THE SPIDER FAUNA OF AN OLIVE GROVE AND ASSOCIATED SHRUBLANDS IN MUĞLA, MİLAS, KIYIKIŞLACIK WITH NOTES ON THEIR DIVERSITY AND COMPOSITION - PDF

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THE SPIDER FAUNA OF AN OLIVE GROVE AND ASSOCIATED SHRUBLANDS IN MUĞLA, MİLAS, KIYIKIŞLACIK WITH NOTES ON THEIR DIVERSITY AND COMPOSITION A THESIS SUBMITTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF NATURAL AND APPLIED

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THE SPIDER FAUNA OF AN OLIVE GROVE AND ASSOCIATED SHRUBLANDS IN MUĞLA, MİLAS, KIYIKIŞLACIK WITH NOTES ON THEIR DIVERSITY AND COMPOSITION A THESIS SUBMITTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF NATURAL AND APPLIED SCIENCES OF MIDDLE EAST TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY BY MERT ELVERİCİ IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCES IN BIOLOGY SEPTEMBER 2012 Approval of the thesis: THE SPIDER FAUNA OF AN OLIVE GROVE AND ASSOCIATED SHRUB LANDS IN MUĞLA, MİLAS, KIYIKIŞLACIK WITH NOTES ON THEIR DIVERSITY AND COMPOSITION submitted by MERT ELVERİCİ in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Biology Department, Middle East Technical University by, Prof. Dr. Canan ÖZGEN Dean, Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences Prof. Dr. Musa DOĞAN Head of Department, Biology Prof. Dr. Aykut KENCE Supervisor, Biology Department, METU Examining Committee Members: Assoc. Prof. Dr. C. Can BİLGİN Biology Department, METU Prof. Dr. Aykut KENCE Biology Department, METU Assoc. Prof. Dr. Meral KENCE Biology Department, METU Assist. Prof. Dr. R. Sulhi ÖZKÜTÜK Biology Department, Anadolu University Assist. Prof. Dr. Tarık DANIŞMAN Biology Department, Kırıkkale University Date: Date: I hereby declare that all information in this document has been obtained and presented in academic rules and ethical conduct. I also declare that, as required by these rules and conduct, I have fully cited and referenced all material and results that are not original to this work. Name, Last Name: Mert ELVERİCİ Signature: iii ABSTRACT THE SPIDER FAUNA OF AN OLIVE GROVE AND ASSOCIATED SHRUBLANDS IN MUĞLA, MİLAS, KIYIKIŞLACIK WITH NOTES ON THEIR DIVERSITY AND COMPOSITION Elverici, Mert M. Sc., Department of Biology Supervisor: Prof. Dr. Aykut Kence September 2012, 142 pages In the period from May 2010 to August 2011, spider fauna of semi natural olive groves and associated shrub-lands were sampled in Muğla Province, Milas District, Kıyıkışlacık Village at the Western Mediterranean coast of Turkey. Semiquantitative sampling protocols were performed by use of pitfall traps, sweep nets, by active collecting, by sifting of tree litter and beating branches of shrubs. A total of 9967 spider specimens were obtained, from these, 3034 adult specimens were determined up to the lowest taxonomic category, and a detailed checklist is produced for the study area, composed of a total of 220 species belonging to 147 genera and 38 families. 39 species were recorded for the first time in Turkey. Species accumulation curves were used to test the representativeness of field surveys and to perform richness estimates, which were resulted in high completeness values and richness estimations around species for the study area. Results on composition, phenology and distributional patterns of the spider assemblage was also briefly discussed and found to be typical for Mediterranean habitats. Diagnostic photographs for each species in the collection are also provided in the appendix. Keywords: Mediteranean, Fauna, Arachnology iv ÖZ MUĞLA, MİLAS, KIYIKIŞLACIK TA YER ALAN BİR ZEYTİNLİK İLE İLİŞKİLİ ÇALILIK ALANLARIN ÖRÜMCEK FAUNASI VE ÖRÜMCEKLERİN ALANDAKİ ÇEŞİTLİLİĞİ VE KOMPOZİSYONU ÜZERİNE NOTLAR Elverici, Mert Y. Lisans, Biyoloji Bölümü Tez Danışmanı: Prof. Dr. Aykut Kence Eylül 2012, 142 sayfa Türkiye nin Batı Akdeniz kıyısında yer alan, Muğla İli, Milaş İlçesi, Kıyıkışlacık Köyü mevkiinde bulunan yarı doğal zeytinliklerin ve ilişkili çalılık alanların örümcekleri Mayıs 2010 ile Ağustos 2011 tarihleri arasındaki dönemde örneklenmiştir. Örneklemelerde, yarı nicel yöntemler olan düşürme tuzakları ile örnekleme, atrapla örnekleme, elle toplama, zemin döküntülerinin elenmesi ve çalılık dallarının silkilmesi yöntemleri kullanılmıştır. Toplam 9967 örümcek örneği toplanmış; bunlardan ergin olan 3034 örnek mümkün olan en düşük taksonomik kategoriye kadar teşhis edilmiş ve çalışma alanı için, 38 familya, 147 cins ve 220 tür içeren detaylı bir kontrol listesi oluşturulmuştur. Bunlardan 39 tür Türkiye için yeni kayıttır. Çalışmanın temsil gücünü test etmek ve gözlenen zenginlik üzerinden gerçek tür zenginliğini tahmin edebilmek için tür birikim eğrileri kullanılmıştır. Bu eğriler yüksek temsil gücü değerleri ve alan için 250 ile 300 arasında örümcek tür zenginliği tahminleriyle sonuçlanmıştır. Alandaki örümceklerin tür kompozisyonu, fenolojileri ve dağılımları tartışılmış, sonuçların Akdeniz tipi yaşam alanları için tipik olduğu görülmüştür. Çalışmaya ek olarak, alanda gözlenen türler için ayırdedici karakterlerin fotoğrafları sunulmuştur. Anahtar Kelimeler: Akdeniz Bölgesi, Fauna, Araknoloji v To My Mom, Dad and Brother vi ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS There are many people I am indebted, for their support, inspiration and encouragement before and along my thesis studies; and this work would not have been possible without their help. First of all, I am very grateful to my advisor Prof. Dr. Aykut Kence, who has been educating, encouraging and tolerant since the beginning of my graduate studies. Second of all, I would like to thank Kadir Boğaç Kunt for teaching me fundamentals of arachnological research and for his invaluable guidance and assistance since the beginning of my thesis studies. I also would like to thank to Assoc. Prof. Dr. C. Can BİLGİN, Assoc. Prof. Dr. Meral Kence, Assist. Prof. Dr. R. Sulhi Özkütük and Assist. Prof. Dr. Tarık Tanışman for their valuable advices. I am also indebted to Assist. Prof. Dr. Sevgi Sevsay for her academic and moral support. I am also deeply indebted to some honourable colleagues and friends for confirming, guiding and sometimes correcting my species determinations: Assist. Prof. Dr. Rahşen S. Kaya, Dr. Barbara Knoflach-Thaler, Dr. Mykola Kovblyuk, Anna Šestáková, Francesco Ballarin, Dr. Efrat Gavish, Dr. Robert Bosmans and Dr. Gergin Blagoev. I thank to my lab mates and friends as well, who shared precious time and space with me during my thesis studies: Dr. Deniz Özüt, Dr. Tolga Kankılıç, Lütfiye Özdirek, Mustafa Durmuş, Aziz Emre Çobanoğlu and Filiz Yeni as former lab mates; Cansu Özge Tozkar, Okan Can Arslan, Mehmet Ali Döke, Mert Kükrer, Mehmet Kayım, Mustafa Nail Cırık and Eda Gazel Karakaş as present lab mates; Elif Meltem Altunöz, Ekin Keçecioğlu and Gizem Bezirci as cheerful friends making microscopy hours much more bearable; and many more friends whom I could not mention here. I don t know how to express my feelings and appreciation to my family, Emine Güler Elverici, Şükrü Kaya Elverici and Can Elverici, in