Urboglyphs (Urban figures of Memory) and Spaces of Lived Experience – New Forms to Reawaken the Memory

Urboglyphs (Urban figures of Memory) and Spaces of Lived Experience – New Forms to Reawaken the Memory

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  "Urboglyphs" (Urban figures of Memory) and Spaces of Lived Experience – Ne !orms o #eaa$en he Memory Sandra Uskokovic, PhD., Professor AssistantArts & Restoration DepartmentUniversity of Dubrovnik, Croatia %bsrac&   Memory no consumes the past as a set of reconstructed ima!es manipu"ated and rearran!ed at random, and in this mimickin! they say nothin! about the city as a ho"e. So, ho can the city become the "ocus of co""ective memory and not simp"y an outdoor museum or a co""ection of historic districts# Memory is above a"" anti$museum that unfo"ds in space, constructed as "ived and movin! e%pression that the arts of the city bui"din! must recover a"on! ith spatia" reconstruction. 'eyords  identity, urban herita!e, urbo!"yphs, space as "ived e%perience, memory. %esheicied deniy Architecture is essentia""y an epiphenomenon, dependent on socio$economic, po"itica" and techno"o!ica" processes that reconfirms the he!emony of cu"ture and he"ps to assure its continuity. '   (oday)s architecture is transformed ithin the market economy into an ima!e that serves marketin! hat raises fundamenta" *uestions around the "imits of individua" freedom in desi!n, the responsibi"ity of architecture to the pub"ic and its institutions, architecture forma" "an!ua!e of e%pression, and its pro!ramatic inte!rity. +  A"most ha"f a century a!o uy Debord- criticised in his  Society of Spectacle / the architects driven by neo"ibera" capita" thus e"aboratin! his perception that 0capita"ist production has unified space0, a  process that, far from construction 0spectacu"ar0 monuments, as more that of 0e%tensive and intensive bana"i1ation0. 2  Since the ear"y tentieth century, architecture has been a commodity, as e"" as a form of pub"icity, but no in the triumphant cu"ture of consumption, desi!ner sky"ines and packa!ed environments have become vita" instruments enhancin! the presti!e and desirabi"ity of p"ace. 3  4ven thou!h, homo!eni1ation of !"oba" communications, has been  promotin! a simp"e p"ace"essness, it has indirect"y provoked a counter$effect of a reneed ce"ebration of the specificity of materia" p"ace. Conse*uent"y, there is a perpetua" *uest today for 5character6 of the p"aces and cities, enhanced by mass tourism, here history is becomin! more and more abused.   7dentity has become fi%ed, over$determined, insistin! on an essence, a point, and that is hy Paris is becomin! more Parisian 8 it is a"ready on its ay to becomin! hyper$Paris, a po"ished caricature * 7dentity has been, unti" recent"y, derived from physica" substance, from the historica", from conte%t, from the rea", and thus it seems impossib"e that anythin! contemporary made by us, contributes to it. "oba"i1ation is on the other hand, reshapin! today the identities of nation$states throu!h cosmpo"itanism, hich is defined more by practices and ideo"o!ies, than citi1enship, re"i!ion and ethnicity, hat is often in conf"ict ith pre$e%istin! identities. 9uottin! the ords of :rian raham and Peter ;oard 57dentities emer!e ithin the p"ay of specific moda"ities of poer, and thus, are more the product of the markin! of difference and e%c"usion, than they are the si!n of identica", natura""y$constituted unity 8 an identity in its traditiona" meanin! <that is, an a""$inc"usive sameness=6. >  7dentities, "ike herita!e and memories, are evident"y hi!h"y se"ective processes that are in constant f"u%, from the "oca" to the !"oba" sca"e, bein! constant"y modified to!ether ith the cu"ture to hich they be"on!. ? @n the other hand, intensified visua" stimu"i characteri1e today a"" aspects of contemporary "ife, from the desi!n of ath"etic shoes to the marketin! of mi"k, to the creation of urban identity throu!h uni*ue architecture, i.e. brand identity, that is opposed to the nationa" identity. Cu"ture is no dominated by simu"ation, and virtua" herita!e is a"ready rep"acin! tan!ib"e one, inducin! a condition of hyper$rea"ity. Creatin! an identity is an issue in a"" se!ments of our contemporary cu"ture, and due to di!ita" techno"o!y