UNIVERSIDADE TÉCNICA DE LISBOA INSTITUTO SUPERIOR TÉCNICO - PDF

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UNIVERSIDADE TÉCNICA DE LISBOA INSTITUTO SUPERIOR TÉCNICO Comprehensive Life Cycle Framework Integrating Part and Tool Design Inês Esteves Ribeiro Supervisor: Doctor Paulo Miguel Nogueira Peças Co-Supervisor:

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UNIVERSIDADE TÉCNICA DE LISBOA INSTITUTO SUPERIOR TÉCNICO Comprehensive Life Cycle Framework Integrating Part and Tool Design Inês Esteves Ribeiro Supervisor: Doctor Paulo Miguel Nogueira Peças Co-Supervisor: Doctor Elsa Maria Pires Henriques Thesis approved in public session to obtain the PhD Degree in Leaders for Technical Industries Jury Final Classification: Pass with Merit Jury Chairperson: Chairman of the IST Scientific Board Members of the Committee: Doctor Paulo Manuel Cadete Ferrão Doctor Elsa Maria Pires Henriques Doctor Ana Rosanete Lourenço Reis Doctor António José Vilela Pontes Doctor Rui Manuel dos Santos Oliveira Baptista Doctor Paulo Miguel Nogueira Peças 2012 UNIVERSIDADE TÉCNICA DE LISBOA INSTITUTO SUPERIOR TÉCNICO Comprehensive Life Cycle Framework Integrating Part and Tool Design Inês Esteves Ribeiro Supervisor: Doctor Paulo Miguel Nogueira Peças Co-Supervisor: Doctor Elsa Maria Pires Henriques Thesis approved in public session to obtain the PhD Degree in Leaders for Technical Industries Jury Final Classification: Pass with Merit Jury Chairperson: Chairman of the IST Scientific Board Members of the Committee: Doctor Paulo Manuel Cadete Ferrão, Professor Catedrático do Instituto Superior Técnico, da Universidade Técnica de Lisboa; Doctor Elsa Maria Pires Henriques, Professora Associada do Instituto Superior Técnico, da Universidade Técnica de Lisboa; Doctor Ana Rosanete Lourenço Reis, Professora Auxiliar da Faculdade de Engenharia, da Universidade do Porto; Doctor António José Vilela Pontes, Professor Auxiliar da Faculdade de Engenharia, da Universidade do Minho; Doctor Rui Manuel dos Santos Oliveira Baptista, Professor Auxiliar do Instituto Superior Técnico, da Universidade Técnica de Lisboa; Doctor Paulo Miguel Nogueira Peças, Professor Auxiliar do Instituto Superior Técnico, da Universidade Técnica de Lisboa. Funding Institution Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia Resumo O desempenho da maioria dos processos produtivos depende grandemente da engenharia das ferramentas. Apesar da importância das ferramentas dedicadas ser reconhecida pela indústria, a quantificação do seu impacto é limitada. Isto é devido principalmente à natureza única deste tipo de ferramentas, sendo a quantificação especialmente crítica em fases avançadas no seu ciclo de vida. O enquadramento Abrangente de Ciclo de Vida proposto integra os ciclos de vida da peça e da ferramenta e combina modelos baseados nos processos envolvidos em todas as fases do ciclo de vida, introduzindo relações entre estas, tanto ao nível de