Вануату - самая счастливая страна :58 Росбалт - PDF

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Rambler-Медиа: Вануату - самая счастливая страна Page 1 of 1 12/07/2006 Вануату - самая счастливая страна :58 Росбалт Островное государство

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Rambler-Медиа: Вануату - самая счастливая страна Page 1 of 1 12/07/2006 Вануату - самая счастливая страна :58 Росбалт Островное государство Вануату, расположенное в Тихом океане, оказалось самой счастливой страной на планете . Страна, население которой составляет 200 тысяч человек, возглавила составленный британскими аналитиками New Economic Foundation рейтинг Happy Planet Index , который обнародован в среду, сообщает France Press. Каждую страну мира составители рейтинга Happy Planet Index оценили по трем параметрам: удовлетворенность граждан своим уровнем жизни, продолжительность жизни и экологическая нагрузка - количество земли, необходимой для обеспечения населения продуктами питания и нейтрализации отходов промышленного производства. Идея рейтинга очень проста, - заявили его составители, - Сравнить, что мы вкладываем (ресурсы), и что мы в итоге получаем (продолжительность жизни и степень удовлетворенность ей). Это краеугольный камень любой экономической теории . Первую десятку рейтинга заняли страны Океании, население которых имеет все шансы прожить долгую и счастливую жизнь, не опасаясь загрязнения окружающей среды промышленным производством. Хорошие показатели и у стран Центральной Америки, где средняя продолжительность жизни достигает 70 лет, а степень антропогенной нагрузки на окружающую среду ниже среднемировой. Хуже всего, согласно Happy Planet Index , дела обстоят в государствах Африки и промышленно развитых странах. В частности, в государствах - членах Большой восьмерки . Италия занимает 66-е место в рейтинге самых счастливых стран , Германия - 81-е, Япония - 95-е, Великобритания е, США е, а Россия место из 178 возможных. По мнению аналитиков из New Economic Foundation, нет ничего удивительного в том, что промышленно развитые страны показали столь низкие результаты. Математические абстракции экономических теорий, которых придерживаются власти этих стран, не имеют ничего общего с жизнью реальных людей. Высокий уровень потребления энергоносителей и развитая промышленность не делают рядовых граждан более счастливыми , - считают авторы исследования. Однако жители лидера рейтинга - республики Вануату - не во всем согласны с аналитиками New Economic Foundation, объявившими их самыми счастливыми людьми на планете. Только не рассказывайте никому про это , - пошутил в интервью британской газете Guardian главный редактор Vanuatu Online. Дело в том, что наши люди готовы довольствоваться малым и чувствовать себя при этом счастливыми, - добавил он. - У нас просто иная система ценностей, отличная от западного мира . Росбалт Copyright Рамблер Интернет Холдинг THE HAPPY PLANET INDEX An index of human well-being and environmental impact nef is an independent think-and-do tank that inspires and demonstrates real economic well-being. We aim to improve quality of life by promoting innovative solutions that challenge mainstream thinking on economic, environmental and social issues. We work in partnership and put people and the planet first. nef (the new economics foundation) is a registered charity founded in 1986 by the leaders of The Other Economic Summit (TOES), which forced issues such as international debt onto the agenda of the G7/G8 summit meetings. It has taken a lead in helping establish new coalitions and organisations such as the Jubilee 2000 debt campaign; the Ethical Trading Initiative; the UK Social Investment Forum; and new ways to measure social and economic well-being. We are accustomed to comparing countries in terms of crude riches or what they trade. Some countries earn, or are given, reputations for music, sporting excellence, food, or as holiday destinations. There are international league tables for performance on a range of issues from corruption to football. This report introduces a measure of something more fundamental. It addresses the relative success or failure of countries in supporting a good life for their citizens, whilst respecting the environmental resource limits upon which all our lives depend. The Happy Planet Index (HPI) is an innovative new measure that shows the ecological efficiency with which human well-being is delivered. Contents Executive summary 2 Introduction 6 What is the ultimate aim of societies? 6 Introducing the Happy Planet Index 8 Why do we need a new index? Existing measures and their limitations 8 Components of the HPI 10 Calculating the HPI 14 Interpreting the Happy Planet Index 15 Different types of progress: HPI vs. existing indicators 22 Development blues: the Transition Countries and Southern Africa 24 Island paradise 30 Countries at the top of the HPI 35 Countries at the bottom of the HPI 37 Conclusion: Does happiness have to cost the Earth? 39 A Global Manifesto for a happier planet 41 Where do we go from here? The HPI and implications for policy 41 Appendix 1: Data limitations 45 Appendix 2: Data sources and estimation procedures 48 Appendix 3: Calculating the HPI (details) 51 Endnotes 53 Factors influencing well-being 31 Cultural values 31 Political conditions 32 Social Capital 33 Executive summary This report takes a very different look at the wealth and poverty of nations. It measures the ecological efficiency with which, country by country, people achieve long and happy lives. In doing so, it strips our view of the economy back to its absolute basics: what goes in (natural resources), and what comes out (human lives of differing length and happiness). We are accustomed to comparing countries in terms of crude riches or what they trade. Some countries earn, or are given, reputations for music, sporting excellence, food, or as holiday destinations. There are international league tables for performance on a range of issues from corruption to football. This report introduces a measure of something more fundamental. It addresses the relative success or failure