Von den mittelenglischen Dialekten zu den Anfängen des neuenglischen Standards. Stefan Thim - PDF

Grundlagen und Methoden der älteren Sprachen und Kulturen Englische Sprachgeschichte und Literatur des Mittelalters München, 20. Juni 2011 Von den mittelenglischen Dialekten zu den Anfängen des neuenglischen

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Grundlagen und Methoden der älteren Sprachen und Kulturen Englische Sprachgeschichte und Literatur des Mittelalters München, 20. Juni 2011 Von den mittelenglischen Dialekten zu den Anfängen des neuenglischen Standards Stefan Thim A Introduction: THROUGH (1) Present-day English: through (thru) [θɹuː] Why is this word spelt so oddly? (How else could it be spelled?) th r ou gh fine, this, Thomas door, law and order sour, pour trough, gherkin (etc.) PDE spelling highly conventional (standardization), but (2) Middle English THROUGH (Old English: ca , Middle English: ca , Early Modern English: ca ) Linguistic Atlas of Late Medieval English (LALME) Spellings of THROUGH? e.g. Middle English: the age of dialect Attestation of Middle English: manuscripts and scribes in time and space B Basic terminology: vernacular, dialect, standard (cf. Hudson 1996) vernacular (G. Volkssprache ) dialect: dialect 1 vs dialect 2 (other kinds of lect: sociolect, regiolect, idiolect) 2 Thim What are the typical characteristics of a standard variety of a language? (Cf. Milroy 2000 on the ideology of the standard.) Typically: maximal variation in function and minimal variation in form (Haugen 1966); cf. Middle English C The changing language ecology of Middle English from early ME (to c.1340) to late ME (after c.1340) Multilingualism (English/French/Latin): functional distribution in a multilingual communicative space (Schaefer 2006; cf. Koch & Oesterreicher 1985) Di-/Triglossia (Ferguson 1959; cf. Hudson 1996) High vs. Low variety English excluded from powerful domains (cf. Machan 2003) The English language in 1385: Trevisa s translation of Higden s Polychronicon (1st half of the 14th c.) This maner was moche y-used tofore the furste moreyn, and is siththe somdel y-chaunged. For John Cornwal, a maister of gramere, changede the lore in gramer-scole and construccion of Freynsch into Englysch; and Richard Pencrych lurned that maner of teching of him, and other men of Pencrych, so that now, the year of oure Lord a thousand three hondred foure score and five, of the secund Kyng Richard after the Conquest nine, in the gramerscoles of Engelond children leveth Frensch and construeth and lurneth an Englisch, and habbeth therby avauntage in on side and desavauntage in another. Here avauntage is that a lurneth here gramere in lasse time than children wer y- wonded to do. Disavauntage is that now childern of gramer-scole conneth no more Frensch than can here left heele, and that is harm for ham and a scholle passe the se and travaile in strange londes, and in many caas also. Also gentil men habbeth nowe moche y-left for to teche here childern Frensch. Al the longage of the North-humbres, and specialich at York, is so scharp, slytting, and frotyng and unschapethat we Southeron men may that longage unnethe understand. Y trowe that that is bicause that a beth nigh to strange men and aliens, that speketh straungelich, and also because that the kinges of Engelond woneth alwey fer from that contray. (from Mossé 1969) Von den mittelenglischen Dialekten zu den Anfängen des neuenglischen Standards 3 D Some dialectal features of Middle English (1) Phonology Map 1: The isogloss f-/v- Map 2: The isogloss[ɑ:]/[ɔ:] Map 3: The isogloss i/u [y]/e (from Mossé 1969) Def.: An isogloss is a line drawn on a map to mark the boundary of an area in which a particular linguistic feature is used (Crystal, A Dictionary of Linguistics and Phonetics, 3 rd ed., London: 1991, s.v. isogloss ). (2) Morphology (2a) Personal pronouns, 3rd person Map 4: ME she Map 5: ME them 4 Thim (2b) Verbal endings Map 6: ME present 3 sg Map 7: ME present pl Map 8: ME present participle (3) CHURCH Map 9: Crystal (2004), ME CHURCH Von den mittelenglischen Dialekten zu den Anfängen des neuenglischen Standards 5 (4) Main dialect areas Map 10: the main dialect areas of ME (from Crystal 2004) E Two parallel texts The Lay Folks Catechism (translated from the Latin, York, 1357, and John Wyclif s version, West Midlands, c.1360) This er the sex thinges that I have spoken of, That the lawe of halikirk lies mast in That ye er halden to knowe and to kun If ye sal knawe god almighten and cum un to his blisse: And for to gif yhou better will for to kun tham, Our Fadir the ercebisshop grauntes of his grace Fourti daies of pardon til al that kunnes tham, Or dos their gode diligence for to kun tham For if ye kunnandly know this ilk sex thinges Thurgh thaim sal ye kun knawe god almighten, Wham, als saint Iohn saies in his godspel, Conandly for to knawe swilk als he is, It is endles life and lastand bliss, To whilk blisse