custos como de impactos ambientais. Este enquadramento é depois explorado no caso de moldes de injecção de plásticos, tendo sido desenvolvidos modelos específicos para analisar o impacto da concepção de peças e ferramentas no ciclo de vida integrado. São apresentados casos de estudo de peças produzidas por moldação por injecção, ilustrando a metodologia e explorando as suas vantagens em decisões de concepção. Esta abordagem é especialmente útil em novas tecnologias e tipologias de ferramentas, pois a modelação dos processos permite estimar os seus custos futuros e outros impactos sem grandes investimentos, apoiando assim decisões mais conscientes na fase de concepção. Keywords: Concepção de Ciclo de Vida, Ciclo de Vida Abrangente, Custo de Ciclo de Vida, Análise de Ciclo de Vida, Modelos Baseados em Processos, Moldação por Injecção, Ferramentas Dedicadas 3 Abstract The performance of most manufacturing processes is highly determined by the tooling engineering. However, despite being acknowledged by the industry, the explicit quantification of the impact of tooling design decisions is still lacking mainly due to the one-of-a-kind nature of these tools. This is especially critical when moving forward through the tool life cycle. The proposed Comprehensive Life Cycle (CLC) framework integrates the part and the tool life cycles and combines process-based models of all life cycle phases involved, introducing relations of dependencies and impacts between them. The impacts regard not only cost, but also environmental impacts. This framework is then explored in the case of plastic injection moulds, developing specific models to capture part and mould design impact in the integrated life cycle. Case studies are presented regarding plastic parts produced by injection moulding, illustrating the CLC framework and exploring its advantages when dealing with design decisions. This approach is especially useful when dealing with new technologies and tool features, as the modelling of the processes allows estimating their future costs and other impacts without major investments. Hence, it can be used to support more informed decisions in the tooling and part design phase. Keywords: Life Cycle Design, Comprehensive Life Cycle, Life Cycle Cost, Life Cycle Assessment, Process-Based Models, Injection Moulding, Dedicated Tooling 4 Acknowledgments Realizing now that this is the end of more than two decades of being a student, I have too many people to thank to. First of all, this would not be possible without the trust, encouragement, inspiration and friendship of my supervisors. I am grateful to Paulo for his guidance, unquestionable support and optimism. Elsa, our pillar, for having taught me that nothing is too difficult. Thank you for opening my mind. My sincere thanks goes to people in Celoplás, for providing me virtually all the knowledge and experience I needed, for their availability even in busiest times. I would