UNIVERSIDADE TÉCNICA DE LISBOA. Pain evaluation and control after routine interventions in cattle - PDF

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UNIVERSIDADE TÉCNICA DE LISBOA FACULDADE DE MEDICINA VETERINÁRIA Pain evaluation and control after routine interventions in cattle George Thomas Stilwell TESE DE DOUTORAMENTO EM CIÊNCIAS VETERINÁRIAS JÚRI:

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UNIVERSIDADE TÉCNICA DE LISBOA FACULDADE DE MEDICINA VETERINÁRIA Pain evaluation and control after routine interventions in cattle George Thomas Stilwell TESE DE DOUTORAMENTO EM CIÊNCIAS VETERINÁRIAS JÚRI: Presidente Reitor da Universidade Técnica de Lisboa. Vogais Doutor José Manuel Castelhano Ribeiro Ponte, professor catedrático convidado da Universidade do Algarve. Doutor Luís Miguel Joaquim Marques Antunes, professor associado da Universidade de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro. Doutor Miguel Luís Mendes Saraiva Lima, professor associado da Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária da Universidade Técnica de Lisboa. Doutora Ilda Maria Neto Gomes Rosa, professora auxiliar da Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária da Universidade Técnica de Lisboa. Doutor Donald Maurice Broom, Colleen Macleod Professor da Universidade de Cambridge, U.K., na qualidade de especialista LISBOA I III To my parents, Pamela and Francis Understanding animals (The Far Side, by Garry Larson) The most crucial limitation to the moral philosophy approach to animal welfare is the fact that what matters to the animal is not what we think or feel but what we do (In: Animal Welfare: A Cool Eye Towards Eden. J. Webster, 2005) IV ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We wish to thank the following people: My wife, Rita for all her help in field work, her precious advice and patience during all these years. My children Diogo, Maria, Catarina, Tomaz and Sebastião. Prof. Miguel Saraiva Lima Prof. Donald M. Broom Eng. Martha Stilwell d Andrade Prof. Luís Tavares and CIISA. Profª. Luísa Mateus. Eng. Nuno Carolino Engª Marta Vacas de Carvalho Pereira Alexandre Arriaga e Cunha. Casal de Quintanelas dairy farm and Justino Barão & Barão dairy farm and Eng. Ricardo Basílio. Dr. João Paisana and Agro-Pecuária Afonso Paisana dairy farm. Vale de Lama dairy farm, Garry Mainprize and Armando Cadete. Estação Zootécnica Nacional, Dr. João Nobre and the stockmen. Dr. Filipe Pulquério Pinto All the estagiários that helped with the studies Elisabete Capitão, Inês Cruz, Marta Santos, Hugo José, Silvia Pissarreira, Rita Catita, Patrícia Simões, Sofia Cabral. Countless students that helped with field work along these years. All my collegues and friends at the FMV. All the practitioners and friends all over Portugal. V This study was supported by: Centro de Investigação Interdisciplinar em Sanidade Animal - Projecto de Investigação: CIISA/73.Dor Bovinos; Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária da Universidade Técnica de Lisboa. VI ABSTRACT: Pain evaluation and control after routine interventions in cattle. Disbudding and castration are two routine interventions in cattle practice. Both can cause severe pain and cause poor welfare. Through plasma cortisol levels and behaviour evaluation we measured pain caused by different disbudding and castration methods. We also studied the efficacy of several anaesthesia and analgesia protocols. The main conclusions are: - Cortisol together with behaviour assessment is very useful in detecting calves in pain. - Certain behaviours are only shown by very young calves. - Vocalization should not be used as a sign of pain in calves. - Scoop disbudding causes long term pain and local anaesthesia is not efficient. - Hot-iron disbudding causes severe pain during the procedure but does not differ from paste disbudding in the next hours. Local anaesthesia plus analgesia does reduce pain cause by these methods. - Xylazine causes an increase in cortisol even if pain is not induced. - Pain caused by clamp-castration lasts for at least 48 hours and is only controlled by long acting