reply to their ever ending care and support. Finally, I would like to thank all colleagues in arachnological research for contributing our knowledge on these fascinating organisms. vii TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT... iv ÖZ... v ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS... vii TABLE OF CONTENTS... viii LIST OF TABLES... xvii LIST OF FIGURES... xviii CHAPTERS 1. INTRODUCTION General Information on Spider Biology Higher Level Taxonomy of Spiders Spider Morphology Prosoma Opisthosoma Tegument Structure Sexual Organs Female copulation organs Male copulation organs pedipalps Spiders of Turkey Biodiversity in Turkey History of Spider Science in Turkey Studying Mediterranean Spider Assemblages Major Characters of the Mediterranean Habitats Sampling the Mediterranean Spider Assemblages Spider Assemblages of the Semi-Natural Olive Groves in Turkey Purpose of This Study METHODS Study Area Sampling Methods and Periods Pitfall Trap Survey Collection By Means of Collector Labor Opportunist Sampling Sifting Samples Sweep Net Samples viii Beating of Shrubs Sorting and Identification of Specimens Sorting Identification Representativeness of Field Surveys and Richness Estimates Evaluation of the Distribution Pattern RESULTS Species Collected Evaluation of Representativeness and Richness Estimates Overall Sampling Pitfall Trap Sampling Opportunist Sampling Beating Sampling Sweep Netting and Sifting Composition and Phenology of the Spider Assemblage Pitfall Trap Sampling Opportunist Sampling Beating Sampling Distributional Patterns DISCUSSION General Overview Evaluation of Representativeness Composition and Phenology Distibutional Patterns CONCLUSION CHECKLIST Checklist of Spiders of Semi-Natural Olive Groves and Associated Shrub Lands in Muğla, Milas, Kıyıkışlacık Family: Ctenizidae Cyrtocarenum cunicularium Family: Nemesiidae Nemesia sp Brachythele varrialei Family: Filistatidae Filistata insidiatrix Filistata sp ix Pritha nana Family: Sicariidae Loxosceles rufescens Family: Scytodidae Scytodes thoracica Scytodes velutina Family: Pholcidae Holocnemus pluchei Spermophora senoculata Family: Segestriidae Segestria senoculata Segestria sp Family: Dysderidae Dysdera rubus Dysdera sp. I Dysdera sp. II Harpactea kencei Harpactea sturanyi Family: Oonopidae Opopaea punctata Orchestina sp Family: Palpimanidae Palpimanus uncatus Family: Mimetidae Ero flammeola Mimetus laevigatus Family: Eresidae Eresus walckenaeri Family: Oecobiidae Oecobius maculatus Oecobius rhodiensis Family: Uloboridae Hyptiotes sp Uloborus plumipes Uloborus walckenaerius Family: Theridiidae x Anatolidion gentile Argyrodes argyrodes Crustulina scabripes Dipoena sp Enoplognatha afrodite Enoplognatha diversa Enoplognatha gemina Enoplognatha giladensis Enoplognatha macrochelis Enoplognatha thoracica Episinus truncatus Euryopis episinoides kochiura aulica Lasaeola convexa Latrodectus geometricus Neospintharus syriacus Neottiura herbigrada Platnickina nigropunctata Rhomphaea sp Simitidion agaricographum Simitidion lacuna Steatoda maura Steatoda paykulliana Steatoda triangulosa Theridion adrianopoli Theridion cyprusense Theridion genistae Theridion melanurum Theridion mystaceum Family: Linyphiidae Alioranus pastoralis Araeoncus humilis Canariphantes zonatus Erigone dentipalpis Erigonoplus spinifemuralis Mecopisthes nasutus xi Megalepthyphantes nebulosus Meioneta rurestris Microlinyphia pusilla Ostearius melanopygius Palliduphantes byzantinus Pelecopsis laptevi Prinerigone vagans Sintula retroversus