and !"oba"i1ation, the traffic in ima!es and the privi"e!in! of ima!e has "ed to an impoverished understandin! of the bui"t environment, turnin! socia" space <space of "ived e%perience= into fetishi1ed abstraction, by reducin! communication and information to a codified system of si!ns. As ;enri efebvre said 5(he ima!e ki""s6. B e are in memory crisis of too many ima!es, too phantasma!orica", too commodified, that inhibit the reca"" and reco""ection of ima!es stored in the mind.   urthermore, our rea"ity has been hiEacked by the '  mu"tinationa" con!"omerates, and turned into an empty advertisin! s"o!an, here authenticity becomes a main indicator in the hypermarket of hyper$rea"ity, and the content is consumed and absorbed, ithin a !enera" process of aesthetici1ation. 4verythin! has become aesthetici1ed, even the or"d of urban herita!e. F   +ollecive memory in pos,socialis habia ith the respect to the issue of contemporary i.e. !"oba" identity, 4astern 4urope shou"d be approached as the impossib"e space, re$articu"ated and made visib"e, para""e" and Eu%taposed to the dominantGabso"uteGUnited 4urope, instead of sayin! that 4astern 4urope is the @ther <that is instead of e%p"ainin! the difference beteen the @ne and the @ther=. H  Any society devours art that p"aces itse"f in a common space ith the society. 7t doesn-t matter ho this is done hether throu!h the do""ar or throu!h ideo"o!y since every society simp"y uses the means as its disposa". (he ro"e of commodity in one e*ua"s the ro"e of ideo"o!y in the other and each permeates a"" pores of the respective society. ;oever, the ne, emer!ent conditions are more favorab"y inc"ined toard the !"oba"i1ed cu"tura" artifacts than toard e"itist, po"itica""y  provocative, and socia""y subversive art and cu"ture. 'I  A vie on the history and memory in post$socia"ist countries of former Ju!os"avia is ran!in! from victimi1ation throu!h amnesia to nosta"!ia. hat these opposin! positions have in common is their fai"ure to reco!ni1e the fu"" comp"e%ity of the phenomenon of co""ective memory and of the re!ion-s history of stru!!"e over concepts of nation,  po"itica" poer, economic entan!"ement, and the contradictory "essons of the past. 7n the recent decades, this re!ion has e%perienced unforeseeab"e counter$trends of nationa" historicism, fo""oed by denia" of the recent past. @ut of memory ob"ivions, the nationa" narrative as a means of contro" !re up   usin! the se"ected memory for desired ad hoc construction of identity * (hese societies are characteri1ed by an onto"o!ica" uncertainty, i.e. kind of "imina" state beteen socia"ism and a ne  po"itica" order here everythin! as open to *uestion, uncertain and confusin!. Post$socia"ism can be defined as a certain ima!inary that neutra"i1es the condition of capita" and e%c"udes any notion of societa", co""ective chan!e. (he  post$socia"ist condition is after a"" a !"oba" condition, not a specific "ocation in time <after the a""= nor p"ace <4astern 4urope=. (his a"so means that it shou"d be seen as a conceptua" too" to understand the actua"ity in hich e find ourse"ves, and not as an outcome, a destiny. ''  7n such a socio$cu"tura" space, nationa" and fo"k cu"tures have been rediscovered ith the he"p of a retrospective mytho"o!y. As bein! framed by unarticu"ated postu"ates of nationa" rhetoric, the stabi"ity cou"d have been obtained on"y throu!h cu"tura" homo!eneity i.e. throu!h symbo"ic and actua" e%c"usion of certain !roups from society. ;istory as thus ob"iterated and has become a part of peop"e-s individua" memory and persona" mytho"o!y. (he Kne "ife as  basica""y marked by return to nationa" va"ues and museumification/ of ethnicity, a"on! ith b"endin! of communist-s and nationa"ist-s sentiments.After the 'HH'$H> ar, Croatia has been mana!in! its difficu"t, recent past not throu!h reco!nition of it but throu!h concealment   and cultural reframing, directin! attention aay from the ar "e!acy.   