of countries in supporting a good life for their citizens, whilst respecting the environmental resource limits upon which all our lives depend. The Happy Planet Index (HPI) is an innovative new measure that shows the ecological efficiency with which human well-being is delivered. It differs markedly from the central indicator of national income usually referred to by commentators, and relied on by governments to measure their success Gross Domestic Product (GDP). And it also has a different rationale to the various alternative indicators that begin with GDP, and then subtract social and environmental costs to create a more accurate measure of economic success. Some will view the report s findings with surprise, or even shock. The order of countries may seem counter-intuitive. But this is because, to a large degree, policy-makers have been led astray by abstract mathematical models of the economy that bear little relation to people s day-to-day realities. By returning to first principles and assessing the relationship between the fundamental inputs and the ultimate ends of society we are attempting to rectify this costly oversight. No single country in our Index has everything right. We have to acknowledge from the start that while some countries are more efficient than others at delivering long, happy lives for their people, every country has its problems and no country performs as well as it could (hence this could be regarded as an unhappy Planet Index). Yet, fascinatingly, it is possible to see patterns emerging that point to how we might better achieve long and happy lives for all, whilst living within our environmental means. Islands perform well. Perhaps a more acute awareness of environmental limits has sometimes helped their societies to bond better and to adapt to get more from less. Combined with the enhanced well-being that stems from close contact with nature, the world as a whole stands to learn much from the experience of islands. The challenge will be whether we can learn the lessons of the HPI and apply them. The Index is built from three different indicators, two of which are objective: life expectancy and the ecological footprint a measure of our use of environmental goods and services. The third indicator is people s subjective well-being, or life satisfaction. (It should be noted that the way people report their life satisfaction corresponds to objective facts such as their mental and physical health.) The Happy Planet Index 2 Any index is only as good as the data that feed it and no data set is perfect, even those relied on by governments, central banks and international financial institutions. Wherever possible we have used the best available official statistics the same as those used by policy-makers and we are confident that there is much to learn from what they show, however surprising it may be. Some of the most interesting findings concern the marked differences between nations. For example: P It is possible to live long, happy lives with a much smaller environmental impact. Our Index reveals a striking comparison between the United States and Germany. People s sense of life satisfaction is almost identical in the two countries and life expectancy is broadly similar, although the average German can expect to live a little longer than the average American. But Germany s ecological footprint is only about half that of the US Germany is around twice as efficient as the US at generating long, happy lives in terms of the resources that it consumes. P Countries with the same ecological footprint can produce lives of greatly differing length and well-being. Russia and Japan show that the opposite is also possible. These two countries have an almost identical ecological footprint, but their respective average life expectancy and life satisfaction differ radically. Born in Japan you can expect to live nearly 17 years longer than if you are born in Russia, and you are likely to report a level of life satisfaction nearly 50 per cent higher than the average Russian. A similar picture emerges if Jamaica and Equatorial Guinea are compared. Virtually identical ecological footprints contrast with the fact that Jamaicans will live, on average, 27 years longer and be much happier. P Countries similar in other ways can differ enormously in life satisfaction. Comparing another two countries reveals an even more complicated picture. Moldova and Honduras are ranked next to each other in the United Nations well-regarded Human Development Index (HDI). They have similar life expectancy and similar ecological footprints. But, even allowing for variance in data, their life satisfaction levels are radically different. Hondurans report levels of life satisfaction over twice those reported by Moldovans. The latter are really quite unhappy. P Island nations score well above average in the Index. They have higher life satisfaction, higher life expectancy and marginally lower ecological footprints than other states. Yet their incomes (in GDP per capita terms) are roughly equal to the world average. Even within regions, islands do well. Malta tops the Western world with Cyprus in seventh place (out of 24); the top five nations in Africa are all islands; as well as two of the top four in Asia. Even Bahrain, the island that scores lowest due to its high ecological footprint, ranks above all the other Gulf States. On a scale of 0 to 100 for the HPI, we have set a reasonable target of This is based on attainable levels of life expectancy and well-being and a reasonably sized ecological footprint. Today, however, the highest HPI is only 68.2, scored by the Pacific archipelago of Vanuatu. The lowest, and perhaps less surprising than some other results, is Zimbabwe s at No country achieves an overall high score and no country does well on all three indicators. Vanuatu, for example, has only a moderate level of life expectancy at 69 years. The message, simply put, is that when we measure the efficiency with which countries enable the fundamental inputs of natural resources to be turned into the ultimate ends of long and