Styloctetor romanus Tenuiphantes tenuis Family: Tetragnathidae Tetragnatha sp Family: Araneidae Agalenatea redii Araneus circe Araniella cucurbitina Argiope lobata Cyclosa conica Cyrtophora citricola Gibbaranea bituberculata Hypsosinga sanguinea Larinioides suspicax Mangora acalypha Neoscona adianta Neoscona subfusca Parazygiella montana Zygiella atrica Family: Lycosidae Alopecosa albofasciata Arctosa leopardus Arctosa variana Geolycosa vultuosa Hogna radiata Hogna sp Lycosa praegrandis Pardosa roscai xii Pardosa luctinosa Pardosa vlijmi Pirata piraticus Family: Pisauridae Pisaura orientalis Family: Oxyopidae Oxyopes globifer Oxyopes lineatus Family: Zoropsidae Zoropsis lutea Family: Agelenidae Agelena orientalis Maimuna vestita Malthonica sp Tegenaria paragamiani Family: Cybaeidae Argyroneta aquatica Family: Dictynidae Argenna subnigra Dictyna civica Lathys humilis Lathys stigmatisata Marilynia bicolor Nigma flavescens Nigma puella Scotolathys simplex Family: Amaurobiidae Amaurobius erberi Family: Miturgidae Cheiracanthium mildei Cheiracanthium sp Family: Anyphaenidae Anyphaena sabina Family: Liocranidae Agroeca parva Mesiotelus scopensis xiii Mesiotelus tenuissimus Family: Clubionidae Clubiona genevensis Family: Zodariidae Palaestina expolita Zodarion kossamos Zodarion thoni Family: Prodidomidae Prodidomus amaranthinus Family: Gnaphosidae Anagraphis pallens Berinda ensigera Callilepis cretica Cryptodrassus creticus Drassodes lutescens Drassyllus jubatopalpis Drassyllus praeficus Gnaphosa sp Haplodrassus morosus Haplodrassus signifer Leptodrassus albidus Leptopilos hadjissaranti Leptopilos levantinus Nomisia aussereri Nomisia exornata Nomisia palaestina Nomisia ripariensis Poecilochroa furcata Pterotricha lentiginosa Scotophaeus blackwalli Scotophaeus scutulatus Synaphosus trichopus Trachyzelotes barbatus Zelotes apricorum Zelotes longipes Zelotes mundus xiv Zelotes scrutatus Zelotes solstitialis Zelotes tenuis Zelotes zin Family: selenopidae Selenops radiatus Family: Sparassidae Eusparassus walckenaeri Micrommata ligurina Family: Philodromidae Philodromus bistigma Philodromus cespitum Philodromus pulchellus Philodromus rufus Philodromus sp Thanatus atratus Thanatus imbecillus Family: Thomisidae Heriaeus simoni Runcinia grammica Synema globosum Synema plorator Thomisus onustus Tmarus piochardi Xysticus caperatus Xysticus cor Xysticus cribratus Xysticus tenebrosus Xysticus thessalicus Xysticus tristrami Xysticus sp Family: Salticidae Aelurillus v-insignitus Chalcoscirtus infimus Cyrba algerina Euophrys rufibarbis xv Evarcha jucunda Habrocestum papilionaceum Heliophanus equester Heliophanus kochii Heliophanus tribulosus Heliophanus melinus Leptorchestes berolinensis Menemerus semilimbatus Menemerus taeniatus Mogrus neglectus Pellenes diagonalis Pellenes flavipalpis Philaeus chrysops Phlegra lineata Phlegra sp Plexippoides gestroi Pseudeuophrys obsoleta Pseudicius picaceus Salticus noordami Salticus propinquus Sibianor aurocinctus Synageles dalmaticus Thyene imperialis REFERENCES APPENDIX A. Figures Presenting Photographs of Diagnostic Characters for Spider Species Collected in this Study xvi LIST OF TABLES Table 1. List of determined taxa, previously known from Turkey Table 2. List of taxa recorded for the first time in Turkey Table 3. Descriptive data summarized for overall sampling Table 4. Descriptive data summarized for different sampling methods Table 5. List of taxa sampled by pitfall traps Table 6. List of taxa sampled by opportunist collection Table 7. List of