Decision to avoid the "e!acy of the 'HH'$H> ar as "inked to a broader absence of state$sponsored commemoration throu!hout the country. As e"" as the other states created after the fa"" of socia"ist Ju!os"avia, Croatia has dep"oyed nationa" symbo"s strate!ica""y to promote favorab"e ima!es of its herita!e abroad 8 Knation brandin! and suppressed a"ternatives for other narrative  performances. (his emphasis on herita!e in nationa" ideo"o!y as e"aborated in 4rvin offman-s ork on sti!ma mana!ement, hich is defined as s a strate!y of coverin! and concea"ment rather than commemoration, and here there are no stron! Ka!ents of memory other than the state to imp"ement a"ternative versions of the past. '+  hat happened in these countries is the reverse process here instead of bein! inte!rated, memory as uprooted, detached from "ife,  packa!ed and Kso"d, hether for hard cash or po"itica" points.7ronica""y, societies in transition !ive a semb"ance of bein! comp"ete"y homo!enous and unified, ith socia" divisions comp"ete"y masked, and ith the border beteen the state and civi" society concea"ed, if not e"iminated, the former annihi"atin! the "atter, a"on! ith the difference beteen the pub"ic and private spheres. (he passa!e in the te%t (ransformative poer of memory/ by A"eida Assman profound"y depicts and i""ustrates ho the trauma can defy the  pub"ic acceptance of memory (he form of po"itics of memory is not defined by coverin! and concea"ment but in its openin!/ as a subEect in the socia" space and by pub"ic acceptance. (he trauma has a specia" affinity toards the si"ence. Defensive si"ence serves to avoid the punishment 8 such are a"" variants of si"ence "ie, e%cuse, and denia". '2 (herefore, as "on! as si"ence is the prevai"ed mode of dea"in! ith the past, the memory i"" be used as a !enerator of manipu"ation and instrumenta"i1ation of society consciousness, instead as a corrective in the formation of a critica" and  po"emica" position toards the dominant forms of consciousness. (he use of memory shou"d be subEected ith Kthe orkin! princip"e/ that henever memory is invoked e shou"d be askin! ourse"ves by hom, here, in hich conte%t, a!ainst hat#;erita!e is not an ac*uisition, a possession that !ros and so"idifiesL rather, it is an unstab"e assemb"a!e of fau"ts, fissures, and hetero!eneous "ayers that threaten the fra!i"e inheritor from ithin or from underneath. (he investi!ation of the past has become Kdestabi"i1in! rather than stabi"i1in!, and the nationa" narrative as a means of contro" had been subverted and sp"intered into mu"tip"e and ever$chan!in! narratives. '3  ;erita!e shou"d be interpreted as the f"uid and constant"y shiftin! resu"t of bound"ess and f"e%ib"e construction processes, since it is not an obEect, not our unchan!eab"e tradition, and not somethin! e have to maintain and defend but rather somethin! e make, use and +  chan!e in different socia" situations. '>   @ne of the e%amp"es of ne memory p"aces presentin! nationa" identity that occupies pub"ic spaces in Croatia is the contemporary ar memoria" bui"t c"ose to the @"d City a""s in Dubrovnik, Croatia <i!ure '=. (his memoria" is causin! conf"ictin! vies and opinions ithin community, makin! division  beteen those ho are "inked to this memory p"ace, and those ho are not. Such identification ith the poer of the nation state produced 7ma!e of Representation/ usin! herita!e as a socia"$po"itica" resource.(here is too much memory, too many pasts on :a"kans on hich peop"e can dra, usua""y as a eapon a!ainst the past of someone e"se. Cynicism and mistrust pervade a"" socia", cu"tura" and even persona" e%chan!es, so that the <re=construction of civi" society, much "ess co""ective memory, is very difficu"t. @n the other hand, there are mu"tip"e memories and historica" myths, each of hich has "earned to think of itse"f as "e!itimate simp"y by virtue of bein!  private and unofficia". here these private versions come to!ether, they form poerfu" counter$histories of a mutua""y anta!onistic and divisive nature. '?  e are a"" aare today that urban herita!e is a socia" construction, and that the artifacts are not static embodiments of cu"ture, but rather a medium throu!h hich identity, poer and society, are produced, and reproduced. (he fact is that  behind its traditiona" phi"osophica" matters of faith, herita!e is at its core po"itici1ed and contested, and these cu"tura" norms are bein! rep"aced today, by open"y contentious and fractious cu"tura" po"itics. +iy branding in Urban mage +onsrucion Romantici1ed, historic narratives of nationa" past are bein! embraced today or"dide, here e%c"usivness of nationa" identity often ne!"ects the herita!e of mar!ina"i1ed !roups. Such production of consacrated, a"most cannoni1ed ima!es, and romanitci1in! KadEustments of the historica" past, ithin present trends of commodification and entertainement, is chan!in! the concepts of authenticity and city identity, that are becomin! more and more contested, and thus contradictory. 