analgesics. - Surgical castration causes intense pain but shorter if two incisions are made instead of just one. Keywords: cattle; pain assessement; pain management; analgesia; cortisol; behaviour; castration; dehorning. VII RESUMO: Avaliação e controlo da dor causada por intervenções de rotina em bovinos. A descorna e a castração de bovinos jovens são duas intervenções de rotina nas explorações. Ambas intervenções têm o potencial de causar dor e, portanto, de afectar gravemente o bem-estar animal. Através da medição do cortisol plasmático e avaliação do comportamento medimos a dor causada por diversos métodos de descorna e castração. Testámos ainda diversos protocolos de anestesia e analgesia. Principais conclusões: - O cortisol associado à observação do comportamento é eficaz na detecção de vitelos em dor. - Certos comportamentos de dor apenas são exibidos por animais muito novos. - A vocalização não é um sinal útil na identificação da dor em vitelos. - A descorna por amputação causa dor prolongada e a anestesia local não é eficaz. - O procedimento de descorna por ferro causa dor elevada, mas nas horas seguintes a dor não difere da descorna com pasta. A anestesia local associada a um analgésico controla a dor nestes dois métodos. - A xilazina causa elevação de cortisol mesmo quando não há dor. - Dor causada pela castração por esmagamento dura pelo menos 48 horas e só é controlada por analgésicos com acção prolongada. - Castração cirúrgica causa dor intensa mas menos prolongada quando feita através de duas incisões do que através de uma incisão. Palavras-chave: Bovino, avaliação de dor; controlo de dor; analgesia; cortisol; comportamento; castração; descorna. VIII PUBLICATIONS: The chapters on this thesis are based on the following papers published in national and international peer- reviewed journals. 1. Stilwell G, Lima MS, Broom DM (2008) The effects of two non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs and of epidural injection on plasma cortisol and behaviour of calves castrated using a Burdizzo clamp. American Journal Veterinary Research. 69: Stilwell G (2008) O efeito de anestesia regional associada ou não a um AINE sobre o cortisol e comportamento de vitelas descornadas por amputação com alicate. Veterinary Medicine. 10: Stilwell G, Lima MS, Broom DM (2008) Comparing plasma cortisol and behaviour of calves dehorned with caustic paste after non-steroidal-antiinflammatory analgesia. Livestock Science. 119: Stilwell G, Campos Carvalho R, Lima MS, Broom DM (2008) The effect of duration of manual restraint during blood sampling on plasma cortisol levels in calves. Animal Welfare. 17: Stilwell G, Campos de Carvalho R, Lima MS., Broom DM (2009) Effect of caustic paste disbudding, using local anaesthesia with and without analgesia, on behaviour and cortisol of calves. Applied Animal Behaviour Science. 116: Stilwell G, Lima MS, Broom DM (2009) Comparing the effect of three different disbudding methods on behaviour and plasma cortisol of calves. Revista Portuguesa Ciências Veterinárias. 102 ( ): IX 7. Effect of hot-iron disbudding on behaviour and plasma cortisol of calves sedated with xylazine. Accepted in 2009 as Research Paper for publication in Research in Veterinary Science. 8. G. Stilwell, M.S. Lima, R.C. Carvalho and D.M. Broom (2009) Effect of hotiron disbudding, using regional anaesthesia with and without analgesia, on cortisol and behaviour of calves (Submitted). The results presented on this thesis were also used in the following publications: Books: Stilwell G (2006) Manual da Dor em Bovinos. Published by Pfizer Saúde Animal. Proceedings: - Stilwell G, Lima MS, Nunes T, Capitão E (2004) Effect of three different methods of dehorning on plasma cortisol levels and behaviour of calves. In Proceedings XXIII World Buiatric Congress July. Quebec, Canada. Pp: 665 (3339). - Stilwell G, Lima MS, Nunes T, Capitão E (2004) Evaluation of the effect of local anaesthesia and local anaesthesia associated with analgesia on the levels of cortisol after hot-iron, chemical or scoop dehorning. In Proceedings XXIII World Buiatrics Congress