UNU-IAS Working Paper No Conservation and Sustainable Use of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants: A Case Study in Köprülü Kanyon National Park, Turkey - PDF

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UNU-IAS Working Paper No. 160 Conservation and Sustainable Use of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants: A Case Study in Köprülü Kanyon National Park, Turkey Gulay Cetinkaya March 2009 Abstract Köprülü Kanyon

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UNU-IAS Working Paper No. 160 Conservation and Sustainable Use of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants: A Case Study in Köprülü Kanyon National Park, Turkey Gulay Cetinkaya March 2009 Abstract Köprülü Kanyon is one of the largest national parks in Turkey with a high diversity of medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs). Local people collect these plants to meet their subsistence needs (e.g. food and primary medicine) and to generate cash income. Unfortunately, a number of factors, such as lack of a management plan and marketing mechanism for the species in trade, threaten the long-term conservation and sustainable use of these resources. However, conservation and sustainable use of these species is necessary for strengthening biodiversity conservation and also for meeting the needs of local livelihoods in the national park. Accordingly, the purpose of the research is to determine MAPs with ecological, economic and socio-cultural values in Köprülü Kanyon National Park through examining economic, institutional and population factors that affect the sustainability of the target species. The method of research includes a series of stages, and relevant data was collected through fieldwork and interviews with the target groups. Within this context, the conceptual framework for sustainable use of natural resources developed by the World Conservation Union Sustainable Use Specialist Group (IUCN-SUSG) was adopted to the research to assess the factors that affect the sustainability of MAPs. The results of the survey show that 20 MAPs are harvested from the wild for both commercial and non-commercial purposes in the national park. Several categories of data on these plants (e.g. part of plant used and folk use) are presented. It was determined that the degree of dependence upon MAPs at household level differs between 88.23% (in the village of Altınkaya) and 34.48% (in the village of Karabük). The results of the survey revealed that an informal institution created by following ancestral occupation for livestock grazing regulates the access rights to MAPs resources in the villages of Çaltepe and Ballıbucak where the degree of dependence upon MAPs is high. Assessment of the marketing structure showed that a volume of 471,80 tonnes of MAPs was harvested and US$ 263,930 of cash income was generated in the selected villages in The annual average income per capita was in the range of US$ 332,74 (in the village of Çaltepe) to US$ 46,21 (in the village of Altınkaya). The final section focuses on the major obstacles to the sustainability of MAPs (e.g. institutional and market failures) and a number of potential responses (e.g. strengthening legal framework and eco-labelling) for ensuring and strengthening the sustainability of MAPs in the national park. Keywords: Medicinal and aromatic plants, wild-collection, sustainable use, marketing, Köprülü Kanyon National Park, Turkey Acknowledgement I wish to acknowledge the support of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) for this research. I further acknowledge the input of Global Environment Facility (GEF) project Biodiversity and Natural Resource Management, conducted by the Ministry of Environment and Forestry of Turkey in Köprülü Kanyon National Park. Contents 1. Introduction Methodology Diversity and usage of medicinal and aromatic plants Gender and degree of dependence upon the wild-collection of medicinal and aromatic plants The role of informal institution in the wild-collection of medicinal and aromatic plants Trends in marketing of medicinal and aromatic plants Constraints to the sustainable use of medicinal and aromatic plants Potential responses for the sustainable use of medicinal and aromatic plants Conclusion References...26 Appendix List of tables and figures List of tables Table 1. MAPs used for a variety of purposes in Köprülü Kanyon National Park... 8 Table 2. Conservation status of MAPs collected from the wild in Köprülü Kanyon National Park... 9 Table 3. Degree of dependence upon MAPs at household level in the selected villages Table 4. Annual average income per capita in each village Table 5. Average prices of MAPs at source, export and consumer levels List of figures Figure 1. Location of Köprülü Kanyon National Park... 2 Figure 2. Assessment of the factors affecting the sustainability of MAPs in Köprülü Kanyon National Park Figure 3. The marketing structure of MAPs in Köprülü Kanyon National Park...14 Figure 4. Marketing mechanism developed for trading MAPs 1. Introduction Medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs) are