like to thank particularly to Eng. João Cortez, for giving me an opportunity and for making my thesis possible, and to Pedro Correia and Bruno Correia for their help. Valuable help and availability was also given by Fapil and I would like to thank Eng. Pedro Teixeira for all the data and knowledge. Famolde was also important to this work, having Eng. Pedro Oliveira been always available to my visits, giving me all the information I needed. I would also like to thank Rich Roth for making possible the experience in MIT and the project with GM. It made me leave the injection moulding box. Along the way I met new people that accompanied me in this journey. I want to thank my colleagues, in particular to Marco, Bruno, Ioannis and of course, Raquel, my great companion of work and beers. For the long lasting friendship, for the joys and sorrows shared, I deeply thank my friends Chico, Bé, Joana, Sílvia, Leonor and Tiago. Thank you Andrea for making me happy. For your honesty and love. Finally, my family. I cannot express in words what I owe them. To Ana, my big sister, an admirable person who passed me her addiction to books. To my parents, who have always given everything for us. I dedicate this thesis to them. 5 Contents 1 Introduction State of the art Design for Life Cycle Life Cycle Engineering/Design Challenges in Life Cycle Engineering/Design Current Methods and Tools Life Cycle Engineering of Products and Tools Role of dedicated tools in sustainable product design and challenges Main findings from literature review Research method, means and materials Companies involved Materials Comprehensive Life Cycle Framework CLC General framework, relations of impact between life cycle phases Scope Tool and part integrated life cycle Process based cost models Financial relations used in process-based cost models Process based environmental models Linking part and tool design with process requirements Development of models integrating CLC framework Integrated comparison of economic and environmental life cycle performance CLC framework applied to injection moulding Scope of the CLC framework Modelling relevant interactions in injection moulding Cycle Time Energy Consumption Material Consumption Mould Maintenance Mould Reliability LCC Methodology in CLC Framework Part Material Production and Mould Material Production Mould Production Part Production/Mould Use Part Use Tool End-Of-Life (EOL)/ Part End-Of-Life (EOL) LCA Methodology in CLC Framework System boundaries and inputs required Eco Indicator Environmental relations, linking environmental and cost drivers Case Studies Case Studies Tool Design Alternatives Comprehensive Life Cycle - Costs Comprehensive Life Cycle Environmental Impact Integrated comparison of economic and environmental life cycle performance Case Study 5 - Part Design Alternatives Comprehensive Life Cycle Cost Comprehensive Life Cycle Assessment Integrated comparison of economic and environmental