July. Quebec, Canada. Pp: 173 (3342). - Stilwell G, Capitão E, Nunes T, Lima MS (2004) Efeito de anestesia e anestesia associada a analgesia na prevenção de dor após descorna. In Proceedings: II Encontro de Epidemiologia e Medicina Preventiva. Outubro. Coimbra, Portugal. - Stilwell G (2005) Avaliação e controlo da dor em animais de produção. In Proceedings: Congresso da Sociedade Portuguesa de Ciências Veterinárias. October. Santarém, Portugal. Pp: 89. X - Stilwell G, Lima MS, Pinto F (2006) Effect of handling on bovine plasma cortisol. In Proceedings I International Congress on Conservation and Welfare May. Lisbon, Portugal. Pp: Stilwell G, Lima MS, Broom DM (2006) Comparing the efficacy of two non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in reducing pain after castration of calves. In: Proceedings XXIV World Buiatrics Congress October. Nice, France. Pp: - Stilwell G, Lima MS, Broom DM (2007) Avaliação e controlo da dor provocada por intervenções de rotina em explorações de bovinos. In Proceedings: Jornadas do Ensino Pós-Graduado da FMV Simpósio do CIISA Junho. FMV, Lisbon. Pp: 62 - Stilwell G, Campos de Carvalho R, Lima MS, Broom DM (2008). Effect of caustic paste disbudding on cortisol and behaviour of dairy calves treated with regional anaesthetic. In Proceedings XXV World Buiatrics Congress July. Budapeste, Hungary. Pp: Stilwell G, Campos de Carvalho R, Lima MS, Broom DM (2008). Plasma cortisol and behaviour of dairy calves after regional anaesthesia with lidocaine has subsided. In Proceedings XXV World Buiatrics Congress July. Budapeste, Hungary. Pp: 263. XI CONTENTS Chapter 1 Introduction 1.1. The study project Pain Pain mechanisms in mammals Nociception Chronic pain Pain in animals an emotional experience Assessing pain Behaviour Cortisol Other measures Controlling pain in cattle Local anaesthesia Non-steroid-anti-inflammatory-drugs α 2 adrenergic drug Other methods Self-induced analgesia Painful procedures on farms Castration Disbudding Other painful interventions. Chapter 2 Objectives of the studies. Chapter 3 Essay: Why control pain in animals? Chapter 4 Validating the use of plasma cortisol in the experiments. Study 1: The effect of duration of manual restraint during blood sampling on plasma cortisol levels in calves. Published in: Animal Welfare. Chapter 5 Castration 5.1. Evaluating and controlling long lasting pain after clamp-castration. Study 2: Effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on long-term pain in calves castrated by use of an external clamping technique following epidural anaesthesia. Published in: American Journal of Veterinary Research. XII 5.2. Evaluating the effect of different surgical castration techniques. Study 3: Effects of surgical castration with one or two incisions on cortisol, rectal temperature, scrotum swelling and behaviour of calves. Chapter 6 Disbudding 6.1. Evaluating and controlling pain after scoop disbudding. Study 4: O efeito de anestesia regional associada ou não a um antiinflamatório não esteroide sobre o cortisol e comportamento de vitelas descornadas por amputação com alicate. (Effect of regional analgesia with or without a non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory analgesic on cortisol and behaviour of calves dehorned by amputation). Published in: Veterinary Medicine (Portuguese issue) Evaluating and controlling pain after paste disbudding. Study 5: Effect of caustic paste disbudding, using local anaesthesia with and without analgesia, on behaviour and cortisol of calves. Published in: Applied Animal Behaviour Science. Study 6: Comparing plasma cortisol and behaviour of calves dehorned with caustic paste after non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory analgesia. Published in: Livestock Science Evaluating and controlling pain after hot-iron disbudding. Study 7: Effect of hot-iron disbudding, using regional anaesthesia with and without analgesia, on cortisol and behaviour of calves. (Submitted). Study 8: Effect of hot-iron disbudding on behaviour and plasma cortisol of calves sedated with xylazine. Research in Veterinary Science. IN