'B Cu"ture is !oin! throu!h a crisis 8 Ka crisis, as ur!en ;abermas describes it, Kof "e!itimation. 'F  Premonitions of the future, typica" of traditiona" mi""enarianism, have been rep"aced no, by ana"ysis of the past, here attention is directed not forards, but backards, a condition that rederic ameson termed as 5inverted mi""enarianism6.Additiona""y, our contemporary cu"ture and herita!e is marked by a process of cu"tura" fusion that is bein! reconstructed ith our chan!in! be"iefs and va"ues. 7n this process of cu"tura" fusion, traditions are bein! Kinvented, and Khistory is commodified and misrepresented. Chan!in! concepts of identity, tradition, and history are thus a"terin! the meanin! and function of urban herita!e that has been unti" no, taken for !ranted i.e. to save o"d thin!s has been a 5matter of tradition6. (he other trend that is overhe"min! our contemporary society and our urban environment is our ish and  persistence to Ksanctify the ima!e of a past, by preservin! it throu!h certain sty"i1ed ima!es, that connect us c"oser to our ori!ins, and stren!then our traditions. (hese static representations preserved city spaces such as Nenice, "orence, or Paris, as if they ere museum artifacts, hat is in direct contradiction to the very concept of monument $ Ka !eneratin! force inf"uencin! a city-s structura" formation6. Most chan!es e see in urban practice, are the direct resu"t of four fundamenta" forces that have a"tered the conte%t for urban re!eneration. (hese conte%tua" forces are di!ita" techno"o!y, environmenta" concerns, !"oba"i1ation, and universa" demand for everythin! to be 0sustainab"e0. Sustainabi"ity has meanhi"e become, more and more a po"itica" cate!ory, an empty formu"a, and because for that reason, it is !ettin! hard to ta"k about environment- and urban herita!e-  preservation ithout becomin! ironic. hat e are itnessin! in our urban habitat today can be described as city marketin! and city brandin! that are desi!ned in Ksi"ent comp"icity ith a!endas of the poerfu", hi"e urban ima!e construction is entan!"ed in !overnment strate!ies, "eadin! to co"oni1ation of pub"ic dissent and a si"encin! of conf"ict in Kpost$po"itica"Gcommunist conditions. e can thus ask ourse"ves in our contemporary post$communist situation, and ithin the institution that is contemporary cu"ture, hich ne "an!ua!es are bein! created# hich ne ima!inaries are bein! produced# And hich o"d thin!s are bein! said ith ne ords# @r, e cou"d say hich modes of criti*ue and artistic creations are affirmative and hich are transformative in this Kne post$socia"ist phase of !"oba" capita"# (he prob"em of our time is of permanence and discontinuity, of !eneration and rupture. e ant to kno hat aspects of the city p"an resist chan!e and hich do not, or hat structures or forms have evo"ved s"o"y and co""ective"y over time# ;o does the city become the "ocus of co""ective memory and not simp"y an outdoor museum or a co""ection of historic districts# 'H  Unfortunate"y, the function of cu"ture in urban conte%ts has become 0ima!e $based0, here the ork of prominent architects, desi!ners, and artists serve for the input of private <and pub"ic= capita", a"on!side the retai" environments and corporate architectura" sty"es. Oe techno"o!ies of cu"tura" production and consumption have saturated the city ith an array of ima!es. Urban re!eneration process is noadays comp"icit ith the interests of private capita", as e"" as the increase in studio and residentia" renta" costs that inevitab"y occur in such a process. (he art of se""in! no dominates urban space turnin! it into a ne marketp"ace for architectura" sty"es and fashionab"e "ives. 7ma!es become aesthetici1ed commodities representin! "ivab"e cities for sa"e, p"acin! products in "ifesty"e sta!e sets, turnin! museum) e%hibitions and cu"tura" entertainments into events for corporate enhancement. +I  7ma!es of urban re!eneration is