plants which are used for a variety of purposes such as food, primary medicine and drinks. For example, the World Health Organization (WHO) (2002) points out that the majority of the world s population, particularly in developing countries, still depends on traditional medicine systems to provide for its primary healthcare needs based on MAPs. In developed countries, traditional medicine has also been popular as an alternative treatment system because of the recognition of the benefits of herbal products. In addition, MAPs have been important products for local communities in developing countries (particularly landless poor people and/or fragile groups such as children and women) to generate cash income to lift their lives out of poverty. These plants are used in a variety of industries such as pharmaceutical, cosmetic, perfume and dyes. Consequently, the values of MAPs for human well-being are very high and therefore the demand for these species has increased on a global level. Hamilton (2003) emphasizes that assessment of the scale of the global market for MAPs is difficult due to the paucity of reliable statistics and trade secrecy, but it is growing rapidly. For example, Turkey is a major exporter of MAPs in Europe - one of the largest trade centres of MAPs in the world. The volume of export increased from to tones between 1999 and 2003 in Turkey (Özgüven et al., 2005). In addition, there is a large market of internal trade for MAPs, but the volume of this trade is unknown. However, this is a research gap that should be explored in the future. However, the growing market demand for MAPs on a global level has begun to threaten the existence of approximately 15,000 species worldwide (Schippmann et al., 2006) due to a number of reasons such as overexploitation, destruction of natural habitats, and lack of regulations and standards for sustainable harvesting (Hamilton, 2003; Medicinal Plant Specialist Group, 2007). However, providing and promoting the sustainable wild-collection of these species is necessary for meeting the needs of present and future generations. Within this context, Köprülü Kanyon National Park from Turkey can serve as an instructive case study (Figure 1). 1 Köprülü Kanyon Source: World Atlas Travel Tilia platyphyllos Scop. Vitex agnus-castus L. Köprülü Kanyon National Park and location of some villages. Source: Global Environmental Facility (GEF) Project Biodiversity and Natural Resource Management in Köprülü Kanyon National Park Origanum minutiflorum O. Schwarz & P.H. Davis Figure 1. Location of Köprülü Kanyon National Park Köprülü Kanyon National Park is located in the western part of the Taurus Mountains between the elevations of 110 and 2500 meters on a very heterogeneous geomorphologic structure. It encompasses 37,000 ha and lies 90 km north-east of the city of Antalya in the 2 Mediterranean region (Orman Bakanlığı, 1971). According to the National Forest Law No. 6831, the area was designated as a national park on 12 th December 1973 due to its outstanding natural and geomorphologic features as well as cultural assets (Antalya Orman Bölge Müdürlüğü, 1993). Because of these merits, the area has been selected as one of the sites for the Important Plant Areas (IPA) 1 and also for the Biodiversity and Natural Resource Management Project financed by the Global Environmental Facility (GEF) (Arancli, 2002). Köprülü Kanyon National Park comprises the whole range of vegetation zones from thermo- Mediterranean to alpine environment and the flora therefore is very rich (between species) (Ayaşlıgil, 1987), including a high diversity of MAPs. A review of the recent research (Özçelik et al., 2006) shows that about 76 MAPs grow in the national park. The diversity of MAPs in the national park and increasing market demand for herbal products has caused the emergence of MAPs-based livelihoods to reduce dependency upon livestock husbandry, to alleviate poverty, to diversify local livelihoods, and to enhance human wellbeing. The local people of the eleven villages located inside and adjacent to the national park collect MAPs from the wild for both commercial and non-commercial purposes. Unfortunately, a number of factors threaten the conservation and sustainable use of MAPs 2 in the national park at present. These factors are respectively high degree of dependence upon MAPs resources (e.g. 75 % in the village of Ballıbucak), high unemployment rate (e.g. 45 % in the village of Altınkaya), lack of a management plan and marketing mechanism for the species in trade, and generally the absence of a policy framework for MAPs at the national level. The diversity of MAPs and the factors that affect the sustainability of the resources are the motivated reasons to conduct this research in Köprülü Kanyon National Park. Within this context, the research question is How can we provide for and maintain the sustainable use of MAPs in the national park? Accordingly, the purpose of the research is to determine MAPs with ecological, economic and socio-cultural values in Köprülü Kanyon National Park 1 Important Plant Areas (IPAs) have been defined as natural or semi-natural sites exhibiting exceptional botanical richness and/or supporting an outstanding assemblage of rare, threatened, and/or endemic plant species and/or vegetation of high botanical value. The selection of sites follows international and regional guidelines to ensure consistency and is based on three criteria: threatened species, species richness/diversity and threatened habitats. Available at: [cited 2007 Feb 10]. 