WOMEN S STRUGGLE AGAINST DISCRIMINATION OF GENDER AND SEXUALITY AS PORTRAYED IN THE GENESIS AND AL-MUJĀDALAH A GRADUATING PAPER - PDF

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WOMEN S STRUGGLE AGAINST DISCRIMINATION OF GENDER AND SEXUALITY AS PORTRAYED IN THE GENESIS AND AL-MUJĀDALAH A GRADUATING PAPER By: Ali Jafar ENGLISH DEPARTMENT FACULTY OF ADAB AND CULTURAL SCIENCES

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WOMEN S STRUGGLE AGAINST DISCRIMINATION OF GENDER AND SEXUALITY AS PORTRAYED IN THE GENESIS AND AL-MUJĀDALAH A GRADUATING PAPER By: Ali Jafar ENGLISH DEPARTMENT FACULTY OF ADAB AND CULTURAL SCIENCES STATE ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY SUNAN KALIJAGA YOGYAKARTA 2014 This Page Intentionally Left Blank ii A FINAL PROJECT STATEMENT I certify that this thesis is definitely my own work. I am completely responsible for the content of the thesis. Other writer s opinion or finding included in the thesis are quoted or cited in accordance with ethical standards. Yogyakarta, 8 December 2014 The Writer Ali Jafar Stud, Numb: iii KEMENTRIAN AGAMA REPUBLIK INDONESIA UNIVERSITAS ISLAM NEGERI SUNAN KALIJAGA FAKULTAS ADAB DAN ILMU BUDAYA Jl. Marsda Adi sucipto Yogyakarta Telp./Fak. (0274) Web : NOTA DINAS Hal : Skripsi a.n. Ali Jafar Yth. Dekan Fakultas Adab dan Ilmu Budaya UIN Sunan Kalijaga Di Yogyakarta Assalamu alaikum wr.wb Setelah memeriksa, meneliti, dan memberikan arahan untuk perbaikan atas skripsi saudara: Nama : Ali Jafar NIM : Jurusan : Sastra Inggris Fakultas : Adab dan Ilmu Budaya UIN Sunan Kalijaga Yogyakarta Judul : WOMEN S STRUGGLE AGAINST DISCRIMINATION OF GENDER AND SEXUALITY AS PORTRAYED IN THE GENESIS AND AL-MUJĀDALAH Saya menyatakan bahwa skripsi tersebut sudah dapat diajukan pada sidang Munaqosyah untuk memenuhi sebagian syarat memperoleh gelar Sarjana Sastra Inggris. Atas perhatian yang diberikan, saya ucapkan terimakasih. Wassalamu alaikum wr.wb Yogyakarta, Pembimbing Ubaidillah, S.Hum., M.Hum NIP iv KEMENTRIAN AGAMA REPUBLIK INDONESIA UNIVERSITAS ISLAM NEGERI SUNAN KALIJAGA FAKULTAS ADAB DAN ILMU BUDAYA Jl. Marsda Adi sucipto Yogyakarta Telp./Fak. (0274) Web : NOTA DINAS Hal : Skripsi a.n. Ali Jafar Yth. Dekan Fakultas Adab dan Ilmu Budaya UIN Sunan Kalijaga Di Yogyakarta Assalamu alaikum wr.wb Setelah memeriksa, meneliti, dan memberikan arahan untuk perbaikan atas skripsi saudara: Nama : Ali Jafar NIM : Jurusan : Sastra Inggris Fakultas : Adab dan Ilmu Budaya UIN Sunan Kalijaga Yogyakarta Judul : WOMEN S STRUGGLE AGAINST DISCRIMINATION OF GENDER AND SEXUALITY AS PORTRAYED IN THE GENESIS AND AL-MUJĀDALAH Saya menyatakan bahwa skripsi tersebut sudah dapat diajukan pada sidang Munaqosyah untuk memenuhi sebagian syarat memperoleh gelar Sarjana Sastra Inggris. Atas perhatian yang diberikan, saya ucapkan terimakasih. Wassalamu alaikum wr.wb Yogyakarta, Pembimbing Witriani, S.Hum., M.Hum NIP v vi ABSTRACT Men dominations over women take its parts in every aspect of life. It is implemented as package of rule in patriarchal culture, even it is in the role of sexuality. In patriarchal system, Men hold the entire interpretations of social-cultural and religious understanding. The Genesis chapter 38 is portrayal of bias relation between men and women. It talks about Tamar, Judah s daughter in law. She was married with Er as the first husband and then with Onan, her second husband. From both of her husbands, she could not conceived and bare a son because her second husband did coitus interruptus. Her status in the same of between when Judah promised to give Shelah as her husband, but she should wait for very long time. She is as widow without son. The similar case also happens to Khaulah in the book Al-Mujādalah verses 1-6. Her husband, Aus, forced her to get intercourse with him, but she denied it. Then, her husband did ẓihār toward her. Getting ẓihār from her husband means Khaulah lacks her right in sexuality. Meanwhile, sexuality is basic right of women in marital relation. The primary source of data in