premised as much on 0ima!e construction and advertisin!0 as it is on actua" physica" transformation ith cu"ture-s ro"e in this instance bein! both e%terna" and interna" first"y, hen beacon artists or architects are 0f"on$in0 to focus media attention on a particu"ar area and second"y here the indi!enous artistic and 2  cu"tura" popu"ation are uti"i1ed as si!nifiers of the economic potentia" of a !iven areas $ in so ca""ed 0p"ace$marketin!0. +' 4vident"y, present   socia" and urban phenomenon myopica""y focuses on improvin! a city-s marketabi"ity, by enhancin! its ima!eabi"ity, "ivabi"ity, and cu"tura" capita". Shou"d e define these urban and socia" phenomenon as the shift from  po"itica" to economic manipu"ation, and toards the tota" commodification of memory# (he fact is that contemporary urban dynamism does not ref"ect the provision of services for city residents, but a concern ith the prosperity of the city and its abi"ity to attract Eobs and investment. Urban theorists are c"aimin! that monuments transfer meanin! and kno"ed!e across !enerations, and that these artifacts actua""y !enerate memory and inscribe civic conduct. :ut simu"taneous"y this is openin! up the possibi"ity that city forms cou"d fai" to !enerate meanin! and memory, that partia" structures cou"d cause memory "oss by disruptin! si!nification and de$centerin! the spectator. 7ronica""y, there are no more obvious markers of memory in a city than its monuments and no more obvious sites for crises of memory. Memory is above a"" an anti$museum and not "oca"i1ab"e, certain"y not appea"ed to throu!h revisionary historic and popu"ar "andscapes. ++ Urban figures of memory Contemporary urban and herita!e discourses are noadays increasin!"y deve"opin! the strate!ies based on cu"tura" and non$materia" aspects of urban "ife. Such interdiscip"inary concepts as mappin! of controversies/ or inte!ra" urbanism/ usua""y disp"ay the keyords of *uite intan!ib"e nature tempora"ities/, performance/, media/, rememberin!/, provisiona" identity/, f"uidity/ etc. @ne of these keyords of intan!ib"e nature is urboglyphs , a term that croatian artist :oris :aka" <director of Shado Casters= has coined for doub"e readin! of urban and co""ective memory, that encompasses and reconstruct immateria" cu"tura" herita!e and cu"tura" memory in urban spaces throu!h different artistic practices and initiatives, and researches in urban and cu"tura" theory, and socia" sciences. Accordin! to :oris :aka" urboglyphs  are symbo"ica" and spatia" c"usters of si!ns and meanin!, that are created by inEectin! <en!ravin!= the event into the site of its happenin!/. +2   Urboglyphs  can actua""y be compared ith interpretative semiotics of space.(o fu""y appreciate or be ab"e to read cityscape as te%t, spectators are therefore re*uired to "ook at the city not on"y in forma" and functiona" terms, but in fi!ura" or interpretative ays as e"". ;oever, in order to read across and throu!h different "ayers and strata of the city re*uires, that spectators estab"ish a constant p"ay beteen surface and deep structured forms, beteen pure"y visib"e and intuitive or evocative a""usions. 9uotin! the ords of aston :ache"ard from The Poetics of Space : "  (he rea"ity of socia" space is dua", mu"tip"e. 7t imp"ies "an!ua!e <poetry=, si!ns, symbo"s, metaphors and concepts0. +3  (he "o!ic of metaphor as the primary too" in construction of socia" space can be reco!ni1ed in the ay that the Shado Casters are envisa!in! memory 8 i.e. as an art connectin! disparate and hiddenG si"enced events, formed on the tactics of surprise, ruptures and over$turnin!s that transfer true poer and meanin! of memory over the specatorGs ima!ination. (his internationa" artistic and production p"atform, based in a!reb <Croatia= is main"y concerned ith e%p"oration and investi!ation of urban spaces throu!h various artistic mu"timedia activities and urban interventions. 