PRESS Comparing disbudding methods. The effect of three methods of disbudding on behaviour and plasma cortisol of calves. Published in: Revista Portuguesa de Ciências Veterinárias. Chapter 7 General discussion and conclusions General discussion How painful are routine procedures? Jutification for the procedures the final balance. XIII Assessing pain importance of some behaviours Assessing pain cortisol More than nociception Individual welfare General conclusions References XIV LIST OF FIGURES Chapter 1 Fig Schematic description of the pain system in mammals Fig Percentage of dairy farms that dehorn/disbud young or adult female animals. Fig Method of disbudding used in Portuguese dairy farms with which surveyed practitioners work. Fig Drawing of scoop disbudding showing line of amputation. Fig Deep chemical burn following caustic paste disbudding. Fig Hot-iron disbudding with heated device being pressed against the horn bud. Fig Percentage of farms that use anaesthetic, sedative or analgesic when dehorning adult dairy cows Fig Percentage of farms that use anaesthetic, sedative or analgesic when disbudding dairy calves. Chapter 2 Fig European attitude towards farm animal welfare. Chapter 5 Fig Mean ±SD plasma cortisol (nmol/ml) of calves castrated by different surgical techniques. Fig Mean ±SD thickness of scrotum (mm) of calves castrated by two different surgical techniques. Fig Mean ±SD rectal temperature (C) of calves castrated by two different surgical techniques. Fig Mean ±SD reaction to scrotum palpation of calves castrated by two different surgical techniques. Chapter 6 Fig Mean ±SD plasma cortisol concentration (nmol/l) of calves scoop-disbudded. Fig.6.2. Mean ±SD incidence of pain-related behaviours shown by calves after scoop-disbudding. Fig Number of animals showing inert lying behaviour after caustic paste disbudding (Experiment 1). Fig Number of animals showing inert lying behaviour after caustic paste disbudding (Experiment 3). Fig Incidence of head shakes for 1-month-old calves disbudded with caustic paste. Fig Incidence of ear flicks for 1 month old calves disbudded with caustic paste. Fig Incidence of head rubs for 1 month old calves disbudded with caustic paste. Page LIST OF FIGURES (cont.) Fig Incidence of transitions between lying and standing behaviour for 1 month old calves disbudded with caustic paste. Fig Mean ± SD plasma cortisol concentrations (nmol/l) and mean incidence ± SD of pain-related behaviours for calves disbudded with caustic paste after pre-emptive analgesic treatment. Fig Number of behaviours shown by calves during the caustic paste disbudding procedure after pre-emptive analgesic treatment. Fig Number of calves showing inert lying behaviour after caustic paste disbudding and pre-emptive analgesic treatment. Fig Degree of struggling (mean ±SD) during hot-iron disbudding with xylazine. Fig Mean ±SD plasma cortisol of calves disbudded by different methods. Fig Mean ±SD incidence of pain-related behaviours of calves disbudded by different methods. Page XVI LIST OF TABLES Chapter 1 Table 1.1. Types of nerve fibres responsible for transmission of noxious stimuli. Chapter 4 Table 4.1. Mean age (days) and blood cortisol levels (nmol L-1) of calves restrained for different lengths of time. Chapter 5 Table The effect of no treatment and treatment with epidural anesthesia alone, epidural anesthesia plus flunixin-meglumine, and epidural anesthesia plus carprofen on mean ± SD plasma cortisol concentrations of calves following castration by use of an external clamping technique. Table The effect of no treatment and treatment with epidural anesthesia alone, epidural anesthesia plus flunixin-meglumine, and epidural anesthesia plus carprofen on behaviors indicative of pain in calves following castration by use of an external clamping technique. Table 5.3. Mean ±SD plasma cortisol (nmol/ml) of calves castrated by two different surgical techniques. Table 5.4. Mean ±SD thickness of scrotum (mm) of calves castrated by two different surgical techniques. Table 5.5. Mean ±SD rectal temperature (C) of calves castrated by two different