this research are the Bible of King James Version chapter 38 and the book of Al-Mujādalah verses 1-6. And the secondary data are the books related to Genesis and Al-Mujādalah. This research is descriptivequalitative research based on library research. To collect the data, the writer reads both books deeply and compares it. The writer uses Radical Feminism theory to analyze the data and elaborated with Hermeneutic integrated with Science of Koran to understand the whole of the story in the data. From this research, it is found that both Tamar and Khaulah have similar discrimination; it is the discrimination in sexuality, justice and marital rule. Yet, both of them have differences in the way to struggle against discrimination. Tamar kept her struggle in calm ways and Khaulah did it in the strict ways. Either calm or strict in their struggle, both of them are giving inspiration that discrimination on behalf of everything should be denied. Key words: The Genesis, Al-Mujādalah, Radical Feminism, struggle against discrimination, Science of Koran. vii INTISARI Dominasi laki-laki terhadap wanita mengambil wadahnya pada setiap aspek kehidupan. Dominasi itu diejawantahkan sebagai hukum paket dalam budaya patriarki, meskipun itu dalam hubungan sexualitas. Dalam sistem patriarki, laki-laki memegang seluruh peranan social-kebudayaan dan pemahaman keagamaan. Kitab Kejadian bab 38 adalah gambaran tentang hubungan yang tindih antara laki-laki dan perempuan. Adalah Tamar, menantu Judah. Dia menikah dengan Er, suami pertama dan Onan sebagai suami kedua. Dari kedua suaminya, Tamar tidak bisa mengandung dan melahirkan karena suami keduanya melakukan persenggamaan terputus. Status tamar menjadi tidak jelas ketika ayah mertuanya, Judah, berjanji untuk menikahkan dia dengan Shelah sebagai suami, tetapi dia harus menunggu untuk waktu yang lama. Tamar menjadi janda tanpa anak. Kasus yang serupa juga terjadi pada Khaulah dalam surah Al-Mujādalah dalam ayat 1-6. Suaminya, Aus, memaksa dia untuk berhubungan badan, tetapi dia menolaknya. Kemudian suaminya melakukan ẓihār kepada dia. Mendapatkan ẓihār dari suaminya berarti Khaulah kehilangan hak sexualitasnya. Padahal, sexualitas adalah hak asasi wanita dalam hubungan pernikaahan. Data utama dalam penelitian ini adalah kitab Bible King James Version bab 38 dan surah Al-Mujādalah ayat 1-6. Data penunjang adalah buku-buku yang terkait dengan data tersebut. Jenis penelitian ini adalah descriptive-qualitative yang berdasarkan pada Penelitian Pustaka. Untuk mengumpulkan data, penulis membaca kedua data secara mendalam dan membandingkanya. Penulis menggunakan theory Radical Feminisme untuk menganalisa data dan Hermeneutika yang telah diintegrasikan dengan ilmu al-qur an untuk memahami keutuhan cerita dalam data. Dari penelitian ini, ditemukan bahwa Tamar dan Khaulah memiliki kesamaan dalam diskriminasi; yaitu dalam sexualitas, keadilan dan hubungan pernikaahan. Keduanya juga memiliki perbedaan dalam melawan diskriminasi. Tamar berjuang dengan cara menunggu dan Khaulah dengan cara yang langsung. Baik menungu atau langsung, keduanya memberikan inspirasi bahwa diskriminasi dalam bentuk apapun harus ditolak.. Kata Kunci: Genesis, Al-Mujādalah, Radical Feminism, Perjuangan melawan diskriminasi, Ilmu al-qur an. viii Motto and Motivation For everything you have lost, you have gained something else. ix Teruntuk Mohard and Muham. x ACKNOWLEDGEMENT هللامسب اىذ د ه لل اىر بفضي ب ع ت تت اىصاىذاث, ذ د شنس عتصيد ت ىي اى ع اء دت ن اغدا ش سة ا و اى ع اء ىأل بياء اىش داء اىصاىذي ا ذاىل هللا االادعا ا ت فيقا. اىي صي ظي عي ظيد ا ى ا دمحم, ظيد اىعادة عي اى ا ى اى فاسي اىنسا ت, اصذاب اىرى استاز هللا ظبذا تعاى بصذبت بي اال ي دت اى ا اعي اىدزجت. ف ر اىفسصت اىعظي ت, شنس شنسا مثيسا عي مو في ر اىجا عت االظال يت اى بازمت ا شاء هللا. In this memorable moment, I would like say thanks very much for our grand syaikh, اىعيز ي شبيس اىذاج (Sarang, Al-Anwar) who allows me to study in the university. For اىعيز دمحم جيخ ي اىذاج (Sarang, Dār al-ṣahihaīn), thank very much for your