life cycle performance Case Study 6 - Tool and Part Design Alternatives Cloth Pegs Comprehensive Life Cycle Cost Comprehensive Life Cycle Assessment Integrated comparison of economic and environmental life cycle performance Discussion 7 - CLC Framework Applied to other Production Processes using Dedicated Tools Case Study 7 Stamping of an Automobile Fender Comprehensive Life Cycle-Costs Comprehensive Life Cycle Environmental Impacts Integrated comparison of economic and environmental life cycle performance Die Casting Case Study Rotor Bars of an Automobile Induction Motor Comprehensive Life Cycle - Costs Integrated comparison of economic and environmental life cycle performance Discussion Conclusions Future Work References Annex 1 Mould Failure Data Annex 2 Cost relations of bought components Plastic injection moulds Annex 3 - Case study 7 Material Properties FIGURES INDEX FIGURE 2.1. KEYWORDS OF LIFE CYCLE ENGINEERING [JESWIET, 2003] FIGURE 2.2. LCA FRAMEWORK ACCORDING TO ISO STANDARD [HAUSCHILD ET AL 2005] FIGURE 3.1. RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT FIGURE 3.2. COMPANIES INVOLVED, CASE STUDIES AND CONFERENCES ATTENDED FIGURE 3.3. POWER ANALYSED PROVA FIGURE 4.1: PRODUCT/TOOL LIFE CYCLE FIGURE 4.2: PROCESS BASED COST MODEL FIGURE 4.3. LINE UTILIZATION FOR A 24 HOUR DAY FIGURE 4.4: PROCESS BASED ENVIRONMENTAL MODEL FIGURE 4.5: PART AND TOOL RELATIONS FIGURE 4.6 DEVELOPING MODELS FIGURE. 4.7: TYPICAL ZONES FOR EACH TYPE OF BEST ALTERNATIVES FIGURE 5.1. SCOPE OF THE CLC FRAMEWORK FIGURE 5.2. METHODOLOGY TO DEVELOP THE ENERGY MODEL FIGURE 5.3 POWER CONSUMPTION PROFILE OF PART 5 HYDRAULIC MACHINE 200T (CYCLE TIME (T C )=30.8 S) FIGURE 5.4 POWER CONSUMPTION PROFILE OF PART 5 HYDRAULIC MACHINE 200T (T C =30.8 S) FIGURE 5.5 POWER CONSUMPTION PROFILE OF PART 6 ELECTRIC MACHINE 180T (T C =28.3 S) FIGURE 5.6 POWER CONSUMPTION PROFILE OF PART 6 ELECTRIC MACHINE 180T (T C =28.3 S) FIGURE 5.7 EXPERIMENTAL ENERGY CONSUMPTION VALUES, ENERGY CONSUMPTION ESTIMATED BY THE THERMODYNAMIC MODEL (EQUATION 5.6 AND 5.7), AND THE ONES ESTIMATED BY THE THERMODYNAMIC MODEL WITH 80% MACHINE EFFICIENCY VARIATION WITH THE P THERM /P INST RATIO (EQUATION 5.8) FIGURE 5.8 CHART PLOTTING RELATION BETWEEN RELATION P THERM /P INST AND P THERMO /P EXP FIGURE 5.9 TREND OF CORRECTION FACTOR (CF COMP ) OF ANALYSED PARTS FIGURE 5.10 CHART PLOTTING EXPERIMENTAL ENERGY CONSUMPTION VALUES AND ESTIMATED VALUES USING EQUATIONS (5.6) AND (5.7), (5.8) AND (5.11) FIGURE 5.11 EVOLUTION OF THE ESTIMATED VALUE OF THICKNESS RELATED COEFFICIENT (THCOMP) WITH THE PART MAXIMUM THICKNESS FIGURE 5.12 CHART PLOTTING EXPERIMENTAL ENERGY CONSUMPTION VALUES AND ESTIMATED VALUES USING EQUATIONS (5.6) AND (5.7), (5.8), (5.11) AND (5.14) FIGURE 5.13 EXAMPLE OF AN EMPIRICAL RELATION BETWEEN DESIGN CHARACTERISTICS, MAINTENANCE LEVEL AND DOWNTIME. SG SIMPLE GEOMETRY; CG COMPLEX GEOMETRY FIGURE 5.14 DEVELOPMENT OF INJECTION MOULD FAILURE