2 For the purpose of this paper, sustainable use of MAPs refers both conservation and sustainable use of the species. 3 through examining economic, institutional, and population factors that affect the sustainability of the target species. The objectives of the research include: i. Identification of MAPs harvested from the wild for a variety of reasons (e.g. species harvested and traditional usage); ii. iii. iv. Determination of the marketing structure for the species in trade (e.g. value chain and trade value); Examination of informal institution that regulates the access rights to MAPs; Determination of the role of gender and degree of dependence upon MAPs; v. Examination of the major constraints to the sustainable use of MAPs; vi. Investigation of potential instruments and/or incentives to provide for and strengthen the sustainable use of MAPs in the national park. It is expected that the results of the research will be useful for decision-makers and those who are responsible for the management of MAPs to promote a better understanding under which conditions the sustainable use of these plants can be achieved in the national park. 2. Methodology The sustainable use of MAPs is a dynamic process that can be ensured through maintaining the populations of the target species above their thresholds (the level at which resource decline starts) for long-term viability while the populations of these species still remain a significant resource for the local livelihoods in Köprülü Kanyon National Park. This challenge can be achieved by controlling and regulating the factors that directly and/or indirectly affect the sustainability of the target species and interrelations between them. The factors and interrelations between them were analyzed through adopting the conceptual framework developed by the World Conservation Union Sustainable Use Specialist Group (IUCN-SUSG) (Edwards and Musiti, 2001; Zaccagnini et.al., 2000). According to this concept, there are diverse factors that affect the sustainability of renewable resources. However, ecology, economy, population and institution are the key factors that affect the probability of a use being sustainable or not. Based on this approach, a conceptual framework was developed to promote a better understanding of the factors that affect the sustainability of MAPs in Köprülü Kanyon National Park (Figure 2). 4 Factors affecting the sustainability of MAPs in Köprülü Kanyon National Park Institution Economy Population Management plan Resource: MAPs Probability of the use of MAPs being sustainable Figure 2. Assessment of the factors affecting the sustainability of MAPs in Köprülü Kanyon National Park Assessment of Figure 2 shows that conditions of the factors and interrelations between them directly and/or indirectly affect the management plan for the target species and thereby the sustainability of MAPs. Therefore, establishment of a powerful management mechanism for the species is essential to regulate the factors. In this regard, comprehensive and permanent monitoring programs should be established to collect feedback data on the factors as conditions of the factors can change in a positive or negative way over time. Thus, appropriate decisions can be taken in the management plan for the target species. Relevant factors and interrelations between them are discussed in turn. (i) Ecological factor (Natural resource: Medicinal and aromatic plants): MAPs are the living natural resources that are harvested by the local communities to derive a benefit such as food and generation of income. A set of ecological factors such as conservation status of the species, abundance and regeneration of the species, habitat quality of the target populations, and harvest rate and frequency reflect whether the wild-collection of MAPs is conducted in a sustainable manner in the national park. Integration of the indicated ecological data into the management plan for the target species is crucial at policy-development and also decision-making processes to control the impacts of population, institutional and economic factors. For example, harvest rate and frequency within the context of population factor directly affect the sustainable wild-collection of MAPs in terms of causing the decline in the species and deterioration of their natural habitats. In addition, the economic (e.g. increased market demand) and institutional (e.g. lack of principles to regulate the wild-collection) factors directly influence the factor of population. For example, the local people can over-harvest the target species in line of market demand when the management plan and a set of principles for regulating the wild-collection are absent. Accordingly, the factors of economic, population and institutional factors are interrelated. This interrelation can be controlled in the framework of the management plan for the target species. In the scope of the ecological factor, MAPs species collected from the wild, type of traditional usage, and conservation status of the species in question are determined. 