guidance. For اىعيز ادزيط سش ق اىذاج (Lirboyo), and Gus Baha (Baha udin Nursalim, Kragan, UII), thanks very much for your affection, advice and everything that you have given me, that was so great and deep. Thank very much also for Bapak Fuad Fudiyartanto M. Hum as the head of English Department of UIN SUKA, who gives me permission to write this graduating paper. The deepest thank is for Ibu Witriani S.S, M. Hum and Pak Ubaidillah S.Hum, M.Hum, thank very much for being both my academic advisor and my graduating paper consultant. Thank very much for the guidance, book as reference, and advice. Having two great academic advisors is like having complete parent, it is great. My deepest gratitude is also for all lecturers in English Literature Department, bu Jiah, pak Dan, bu Uli, pak Arif, pak Bambang and etc. Thank and once more again thanks. My great thankfulness is dedicated to my mother, you re so beautiful, I love you. For my father, I m sorry for being naughty, but I believe that your love is more xi than your anger. To my limited close friend, Geng Ajik, Dira, Nayla, Yelli, Novi, Safrina, Nisa, Roha,Crist, and my crony in English Literature 11 class B, we are big family. Special thanks for my teacher in Hebrew אכ אכיה) (אח ani meod mitstaer for not completing my study in Hebrew, but I hold my promise to read it always. My teacher in Buddhism, Samaniyyah and other ancient religion, Hup Ley and Chepinoga, Thank very much for teach me chanting, meditation, dharma, and being vegetarian. The last and the deepest one are for mas Musa (a philosopher to be), Agus (hardly described), mas Panji (who hides his feeling deeply), mas Dhiya (an Arabic poet, and I m waiting for your poem), Ivat (the best friend ever), Muham (to whom this graduating paper is dedicated) all of you are awesome, thanks very much for your patient, your love and everything you have given for me. Yogyakarta 10 Rabi ul Awal 1436 xii ARABIC-LATIN TRANSLITERATION GUIEDELINES Common Decision of Religious Affairs Ministry and Educational and Cultural Ministry No: 158 Year 1987-No:0543 b/u/ Consonant No Arabic Latin No Arabic Latin No Arabic Latin 1 ا 11 ش 21 ق 2 ب 12 ض 22 ك 3 ث 13 غ 23 ه 4 ث 14 ص 24 5 ج 15 ض 25 6 ح 16 ط 26 7 ر 17 ظ 27 8 د 18 ع 28 ء 9 ذ 19 غ ز 20 ف Low Vocal : 1. Fatḥah : a (A). 2. Kasrah: I (I). 3. ḍammah: u (U) 3. Long Vocal 1. Fatḥah and alif : ā (a with top line). 2. Kasrah and ya : ī (I with top line). ḍammah and wawu: ū (u with top line) 4. Double consonant : هصه) ) : Nazzala Al- qamariyah:( (اىش ط : Al-Syamsu. 2. Al-Syamsiyah:( :(اىق س Al-Qamaru. xiii GLOSSARIES Adullam (Hebrew): it is name of city of Canaanite. Adullam in the Bible 38 refers to place where Judah runs from his father, Jacob or Israel. Ahlu al- Kitāb (Arabic): In the Islamic tradition, it refers to community with rabbinic tradition and hold holly book from messenger of God, either Jews or Christ. Anṣār (Arabic): it refers to community which assists Prophet Muhammad from his emigration from Mecca to Medina Balīg (Arabic): appropriate context (muqtaḍa alḥāl). Both of speaker and listener know the meaning of utterance. Banī Isrāil (Arabic): It is the addressing of the Quran which refers to the descendant of Israel. Bayīn (Arabic): Language that is short and clear without vagueness and ambiguity which leads to misinterpretation and misunderstanding. Canaan (Hebrew): it is the place in the ancient Near East and as correspondent of Levant. In modern day, it was place between Jordan and Israel. It also refers to the urban race in the axial era. Coitus Interruptus (Latin): Withdraw penis from a woman s vagina at the point of orgasm, and directed ejaculation away from vagina in effort to avoid conception. Faṣīh (Arabic): Clear sentences that easy to be uttered. Lack from accidental gap, either the combination are not allowed (Tanāfur) or not used as word (Garīb), or using unusual phonological operation (khīlaf al-qānūn). Israel (Hebrew): also called as Jacob in the Genesis, as the father of great tribe of Israeli. His