he bring us that bought us. amen. These be þe sexe thyngys þat y haue spokyn of Þat þe law of holy chirche lys most yn. Þat þey be holde to know and to kunne; Yf þey schal knowe god almyȝty and come to þe blysse of heuyn. And for to ȝeue ȝow þe better wyl for to cunne ham, Our Fadyr þe archiepischop grauntys of hys grace, forty dayes of Pardoun to alle þat cunne hem and rehercys hem For yf ȝe cunnyngly knowe þese sexe thyngys; þorwȝ hem ȝe schull knowe god almyȝty. And as seynt Ion seyþ in his gospel. Kunnyngly to know god almyȝty ys endles lyf, and lastynge blysse. He bryngge vs þerto, þat bowȝt vs With hys herte blod on þe cros Crist Iesu. Amen. (texts from Freeborn 1992: 79f.) 6 Thim F The beginnings of standard English in late medieval English (1) Changes in the communicative space Communicative pressures: English from parochial literacy to national functions (Benskin 1992) (2) Standardization processes according to Haugen (1966) selection elaboration codification acceptance (3) London Map 11: locative surnames of Londoners (from Nielsen 2005) Von den mittelenglischen Dialekten zu den Anfängen des neuenglischen Standards 7 (4) Administration and power: the Signet Office, the Chancery and the Chancery Standard (Samuels 1972) Chancery English: a petition from 1455 To the right wise and discret Comons in this present parlement assembled Bese(cheth) humbly Thomas yong that where as he late beyng oon of the knyghtes for the shire and towne of Bristowe in dyuers parlementes holden afore this demened him in his saiyng in the same as wele faithfully and with alle such trewe diligent labour as his symplenesse couthe or might for the wele of the kyng oure souerain lorde and this his noble Realme and notwithstonding that by the olde liberte and fredom of the Comyns of this londe had enioyed and prescribed fro the tyme that no mynde is all suche persones as for the tyme been assembled / in eny parlement for the same Comyns ought to haue theire fredom to speke and sey in the hous of there assemble as to theym (is) thought conuenyent or resonable (text from Nielsen 2005: 141) (5) 1476: William Caxton sets up the printing press in Westminster By the sixteenth century, in England at least, the public written mode of the vernacular had become standardised focused in a way which points forward to the fixed and educationally enforced standard of PD [viz. present-day] written English. The use of printing for reproducing English texts from the end of the fifteenth century provided prescriptive norms for contemporary manuscript-usage (Horobin & Smith 2002: 34) (G) Conclusion George Puttenham (The Arte of English Poesie, 1589) ye shall therfore take the vsuall speach of the Court, and that of London and the shires lying about London within lx. myles, and not much aboue. I say not this but that in euery shyre of England there be gentlemen and others that speake but specially write as good Southerne as we of Middlesex or Surrey do, but not the common people of euery shire 8 Thim References Benskin, Michael Some New Perspectives on the Origin of Standard Written English. In: Dialect and Standard Language in the English, Dutch, German and Norwegian Language Areas Crystal, David The Stories of English. London: Penguin. Ferguson, Charles Diglossia. Word Freeborn, Dennis From Old to Standard English: A Course Book in Language Variation across Time. London: Macmillan. Haugen, Einar Dialect, Language, Nation. American Anthropologist Horobin, Simon & Jeremy Smith An Introduction to Middle English. Edinburgh: Edinburgh UP. Hudson, Richard A Sociolinguistics, 2 nd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Koch, Peter & Wulf Oesterreicher Sprache der Nähe Sprache der Distanz: Mündlichkeit und Schriftlichkeit im Spannungsfeld von Sprachtheorie und Sprachgeschichte . Romanistisches Jahrbuch LALME = A Linguistic Atlas of Late Mediaeval English, ed. Angus McIntosh, Michael L. Samuels & Michael Benskin, with the assistance of Margaret Laing & Keith Williamson, 4 vols. (Aberdeen: Aberdeen UP, 1986). Machan, Tim William English in the Middle Ages. Oxford: Oxford UP. Milroy, Jim Historical Description and the Ideology of the Standard Language. In: The Development of Standard English : Theories, Descriptions, Conflicts. Ed. Laura Wright. Cambridge: Cambridge UP Mossé, Fernand Handbuch des Mittelenglischen, transl. by H. Pilch and U. Siewert. München: Hueber. Nielsen, Hans Frede From Dialect to Standard: English in England Odense: UP of Southern Denmark. Samuels, M.L Linguistic Evolution. Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Schaefer, Ursula Textualizing the Vernacular in Late Medieval England: Suggestions for Some Heuristic Reconsiderations. In: Language and Text: Current Perspectives on English and Germanic Historical Linguistics and Philology, ed. Andrew James Johnston, Ferdinand von Mengden & Stefan Thim. Heidelberg: Winter
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