, for example, encouraged him to venture beyond traditional forms. Other works pay homage to visual arts, such as Timbres, espace, mouvement, inspired by Van Gogh s Starry Night. The Composer But whereas the paternal side of Dutilleux s family boasted painters, lithographers, and printers, it was the musical ancestry on his mother s side that had the deepest impact on Henri s artistic development. The youngest of four children in an intensely musical home, he advanced quickly on the piano and enrolled in the Douai Conservatory at the age of eight composing from his early teens and landing in the prestigious composition class of Henri Büsser. He also studied counterpoint and fugue with Noël Gallon, harmony with Jean Gallon, and orchestral conducting with Philippe Gaubert. He won the Prix de Rome in 1938 (for his cantata L Anneau du roi) but spent only a few months in Rome before World War II forced him to return home. He worked as a medical orderly during the war, then as pianist, conductor and arranger. He was choral director at the Opéra de Paris in and served as director of music productions for Radio France from 1945 to Although he composed numerous works during the 1930s and 40s, he called his Piano Sonata No. 1 (1948) his first mature work and suppressed the earlier ones. He was professor of composition at the Ècole Normale in Paris ( ) and from 1971, at the Paris Conservatory. He also taught at the Tanglewood Music Festival during the 1990s. Dutilleux s earlier works tended to bear conventional titles (Symphony No. 1) but by the 1960s he was moving toward more descriptive, poetic titles (Tout un monde lointain, for cello and orchestra). By the 1970s he was receiving major commissions from the Koussevitzky Foundation and Mstislav Rostropovich, and he has subsequently written for Isaac Stern, Anne-Sophie Mutter, and Renée Fleming. Dutilleux has published relatively few works, and to each he brings an exceptionally high level of polish at times returning to alter a work or to add a movement. In 2010, for example, he added a third movement to his chamber work Les Citations for oboe, harpsichord, double bass, and percussion, begun in 1985 with an additional movement appended in A Closer Look Dutilleux s music favors pitch centers but is rarely outright tonal, with shortbreathed, folk-like melodies and strongly etched motivic material. Despite an extreme attention to structure and symmetry, the works often possess a dreamlike quality. Métaboles, completed in 1964, was first performed by George Szell and the Cleveland Orchestra on January 14, This 16-minute gem a sort of miniature concerto for orchestra consists of five sections performed without pause, emphasizing each of the sections of the orchestra and then melding them all. This musical metamorphosis evolves from the initial Incantatoire tatoire Rite of Spring-like in its piercing polytonal opening to the low, sustained string chords of Linéaire, which features a slower version of the motif. Brass explosions form the wild Obsessionnel, tom-tom taps provide a tender night music (Torpide Torpide), and snarling snare drums signal the final Flamboyant. Dutilleux composed Métaboles from 1959 to Paul J. Horsley Eugene Ormandy was on the podium for the first Philadelphia Orchestra performances of Métaboles, in February The work has been heard here only one time since: in 1985, with Charles Dutoit conducting. The score calls for four flutes (III and IV doubling piccolo), three oboes, English horn, two clarinets, E-flat clarinet, bass clarinet, three bassoons, contrabassoon, four horns, four trumpets, three trombones, tuba, timpani, percussion (bass drum, Chinese cymbal, cowbell, cymbals, glockenspiel, snare drum, small suspended cymbal, tam-tams, temple blocks, tomtoms, triangle, xylophone), harp, celesta, and strings. Performance time is approximately 16 minutes. Piano Concerto No. 9 ( Jenamy ) Wolfgang Amadè Mozart Born in Salzburg, January 27, 1756 Died in Vienna, December 5, 1791 As with the numbering of Mozart s symphonies, those of his piano concertos have no authority with the composer and were a later 19th-century invention. The number 9 for the Concerto in E-flat obscures the fact that his first concertos were arrangements of piano sonatas by C.P.E. Bach, J.C. Bach, and lesser lights, possibly an assignment given to the young composer by his father, Leopold. The Concerto No. 5 in D major, K. 175, is Mozart s first independent piano concerto, which he wrote at age 17. Three more followed in early 1776 (K. 238, 242, 246), before he wrote his Ninth in Salzburg in January 1777, the month of his 21st birthday. It has long been recognized as his first great piano concerto, and an effort that Mozart would not surpass until he moved to Vienna some four years later. What s in a Name? Countless beloved pieces of music have a nickname, although often one not given by the composer. Mozart would have no idea what the Jupiter Symphony is, Beethoven the Emperor Concerto or Moonlight Sonata, or Schubert the Unfinished Symphony. The names sometimes come from savvy publishers who know they can improve sales, or from impresarios, critics, or performers. The case of the Concerto we hear today is particularly interesting, and only recently explained. Little is known concerning the genesis or first performance of the E-flat Concerto. Twentieth-century accounts usually stated that Mozart composed it for a French keyboard virtuoso named Mademoiselle Jeunehomme, who visited Salzburg in the winter of Nothing else was known, not even the woman s first name. In 2003 the Viennese musicologist Michael Lorenz, a specialist in the music of Mozart s time and a brilliant archival detective, figured out the mystery. The nickname was coined by the French scholars Théodore de Wyzewa and Georges de Saint-Foix in their classic early- 20th-century study of the composer. As Lorenz explains, Since one of their favorite names for Mozart was jeune homme (young man), they presented this person as Mademoiselle Jeunehomme. In a September 1778 letter Mozart wrote to his father, he referred to three recent concertos, one for the jenomy [K. 271], litzau [K. 246], and one in B-flat [K. 238] that he was selling to a