son are Ruben, Simon, Lewis, Judas, Zebulon, Issachar, Dan, Gad, Assayer, Naphtali, Joseph, Benyamin. All of these names then become clans of Israeli. xiv Khazrāj (Arabic): it is one of tribe in Muhammad s era, its rival is Awsh. This tribe inhabits Medina. Before engagement of aqābah, Khazrāj and Awsh are playing important rule and being leader of Medina Levant (Hebrew): Ancient territory in Mediterranean, lying across Anatolia and Egypt. Now, Levant consists of Cyprus, Israel, Jordan, Palestine, Syria and Aleppo (ḥalab). Midian (Hebrew) or Madyan (Arabic): A place laying in the north west of Arabic peninsula and east shore of Red Sea (Al-Baḥru Al-Aḥmar). in the Old Testament Midianite also refers to the descendent of Midian, son of Abram from Keturah. Pentateuch (Hebrew): called also as torah. It is the first five book of Hebrew scripture or Old Testament; it consists of Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers and Deuteronomy. Ẓihār (Arabic): It refers to Arabic culture in lacking woman s right in sexuality within marital relation... xv TABLE OF CONTENTS COVER. i BLANK PAGE.ii NOTA DINAS.iii FINAL PROJECT STATEMENT V PENGESAHAN......VI ABSTRACT...VII INTISARI..VIII MOTTO..IX DEDICATION X ACKNOWLEDGEMENT.XI TRANSLITERATION GUIDELINES XIII GLOSSARIES..XIV TABLE OF CONTENTS XVI CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION Background of Study Research question Objectives of Study Significances of Study Literature Review 8 xvi 1.6 Theoretical Approach Radical Feminism Islamic Feminism Hermeneutic Integrated with Science of Koran Methods of Research Type of Research Data Sources Data Collection Technique Data Analysis Technique Paper Organization..18 CHAPTER II: ASPECT OF GENESIS AND AL-MUJĀDALAH Extrinsic Element of The Genesis About The Genesis Historical Context of The Genesis Intrinsic Element of The Genesis The Language of Poetry in The Genesis Imagery The Form of Poetry The Content of Poetry Narrative Character and Characterization Judah Tamar Hirah Onan xvii Themes Setting of Theme and Place Extrinsic Elements of Al-Mujādalah About Al-Mujādalah Historical Context of Mujādalah Intrinsic Element of Al-Mujādalah The Language of Al-Mujādalah Imagery The Form of Al- Mujādalah Rhyme Alliteration The Content of Al- Mujādalah Character and Characterization Khaulah Muhammad Theme Setting Genesis and Al- Mujādalah...41 CHAPTER III: ANALYSIS AND FINDING Analysis and Finding of Genesis General Portrait of Ancient Israel Culture Aspect of Gender and Sexual Inequality in The Genesis Marriage Oppression..46 xviii Sexual Oppression Unequal Justice Tamar Against Discrimination Resolution of Discrimination Analysis and Finding of Al-Mujādalah General Portrait of Culture in Prophetic Age around Al- Mujādalah Aspect of Gender and Sexuality Discrimination in Al- Mujādalah Sexual violence Marriage rule Khaulah Against Discrimination Discrimination resolution Tamar and Khaulah Text implication..77 CHAPTER IV: CONSLUTION AND SUGGESTION Conclusion Suggestion..82 REFERENCES...84 APPENDIX xix CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1.1. Background of Study Man dominations over woman are often found in the literary works. Literary work is a creative and valuable language written as an art with personal touch including idea, feeling, motivation and expression which captures the value of human experiences. This domination either in economical, social or political role institutionally has called as patriarchy (Goldman, 2007:70). This patriarchy is depicted in many forms of literary work, either in prose, drama, poetry or even in sacred text. Bandel says that in the literature, women are merely as the object of men s writing with all their perspectives and their biases (2006:3). This bias placed women as second class who have no voice to talk about themselves, women s words are representation of men s voice. In The Second Sex, Beauvoir explained that in the classical literature, men are holding the rule in composing literary work. She also argued