surgical techniques. Table 5.6. Mean ±SD reaction to scrotum palpation of calves castrated by two different surgical techniques. Chapter 6 Table 6.1. Description of the pain-related behaviours recorded at 15 minutes, 1, 3, 6 and 24 after scoop-disbudding. Table 6.2. Mean ±SD plasma cortisol concentration (nmol/l) of calves scoop-disbudded. Table 6.3. Number of each behaviour and total incidence of painrelated behaviours at different times during the first 24 hours after scoop disbudding. Table 6.4. Mean ±SD plasma cortisol (nmol/l) of calves disbudded with caustic paste (Experiment 1). Table 6.5. Incidence (mean ±SD) of four different behaviours (head shake, ear flick, head rub and transitions from standing to lying) for calves disbudded with caustic paste (Experiment 1). Table 6.6. Plasma cortisol (mean ±SD) of calves disbudded with caustic paste (Experiment 2). Page LIST OF TABLES (cont.) Table 6.7. Incidence (mean ±SD) of four different behaviours (head shake, ear flick, head rub and transitions from standing to lying) for calves disbudded with caustic paste (experiment 2). Table 6.8. Plasma cortisol (mean ±SD) of calves disbudded with caustic paste (Experiment 3). Table 6.9. Incidence (mean ±SD) of four different behaviours (head shake, ear flick, head rub and transitions from standing to lying) for calves disbudded with caustic paste (Experiment 3). Table 6.10 Mean ± SD plasma cortisol concentrations (nmol/l) for calves disbudded with caustic paste after pre-emptive analgesia. Table Pain-related behaviours incidence rate for calves disbudded with caustic paste after pre-emptive analgesia. Table Effects on plasma cortisol (mean ±SD) of calves hot-iron disbudded with anaesthesia and analgesia in Experiment 1. Table Effects on incidence of four pain-related behaviours (mean ±SD) in calves hot-iron disbudded with anaesthesia and analgesia in Experiment 1. Table Effects on plasma cortisol (mean ±SD) of calves hot-iron disbudded with anaesthesia and analgesia in Experiment 2. Table Effects on incidence of four pain-related behaviours (mean ±SD) in calves hot-iron disbudded, with anaesthesia and analgesia in Experiment 2. Table Effects on plasma cortisol (mean ±SD) of calves hot-iron disbudded with anaesthesia in Experiment 3. Table Effects on incidence of four pain-related behaviours (mean ±SD) in calves hot-iron disbudded with anaesthesia in Experiment 3. Table Mean ±SD plasma cortisol concentration (nmol/l) of calves disbudded with hot-iron after xylazine sedation, with or without anaesthesia. Table Incidence of pain-related behaviours (mean ±SD) of calves for the first hour post-disbudding with hot-iron after xylazine sedation, with or without anaesthesia. Table Description of the behaviours recorded at disbudding and for 24 hours after the procedures. Table Number and age (mean ±SD) of calves in each group accordingly to the disbudding method used. Table Differences in mean cortisol ± SD (nmol/l) between disbudding methods for the first 24 hours after the procedures. Table Degree of struggling during disbudding and individual and total incidence of pain-related behaviours (mean ±SD) of calves for the first 24 hours post-disbudding with scoop (S), hot-iron (HI), caustic paste (CP) or sham-disbudded (ND-HI and ND-CP). Page XVIII LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ACTH Adrenocorticotrophic Hormone. ATP Adenosine Tri-Phosphate. BRSV Bovine Respiratory Syncitial Virus. BSE Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy. BVD Bovine Viral Diarrhoea. BWC White Blood Cells. CBG Corticosteroid-Binding Globulin. CNS Central Nervous System. COX-1 Cyclo-oxygenase 1. COX-2 Cyclo-oxygenase 2. CRH Corticotrophic Releasing Hormone. GABA Gamma-Amino-Butyric Acid. HPA Hypothalamo-Pituitary-Adrenal (axis). IASP International Association for the Study of Pain. IBR Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis. IL-6 Interleukin-6. LA Local Anaesthesia. MHC Major Histocompatibility Complex. NSAID Non-Steroid-Anti-Inflammatory Drugs. PI 3 Parainfluenza 3 (virus). RA Regional A
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