5 (ii) Economic factor: The economic aspect of the relationship between MAPs and the local communities can be expressed in terms of economic valuation of the target species (e.g. percent of income generated per capita). For example, increased market prices for the traded species can trigger the local communities to over-harvest the species from the wild. Within this context, the economic factor is interrelated with the population factor. However, market prices are often decided by some rules developed by human population. In this case, the economic factor is interrelated with the institutional factor. Therefore, within the framework of the management plan for the target species, tradable quotas should be implemented to keep the sustainability of the species at ecosystem level and also to control the impact of the economic factor. Considering economic valuation of MAPs can be a key aspect to the sustainable management of MAPs, marketing structure, market channels, volume of harvest, trade value, value chain between source and consumer level and constraints in marketing are investigated in the scope of this factor. (iii) Population factor: Population can be defined as that portion of the human population that directly uses natural resources (Zaccagnini et.al., 2000). The characteristics of the local people and their relationship to the sustainable use of MAPs can be represented by several aspects such as land ownership, access to resources, population structure (e.g. gender) and population income (e.g. degree of dependence upon the resources). This factor is directly interrelated with the institutional (both formal and informal institutions) and economic factors. For example, increased market prices set by the human population can lead to the over-exploitation and also the high degree of dependence upon the target species. In this case, the factors of institutional, economic and population are interrelated. Considering these perceptions related to user population, the role of gender and the degree of dependence upon the wild-collection of MAPs two fundamental components of population factor are determined in the scope of this factor. (iv) Institutional factor: The existence and effectives of institutions will establish principles to use and/or harvest natural resources in a sustainable manner and also develop the mechanisms of distributing benefits obtained from the use of resource (Edwards and Musiti, 2001; Zaccagnini et.al., 2000). Thus, institutions can enforce the local communities and trading companies with the requirement of sustainable use of MAPs in the national park. Within this context, the factor of institution is closely interrelated with the population and economic factors. For example, the signing of international Conventions, such as the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) and the Bern Convention, reflects the efforts of the Government of Turkey to develop a solid institutional mechanism for the sustainable use of natural resources. In addition, recognizing the local communities are the first managers of MAPs, informal institution that regulates access to the resources plays a significant role in the sustainable use of the resources. Adoption of the informal institutions into the management plan will reflect the degree of participation of the local communities into legislation pertaining to the sustainable use of MAPs. Considering the interrelation between the factors of population and institution, the adoption of the informal institutions into the management plan can also assist in controlling the impacts of population factor on the resources collected from the wild. Accordingly, legal institutions for the sustainable use of MAPs were examined. In addition, an informal institution, regulating access rights to MAPs resources, was determined in the framework of this factor. 6 Collection of data on the discussed subjects was based upon different tools including questionnaires, interviews with several key target groups, collection and identification of species, and observations. The description of the tools and the main audiences for each tool are described below. (i) Selection of pilot villages: The following six villages located inside and adjacent to the national park were selected as pilot sites to conduct the research: Eskibeydilli, Çaltepe, Ballıbucak, Çukurca, Karabük, and Altınkaya. The major criteria for the selection of these villages were their proximity to the natural habitats of MAPs, potential for traditional use of MAPs, their geographical remoteness from the local centre (i.e. Beşkonak). (ii) Desi
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