MODEL FIGURE 5.16 SCOPE OF THE LCA ANALYSIS AND MATERIAL, ENERGY AND EMISSIONS FLOWS CONSIDERED FIGURE 5.17: ECO INDICATOR 99 METHODOLOGY [RIBEIRO ET AL. 2008] FIGURE 6.1 TOOL DESIGN ALTERNATIVES AND THE IMPACTS THROUGHOUT THE INTEGRATED LIFE CYCLE OF THE ANALYSED CASE STUDY COMPRISING PARTS A, B, C AND D FIGURE 6.2. MOULD PRODUCTION COSTS BY PROCESS STEP FIGURE 6.3. ANNUAL FAILURE COSTS OF MOULD DESIGN ALTERNATIVES FOR DIFFERENT ANNUAL PRODUCTION VOLUMES 125 FIGURE 6.4 COST DISTRIBUTION OF LIFE CYCLE PHASES CONSIDERING THE EXPECTED PRODUCTION VOLUMES FIGURE 6.5 BEST (LOWEST LCC) ALTERNATIVES FOR DIFFERENT PRODUCTION VOLUMES FIGURE 6.6 BEST (LOWEST LCC) ALTERNATIVES FOR DIFFERENT PRODUCTION VOLUMES OF PART A DISREGARDING RELIABILITY AND MAINTENANCE MODELS FIGURE 6.7. EI 99 VALUES CONSIDERING ALL MOULD ALTERNATIVES AND THE EXPECTED PRODUCTION VOLUME OF EACH CASE STUDY FIGURE 6.8. SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS TO THE ANNUAL PRODUCTION VOLUME REGARDING THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT (EI 99 POINTS) OF THEALTERNATIVES IN EACH CASE STUDY FIGURE 6.9. BEST PERFORMING MAPPING OF THE ALTERNATIVES FIGURE 6.9 PART DESIGN ALTERNATIVES AND THE IMPACTS THROUGHOUT THE INTEGRATED LIFE CYCLE FIGURE 6.10 GEOMETRY OF THE SAMPLES TO BE INJECTED WITH DIFFERENT MATERIALS FIGURE 6.11 SAMPLE INJECTED IN DIFFERENT COMPOSITIONS OF PLA AND STARCH FIGURE 6.20 COST DISTRIBUTION OF LIFE CYCLE PHASES CONSIDERING THE EXPECTED PRODUCTION VOLUMES AND EOL SCENARIO FIGURE 6.21 COST DISTRIBUTION OF LIFE CYCLE PHASES CONSIDERING THE EXPECTED PRODUCTION VOLUMES AND EOL SCENARIO FIGURE 6.22 INTEGRATED LIFE CYCLE COST REGARDING DIFFERENT ANNUAL PRODUCTION VOLUMES, AND EOL SCENARIO FIGURE 6.23 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF EACH ALTERNATIVE AND AN ANNUAL PRODUCTION VOLUME OF PARTS CONSIDERING A) EOL SCENARIO 1AND B) EOL SCENARIO FIGURE 6.24 BEST PERFORMING MAPPING OF THE ALTERNATIVES SCENARIO FIG 6.25 PART AND TOOL DESIGN ALTERNATIVES IMPACTS IN THE INTEGRATED LIFE CYCLE FIG.6.26 FEEDING CHANNELS DESIGNED FOR THE A) 32 CAVITIES / COLD RUNNERS / DC 1 AND B) 32 CAVITIES / HOT RUNNERS / DC FIG.6.26 LIFE CYCLE COST OF THE DESIGN CONCEPTS/PROCESS ALTERNATIVES FOR 4 MPEGS FIG.6.27 BEST (LOWEST LCC) ALTERNATIVES FOR DIFFERENT PRODUCTION VOLUMES FIG.28 LIFE CYCLE IMPACT OF THE DESIGN CONCEPT/PROCESS ALTERNATIVES FOR 4 MPEGS FIG.29 BEST (LOWEST ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS) ALTERNATIVES FOR DIFFERENT PRODUCTION VOLUMES FIGURE BEST PERFORMING MAPPING OF THE ALTERNATIVES FIGURE 7.1. PICTURE OF THE AUTOMOBILE FENDER FIGURE 7.2. PART DESIGN ALTERNATIVES IMPACTS IN THE INTEGRATED LIFE CYCLE FIGURE 7.3 LIFE CYCLE SCOPE FIGURE 7.4 MANUFACTURING PROCESS OF THE FENDER PRODUCTION FIGURE 7.6. BEST PERFORMING MAPPING OF THE CANDIDATE MATERIALS, CONSIDERING THE STEEL 3 WITH 0.35 MM THICKNESS FIGURE 7.7 BEST PERFORMING MAPPING OF THE CANDIDATE MATERIALS, CONSIDERING