publisher. Leopold later called the first pianist Madame genomai. (Spellings were often variable and phonetic at the time.) Lorenz has identified her as Victoire Jenamy, born in Strasbourg in 1749 and married to a rich merchant, Joseph Jenamy, in Victoire was the daughter of the celebrated dancer and choreographer Jean-Georges Noverre ( ), who was a good friend of Mozart s. He had choreographed a 1772 Milan production of Mozart s opera Lucio Silla and later commissioned the ballet Les Petits Riens for Paris. We know little about Victoire Jenamy. She does not appear to have been a professional musician, although clearly Mozart admired her playing. His first great piano concerto can now rightly be called by its proper name: Jenamy. A Closer Look When Mozart performed his own concertos, he would usually improvise cadenzas the flashy solo sections that occur near the end of some movements and therefore had no need to write them down. But because the Concerto we hear today was written for someone else, Mozart felt called upon to provide them. He apparently retained affection for the piece as he was still playing it years later in Vienna; it may have been the first of his concertos to be published. (The lack of distinguishing numbers or keys often makes it difficult to know exactly which of so many possible works are referred to in letters, reviews, advertisements, and programs which usually just called a piece new. ) The Concerto uses a modest orchestra of two oboes, two horns, and strings. The manuscript specifies harpsichord, still in common use at the time even as the piano was replacing it; nonetheless Mozart probably performed it most often on the piano. The opening of the piece is particularly noteworthy for the immediate presence of the keyboard in answer to a short orchestral fanfare. Equally unexpected is that within the breathless final movement rondo Mozart inserts a minuet section, which momentarily slows the pace. (Lorenz speculates that this unusual feature might have been an allusion to Noverre the dancer. ) Even at such a young age Mozart was breaking with traditions at the same time as he sought to perpetuate them. Mozart composed his Piano Concerto No. 9 in Christopher H. Gibbs Riccardo Muti conducted the first complete Philadelphia Orchestra performances of Mozart s Ninth Concerto, in October 1972, with Philippe Entremont as soloist (the third movement only was performed on a Children s Concert in January 1970 and the first movement only was performed on a Children s Concert in July 1972). The most recent performances on subscription were in March 2005, with André Watts and Andreas Delfs on the podium. The work is scored for an orchestra of solo piano, two oboes, two horns, and strings. The Jenamy runs approximately 30 minutes in performance. Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun Claude Debussy Born in Saint-Germain Germain-en en-laye, France, August 22, 1862 Died in Paris, March 25, 1918 The Symbolists were artists and poets of the late 19th century who tried to convey meanings through suggestion symbols, fragments, evocations rather than specific narrative expression. Debussy s revolutionary Prélude à l après-midi d un faune (Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun), composed between 1892 and 1894, was based on an important Symbolist poem by Stéphane Mallarmé. The music of this prelude, Debussy wrote, is a very free illustration of Mallarmé s beautiful poem. By no means does it claim to be a synthesis of it. Rather there is a succession of scenes through which pass the desires and dreams of the faun in the heat of the afternoon. Then, tired of pursuing the timorous flight of nymphs and naiads, he succumbs to intoxicating sleep, in which he can finally realize his dreams of possession in universal Nature. Faun was choreographed in 1912 for Sergei Diaghilev s Ballets Russes, with Vaslav Nijinsky as the oversexed faun, and it has remained a favorite of dancers and choreographers ever since. But it was originally conceived as a tone poem for concert performance, and it still has the power to astonish. A New Musical Style The concerns of the Symbolists were ideal for the musical style that Debussy was developing around When he composed Faun he had just broken out of the narrow confines of the Paris Conservatory and the Prix de Rome s compulsory stay at the Villa Medici. Having experienced Wagner s operas during the 1880s which overwhelmed him he yearned for a way to respond to the challenge of Tristan and Isolde and Parsifal. He conceived the Prelude as the initial part of a larger work on Mallarmé s poem (Prelude, Interludes, and Final Summary), but he realized upon completing the Prelude that it must stand alone. Indeed it is a self-contained miniature masterpiece; in a single stroke the composer set the scene for all manner of 20th-century musical exploration. (Stravinsky, for example, was bowled over by Afternoon of a Faun, and its influence on works such as The Firebird and The Nightingale are not to be underestimated.) At the work s first performance in Paris in December 1894, with conductor Gustave Doret and the Societé Nationale Orchestre, even the press which had not always been sympathetic to the composer s early works realized that something startlingly new had come to pass. Mallarmé, who was present in the first Paris audience, was delighted with Debussy s gloss on his poem. I was not expecting anything like this! he said. The music creates no dissonance with my text, except that it even extends the emotion of the poem, exploring more deeply the nostalgia and the atmosphere of light and color. Modern music was awakened by The Afternoon of a Faun, writes the conductor and composer Pierre Boulez. Taking the operas of Wagner as its departure, Debussy s piece contains the color and ambiguity of Wagner s harmony but avoids its emotional tension. The piece begins with the extraordinary flute solo, builds to a descending melody in the winds (with a descending bass line built from the outer tritone interval of the flute solo), and concludes with a return of the flute. The Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun was composed
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