happy lives, all can do better. This conclusion is less surprising in the light of our argument that governments have been concentrating on the wrong indicators for too long. If you have the wrong map, you are unlikely to reach your destination. Other headlines that emerge from the index are that: P Life satisfaction levels vary wildly country by country. Questioned on how satisfied they were with their lives as a whole, on a scale of 1 to 10, 29 per cent of Zimbabweans rate themselves at 1, and only six per cent rate themselves at 10. Conversely, 28 per cent of Danes give themselves 10 out The Happy Planet Index 3 of 10, with less than one per cent saying 1. (It should be remembered, again, that self-reported life satisfaction correlates well with a range of other objective data.) P Life expectancy also covers a wide range. From birth in Japan you can expect to live 82 years, but only 33 if born in Swaziland. P As a species, we are over-burdening the Earth s currently available biocapacity. By consuming 22 per cent more quickly than our ecosystems can regenerate, we are eating into and degrading the natural resources that our lifesupport systems depend on. In the process, we are depleting the environmental goods and services which future generations will depend on. P Countries classified by the United Nations as medium-human development fare better than both low- and high-development countries: 1 When ranked by HPI, the top 25 per cent of nations include 35 medium development nations compared to only nine high development ones and only one low-development. It seems that countries with high development suffer from diminishing returns. Beyond a certain level, vastly increasing consumption fails to lead to greater well-being. In fact, greater materialism, diminished community, and destruction of natural capital are probably reducing our well-being. P Well-being does not rely on high levels of consuming. High consumption does not necessarily guarantee high well-being, as in the case of Estonia, and high well-being does not necessarily require high levels of consumption, as in the case of the Dominican Republic. P Countries recently adopting market economies and those hit by HIV/AIDS do worst. Beside low- and high-development countries, the other group to perform badly are the backsliders countries whose human development indicators have decreased in recent years. These include many members of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), including Russia and Ukraine, as well as those nations most heavily hit by HIV/AIDS, such as South Africa and Swaziland. P Central America is the region with the highest average score in the Index. This is because the region combines relatively good life expectancy (a mean of 70 years) and high life satisfaction with an ecological footprint below its globally equitable share. Central America has had a notorious history of conflict and political instability, but the last 15 years have been relatively peaceful, which perhaps together with traditionally high levels of community engagement, explain its success. P The UK comes in 108th place in the Index. The UK is just pipped by Libya, but beats Laos. Our heavy ecological footprint, the 18th biggest worldwide, is to blame, although it should be noted that our well-being is unspectacular for a Western nation and is bettered by countries such as Germany, the US, Costa Rica, Malta and, in top place, Switzerland. P Despite wide variation across the Western world, it performs poorly overall. Malta (an island nation) tops the pile, achieving a respectable 40th place. Austria is next in 61st. Meanwhile the US brings up the rear in 150th place. P Social, cultural and political structures are strongly associated with life satisfaction across nations. Higher levels of life satisfaction were found in countries where more people belong to community groups (for example, voluntary organisations, sports or religious groups); where they value concepts such as adventure, creativity and loyalty over material wealth and possessions; and where government is open and democratic. P G8 countries generally score badly in the Index. As mentioned above the UK comes a disappointing 108th, with the other G8 members coming in at: 66th Italy, 81st Germany, 95th Japan, 111th Canada, 129th France, and 150th United States and finally, very nearly bottom of the whole Index, in 172nd place, is Russia. The Happy Planet Index 4 Based on these findings, nef (the new economics foundation) proposes a global manifesto for a happier planet. We highlight the policy areas on which countries with low life expectancy, poor life satisfaction or high ecological footprints must focus, so that we can all live within our environmental limits and increase wellbeing for all. These include: P Eradicating extreme poverty and hunger. P Improving healthcare. P Relieving debt. P Shifting values away from individualism and material consumption, and towards social interaction. P Supporting meaningful lives, by ensuring a healthy work-life balance, and recognising the value of social, cultural and civic life. P Empowering citizens and promoting open governance. P Working towards one-planet living by consuming within our environmental limits. P Designing systems for sustainable consumption and production. P Working to tackle climate change. Finally, we call for political organisations to embrace and apply new measures of progress, such as the HPI and properly adjusted GDP measures. Only then will we be equipped to address the twin challenges of delivering a good quality of life for all whilst remaining within genuine environmental limits. The Happy Planet Index 5 Introduction Every year, the self-styled Group of Eight (G8) 2 most powerful nations meet to discuss the world s problems, including their own. Typically they exhort more action on poverty internationally and commit to promoting greater global economic growth. The G8 value themselves (and everyone else) in terms of their national income, measured by Gross Domestic Product
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