THE ST 3 WITH 0.50 MM THICKNESS FIGURE 7.8 ROTOR STACK COMPRISING LAMINATIONS FIGURE 7.9. PART AND TOOL DESIGN ALTERNATIVES IMPACTS IN THE INTEGRATED LIFE CYCLE FIGURE 7.10 LIFE CYCLE SCOPE FIGURE 7.11 MANUFACTURING PROCESS OF THE ROTOR DIE CASTING FIGURE 7.12 SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS TO THE PRODUCTION VOLUME CONSIDERING COPPER DIE CASTING AND TWO TOOL MATERIAL ALTERNATIVES (H13 AND NICKEL BASED ALLOY). ONLY THE ALTERNATIVES OF LOWER COST PER PART ARE REPRESENTED FIGURE 7.13 BEST PERFORMING MAPPING OF THE CANDIDATE MATERIALS FIGURE A2 MANIFOLD TYPES AVAILABLE TABLES INDEX TABLE 2.1. LIFE CYCLE ENGINEERING TOOLS TABLE 2.2. COMPARISON BETWEEN LIFE CYCLE COST APPROACHES AND MODELS. ( AVAILABLE; NA NOT AVAILABLE).. 30 TABLE 2.3 GENERAL LCA TOOLS [BRIBIÀN ET AL. 2009] TABLE 2.4 NATIONAL, REGIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL LCI DATABASES [ADAPTED FROM FINNVEDEN ET AL. 2009] TABLE 2.5. OVERVIEW OF THE CURRENT LIFE CYCLE IMPACT ASSESSMENT METHODS [ADAPTED FROM IES, 2010] TABLE 4.1 DEFINITIONS AND VARIABLES TABLE 4.2 VARIABLE AND FIXED COSTS TABLE 5.1. SEC COEFFICIENTS OF ELECTRIC AND HYDRAULIC MACHINES (PBT POLYBUTYLENE TEREPHTHALATE, PMMA POLY(METHYL METHACRYLATE, PP POLYPROPYLENE) TABLE 5.2. INJECTED PARTS, MOULDS AND MACHINES PROPERTIES MEASURED FOR THIS STUDY TABLE 5.3. AVERAGE POWER AND ENERGY CONSUMPTION FOR THE SET OF PARTS STUDIED TABLE 5.4. COMPARISON OF EXPERIMENTAL DATA WITH ESTIMATED VALUES FOR ENERGY CONSUMPTION USING THE THERMODYNAMIC MODEL TABLE 5.5. COMPARISON OF VALUES FOR ENERGY CONSUMPTION USING THE THERMODYNAMIC EMPIRICAL MODEL (EQUATION 5.14) WITH THE EXPERIMENTAL DATA TABLE 5.6. WEIBULL PARAMETERS ALLOCATED TO MOULD ELEMENTS TABLE 6.1 PARTS CHARACTERISTICS PBT POLYBUTYLENE, TEREPHTHALATE, PP POLYPROPYLENE, PPO POLY(P PHENYLENE OXIDE) AND ABS ACRYLONITRILE BUTADIENE STYRENE TABLE 6.2. MOULD ALTERNATIVE DESIGNS TABLE 6.3 MOULDS PRODUCTION COST TABLE 6.4. COST DRIVERS IN MOULD PRODUCTION COSTS OF EACH ALTERNATIVE TABLE 6.5. CYCLE TIME, MAINTENANCE COSTS AND ENERGY AND MATERIAL CONSUMPTION OF EACH ALTERNATIVE TOOL DESIGN TABLE 6.6. NUMBER OF CRITICAL ELEMENTS PRESENT IN EACH MOULD DESIGN TABLE 6.7 WEIBULL PARAMETERS T 0 AND T [10 3 INJECTION CYCLES], B [ADIMENSIONAL] AND MTBF [10 3 INJECTION CYCLES] OF MOULD ELEMENTS SUBJECT TO FAILURE TABLE 6.8 EXPECTED COST OF MOULD FAILURE THROUGHOUT THE PART LIFE TABLE 6.9 COST DISTRIBUTION (MATERIALS PRODUCTION, MOULD PRODUCTION AND PARTS PRODUCTION/MOULD USE PHASES) FOR ALTERNATIVE A1 CONSIDERING THE EXPECTED ANNUAL PRODUCTION OF EACH PART PART AND TOOL EOL TABLE 6.10 EOL COST OF MOULDS AND PARTS TABLE TYPES OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT DRIVERS INVOLVED IN THE LIFE CYCLE PHASES TABLE 6.12 EI 99 VALUES CONSIDERING ALTERNATIVE 1 OF EACH CASE STUDY AND THE EXPECTED ANNUAL PRODUCTION VOLUME OF EACH PART TABLE 6.13 ALTERNATIVE MATERIALS SPECIFICATIONS REGARDING COMPOSITION AND