7n their proEects memory is "inked to "ived e%perience and is unfo"din! in socia" space, hence the activity of reco""ection is based on spatia" reconstruction <remembrance embedded in spatia" forms=. e kno that memory has to be "inked to "ived e%perienceL since otherise it i"" be reduced to Khistory becomin! abstract or inte""ectua"i1ed reconstruction, debased or faked reco""ection. (he ork of Shado Casters <SC= can be defined as the presence of interpretative systems that trans"ate memories and urban traditions into meanin!fu" contemporary forms. After a"", this is an intrinsic strate!y in art and cu"ture Eu%taposin! rea"ity and its fantasy. Such an approach de""s on an attempt to estab"ish counter$memories, i.e. to resist the dominant codin! of ima!es and representations and recover the differences and urban narratives that officia" memory has misrepresented or erased. @ne of their main artistic$scientific research) proEects  Recollecting the City/Recollecting the Time (RCRT)  re$creates and socia"i1e a common"y shared space by evokin! the memory hi"e under"yin! performative character of pub"ic spaces. (he initia" phase of the proEect as focused on detection, archivin!, studyin! and e%hibitin! the artorks and the  proEect) documentation on artistic actions as e"" as po"itica" protests and pub"ic !atherin!s in a!reb that occurred in  pub"ic, non$typica" performin! spaces from 'H3> to the present. 7n the core of RCR( interest as the tempora"ity of those actions and events, hich ere not ori!ina""y created or have been conceptua"i1ed as permanent. (he proEect ent further to e%p"ore the mechanisms of artistic creativity in order to re$discover, re$conte%tua"i1e and re$create cu"tura" memory hi"e under"yin! the ro"e of the artist as an conduit beteen tempora" and spatia" chan!es, that are occurrin! in contemporary re!eneration of materia" and non$materia" aspects of urban "ife, by encompassin! intensive civic interactions and participation. Amidst contemporary dynamics of the cities that imp"y ne ays of thinkin! about "oca" community, it is the fi!ure of the artist that impacts our re$conceptua"i1ation of the cities and urban "andscape by shapin! contemporary creativity that contributes to the diverse and chan!in! "andscape of identity, be"iefs and va"ues. RCR( has sprun! out of the rea"i1ation that the preservation of urban cu"tura" memory is a vita""y important issue for societies under!oin! transition, in hich cities are !oin! throu!h radica" and dramatic chan!es that are often to the detriment of their immateria" cu"tura" herita!e. (he proEect strove to capture fra!i"e and ephemera" aspects of past events  by searchin! for memories of individua"s 8 artists themse"ves, Eourna"ists, accidenta" passer$by)s in various forms from materia" ones <photo!raphs, fi"ms, videos, ritten testimonies= to ora" histories. (he co""ected materia"s ere main"y formed throu!h to creative outputs of ref"ective and critica" presentation pen @ffices and !all e#spapers . 3  pen ffices  ere conceptua"i1ed as a form of communicatin! ith a broader pub"ic in various pub"ic spaces of the city of a!reb, here citi1ens ere invited to brin! their memorabi"ia <photos, fi"ms, ritten documentation= and share them ith RCR( team. (hese meetin!s ere combined ith various events inc"udin! e%hibitions, screenin!s, concerts, etc, and therefore conse*uent"y become mini$festiva"s of urban cu"tura" memory. !all e#spapers  have been e%hibited in ei!ht street disp"ays bo%es <ori!ina""y disp"ayed at the temporari"y c"osed Croatian Cinemathe*ue= spread in the various "ocations in the center of the city, as an artistic and documentary medium <e%hibition space= for different RCR( themes and concepts. (he c"osin! of Croatian Cinemathe*ue evidences one of many urban phenomenon in period of (ransition, such are those empty, abandoned, and ne!"ected disp"ay bo%es that vivid"y i""ustrate empty p"aces/ in urban te%ture. (he chrono"o!y of the a"" Oespapers can be traced ithin "ast 'I years spannin! in severa" editions. (he first edition of a"" Oespapers from +II3 as dedicated to pub"ic protests in a!reb that addressed the ne use and chan!es in  pub"ic spaces primari"y driven by profit oriented a!enda of ne city investments. (he second edition as focused on artistic happenin!s and urban interventions from 'H?