that women are second class who have no chance to talk about themselves. They are placed as object of writing, not as subject (2003: ). Only after raising wave of feminism in the late of nineteenth and beginning of twenty century, women can freely talk and write for themselves. These phenomena called as women s freedom. Talking about women in literature, they cannot be separated from basic issues around them. Those are about gender and sexuality. Gender is the term of 1 2 denotes the social produced meaning, and sex is term used to refer the biological construction (Hughes, 2002:12). Thus, gender is social nurture and sex is naturally given. In modern era, the phenomena of gender and sexuality discrimination have inspired many authors to write literary work talking about those issues, gender and sexuality. Such as Gadis Pantai, Lajja, Women at Point Zero, and etc. All of the fictional women in literary work above are usually constructed beautifully, they are adored in the beginning but they are humiliated in the end of story. Besides in literary work which presents patriarchal culture, there is rule which is interesting to be analyzed. It is the rule of religion in composing patriarchal culture. In English literature, arising term of New morality in the 1960s and 1970s is the impact of reformulation of male and female relation. Before it, the concept about moral, ethic and male and female relation are controlled strictly as part of religious dogma (Sanders, 1994: 135). The Scarlet Letter with puritan age s background by Nathaniel Hawthorne and Tess D ubberville which depicted Victorian society by Thomas Hardy are little proof from literary works that across long history in every period of English Literature. Sexuality and norm ethic are controlled by religion apparatus strictly. In the literary works and religion, the topic about gender and sexuality is very sensitive issue. This issue in many forms is suspected as issue that reduces morality and religiosity (Bandel, 2006:6). Meanwhile in particular society, the 3 stories about gender, sex and sexuality in literatures are considered taboo. Either norm of society or norm of religious deny it and placed it privately. Mernisi said that social ethic and sacred text is merely used as weapon to break down this issue. In addition, she said that sacred text is effective weapon to domesticate women with social ethic (1991;15). Likewise Mernisi, Bandel also said that literary work which promotes sexual issues assumed as porn story which can contaminate norm, ethic and religion (2006:4). Thus, the term of sexuality and religion will get different respond in particular society; sexuality is shameful and religiosity is sacred. Indeed in many times, as particular interpretation about sexual desire in religious texts, there are many assumptions that sexuality should be avoided if someone would be truly more religious. Priests and official ministers of church, Buddhist monk, some of preachers who live in celibate to purify their spirit from any temptations are result of particular interpretation of religious texts which describes sexuality as dirty and tinged with evil. Sexual desire will be spot which damages purity and forbidding them from heaven. In the same way, celibacy also becomes personal power and self-esteem to those who mastered his/her own body. They were successfully freeing their mind from temporal beauty. Apart from debatable idea about sexuality and religion, the writer wants to talk about them together. The writer is interested with the issues of gender and sexuality in the field of religion. Then, the writer found two sacred texts in the Genesis chapter 38, and the Koran chapter 58 th. These texts are very important to be analyzed since these 4 texts provide valuable stories of women struggle in facing discrimination, in which these texts also the most widely read text. First, both of these texts talked about discrimination of gender and sexuality in w
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