PROCESS TABLE 6.14 MOULD MATERIAL AND PRODUCTION COST TABLE 6.15 MAIN PARAMETERS OF THE INJECTION MOULDING PROCESS OF THE SAMPLES WITH THE SAME GEOMETRY BUT DIFFERENT MATERIALS[TEIXEIRA 2012] TABLE 6.16 INJECTION MOULDING PHASE COSTS FOR 200,000 PARTS PER YEAR TABLE 6.17 END OF LIFE (EOL) COSTS FOR DIFFERENT DISPOSAL SCENARIOS TABLE EOL COSTS IN SCENARIO 1 FOR A PROD. VOLUME OF 200,000 PARTS TABLE 6.19 EOL COSTS IN SCENARIO 2 FOR A PROD. VOLUME OF 200,000 PARTS TABLE 6.20 CONSUMPTIONS OVER MATERIALS' LIFE CYCLE STAGES(200,000 PARTS/SAMPLES) TABLE 6.21 EI'99 UNITARY IMPACT VALUES TABLE 6.22 PART DESIGN ALTERNATIVE CONCEPTS TABLE 6.23 MOULD PRODUCTION COST OF EACH SET OF ALTERNATIVE DESIGNS TABLE 6.24 PART MATERIAL CONSUMPTION AND MATERIAL UNIT COST OF EACH SET OF ALTERNATIVE DESIGNS TABLE 6.25 CYCLE TIME ESTIMATED FOR EACH SET OF PART AND TOOL DESIGN TABLE 6.26 COST PARCELS OF INJECTION MOULDING FOR 4 MPEGS TABLE 6.27 MOULD EOL PROFIT OF EACH ALTERNATIVE REGARDING THE NUMBER OF CAVITIES TABLE 6.28 TYPES OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT DRIVERS INVOLVED IN THE LIFE CYCLE PHASES TABLE 7.1. SET OF MATERIALS PRE SELECTED FOR THE AUTOMOBILE FENDER TABLE 7.2. CANDIDATE MATERIALS, RELEVANT DESIGN FEATURES AND MATERIAL COST (WEIGHT = DENSITY X SURF. AREA X THICKNESS) TABLE 7.3 TOOLING PRODUCTION COST FOR THE DIFFERENT PART MATERIAL ALTERNATIVES TABLE 7.4 MATERIAL AND PRODUCTION COSTS ( FENDERS) TABLE 7.5 USE COSTS CONSIDERING AN ANNUAL PRODUCTION VOLUME OF 100,000 FENDERS TABLE 7.6 PART EOL COSTS CONSIDERING THE DIFFERENT ALTERNATIVE MATERIALS TABLE 7.7 COMPREHENSIVE LIFE CYCLE COSTS ( FENDERS) TABLE 7.8 CONSUMPTIONS AND EMISSIONS OVER THE INTEGRATED LIFE CYCLE TABLE 7.9 ENVIRONMENTAL EVALUATION BASED ON LCA METHODOLOGY TABLE 7.10 ALTERNATIVE MATERIALS REGARDING THE PART AND TOOL TABLE 7.11 PART MATERIAL COST CONSIDERING A PRODUCTION VOLUME OF 75,000 PARTS PER YEAR TABLE 7.12 TOOL PRODUCTION COSTS CONSIDERING DIFFERENT MATERIALS AND NUMBER OF CAVITIES TABLE 7.13 MAIN PROCESS TRADE OFFS BETWEEN COPPER AND ALUMINIUM DIE CASTING TABLE 7.14 MATERIAL AND PRODUCTION COSTS (75,000 ROTORS) TABLE MOTOR COST FOR EACH ALTERNATIVE CONSIDERED [MECHLER 2009], PRODUCTION VOLUME OF 75,000 PARTS PER YEAR TABLE 7.16 EOL COSTS OF PARTS CONSIDERING A PRODUCTION VOLUME OF 75,000 PARTS PER YEAR AND TOOL TABLE 7.18 CONSUMPTIONS AND EMISSIONS OVER THE INTEGRATED LIFE CYCLE TABLE 7.19 ENVIRONMENTAL EVALUATION BASED ON LCA METHODOLOGY TABLE A1A) EXPERT 1 MOULD MAINTENANCE MANAGER TABLE A1B) EXPERT 2 EXPERIENCED MOULD MAINTENANCE TECHNICIAN TABLE A2 MOULD STRUCTURE COST ACCORDING TO ITS DIMENSIONS [DATA FROM HASCO CATALOGUE] TABLE A3 MATERIAL PROPERTIES OF CANDIDATE MATERIALS [PILOT PROJECT EDAM] 1 INTRODUCTION The design and production of dedicated tailored tools is a topic of major concern in nowadays industry. Not only to tool makers but also to new produ
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