+ to the present that ere unfo"din! in pub"ic spaces surroundin! these disp"ay bo%es of Croatian Cinemathe*ue that ere Eu%taposed ith historic events that happened in these p"aces. (he third and fourth edition as actua""y conceptua" continuation of the second one, that initiated ima!inary a"ks in urban spaces and reco""ection of the events and memories that happened prior to those a"ks so the spectator can be re$ positioned in tempora" and spatia" dimensions of the past and by re$constructin! individua" memories evoke p"aces of memory. (he "ast, fifth edition introduced urban individua" ora" narratives in the form of intimate diaries inscribin! the fi!ures of memory in pub"ic urban spaces. a"" Oespapers feature urban hiGstories that ere hidden, for!otten, presented throu!h documentary and fiction co""a!es of visua" or ritten materia"s. Memories are reca""ed by time periods, by reco""ectin! p"aces visited and by situatin! ideas or ima!es in patterns or thou!ht be"on!in! to specific socia" !roups. As a resu"t, ne memory a"ks are created throu!h the city, ith ne maps that resist and subvert the a""$too$pro!rammed and enve"opin! messa!es of our consumer cu"ture. P"acin! the obEects from by!one times or si"encedGerased urban and cu"tura" history into uni*ue conte%ts and confi!urations, they have become a ne form of Kshock e%perience, aimed to reaaken memory. (hus, they enab"e the spectator to think throu!h dream ima!es/ and to achieve a critica" aareness of the present. Conse*uent"y,  non$places  are becomin!  places of memory  that are achievin! meanin!fu" contents and becomin! theatres of memory and tabulae on hich our *uotidian urboglyphs  are inscribed/ +> . urthermore, the purpose of a""  Oespapers is to simu"taneous"y decode and encode spatia" dimensions in a form of a Si!n by pub"ic"y presentin! the individua" and specific fi!ures of memory, and conse*uent"y transferrin! them to co""ective consciousness. (he proEect  Recollecting the City/Recollecting the Time <RCR(= presents a critica", artistic, cu"tura", socia" and historica" ref"ection of intan!ib"e cu"tura" herita!e that is sti"" bein! dramatica""y ne!"ected in the re!ion of estern :a"kans, in present period of the (ransition. Drain! on the notion of lieu% &e memoire (   as sites devoted to embody or incarnate memory, that are entire"y re"iant on the specificity of the trace=, Shado Casters reco!ni1ed the need for archive as a specific lieu% &e memoire that   ou"d serve  for the reconstruction of the past, and ou"d be co""ective"y used ith respect to po"itica" and socia" conte%t. ;oever, RCR() archive is based on ora" history as it reco""ects ora",  bio!raphica" and fra!mentary evidences hich does not intend to petrify them into fi%ed forms of historica" abstraction,  but is an attempt to primari"y archive them as the important fi!ures of memory. 7t is this possibi"ity of the reconstruction of fi!ures of memory that is the essentia" methodo"o!ica" basis of the socia"$constructivist archives in Shado Casters. After a"", the *uestion of archivin! is not about the past, it is about the future and our responsibi"ity for the future. (herefore, Shado Casters are not Eust e%c"usive"y archivin! urban fi!ures of memory, but a"so communicatin! se!ments of co""ective memory throu!h pub"ic"y shared urban spaces $ pen ffices and !all  e#spapers, that are performative in their character, and after a"" symbo"i1e a cha""en!e and a"ternative to our society here cu"ture turns out to be a product of society. -io,noe on he %uhor& Sandra Uskokovic is an art historian and preservationist. She ho"ds a position of Assistant Professor at the University of Dubrovnik here she current"y teaches at the Arts and Restoration Department. 7n +II3 she !raduated <M.A= in Architectura" ;istory and Preservation raduate Pro!ram at the eor!e ashin!ton University <USA=. Durin! the a"" +II2 she orked as the research fe""o at 7CCR@M <Rome= and UO4SC@ <Paris= orkin! on ;C Urban Mana!ement uide in historic cities, and the 7C@M@S 7nternationa" Survey on preservation of the modern architecture or"dide.She is an author of to books $ Modern Architecture of Dubrovnik as a Cu"tura" ;erita!e, +I'IL and Contemporary Desi!n in ;istoric Settin!s, +I'2 $ and has ritten and pub"ished numerous conference papers and research artic"es in her home country and abroad. She is an e%pert member of 7C@M@S Scientific Committee on +I th  century ;erita!e. ;er  primary research interests are architecture, herita!e, modern and contemporary art, urban and cu"tura" theory,  performative arts, etc. >
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