taxa sampled by beating sampling Table 8. List of species widespread in the west Palearctic Table 9. List of species widespread in the Mediterranean and Europe Table 10. List of species with distributions mostly limited in the Mediterranean basin Table 11. List of species with eastern Mediterranean distribution Table 12. List of species with European distribution Table 13. List of species with wide distribution ranges xvii LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1. Figure indicating main body parts of spiders...3 Figure 2. Graphs comparing numbers of species of spiders and some other terrestrial groups between Turkey and Europe...7 Figure 3. Graphs displaying distribution of all known publications in the literature on Turkish spiders along years...9 Figure 4. Image of an olive grove with adjacent shrub lands in the study area Figure 5. A closer look to an olive grove in the study area Figure 6. Randomized accumulation curves for overall samples Figure 7. Randomized accumulation curves for pitfall samples Figure 8. Randomized accumulation curves for opportunistic samples Figure 9. Randomized accumulation curves for beating samples Figure 10. Annual richness of different spider families acquired from pitfall traps Figure 11. Annual abundances of the most common spider families acquired from pitfall traps31 Figure 12. Monthly representation of adults and juveniles in pitfall traps Figure 13. Variation of percent representation of species richness in pitfall trap samples Figure 14. Monthly percent representation of families in pitfall trap samples Figure 15. Annual richness of spider families included in opportunistic collection samples Figure 16. Annual abundances of the commonest spider families in opportunist collection samples Figure 17. Monthly representation of adults and juveniles in opportunist collection samples Figure 18. Variation of percent representation of species richness in standardized samples of opportunist collection Figure 19. Annual richness of spider families included in beating samples Figure 20. Annual abundances of the commonest spider families in beating samples Figure 21. Monthly representation of adults and juveniles in beating samples Figure 22. Variation of percent representation of species richness in beating samples Figure 23. Representation of 6 major distributional categories for 191 identified species Figure 24. Representation of chorological groups under widespread category Figure A.1. Ctenizidae, Nemesiidae, Filistatidae, Sicariidae, Scytodidae Figure A.2. Pholcidae. Segestridae. Dysderidae. Oonopidae. Palpimanidae Figure A.3. Mimetidae, Eresidae,Oecobiidae, Uloboridae xviii Figure A.4. Theridiidae Figure A.5. Theridiidae Figure A.6. Theridiidae Figure A.7. Theridiidae, Linyphiidae Figure A.8. Linyphiidae, Tetragnathidae Figure A.9. Araneidae Figure A.10. Lycosidae Figure A.11. Lycosidae Figure A.12. Pisauridae, Oxyopidae, Zoropsidae, Agelenidae. Cybaeidae Figure A.13. Dictynidae Figure A.14. Amaurobiidae, Miturgidae, Anyphaenidae, Liocranidae, Clubionidae, Zodariidae, Prodidomidae Figure A.15. Gnaphosidae Figure A.16. Gnaphosidae Figure A.17. Gnaphosidae Figure A.18. Selenopidae, Sparassidae, Philodromidae Figure A.19. Thomisidae Figure A.20. Salticidae Figure A.21. Salticidae xix CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Spiders (Arachnida, Araneae) have inhabited Earth for 400 million years (Jocqué et al., 2006) and now are distributed all over the world and have occupied almost all terrestrial environments (Foelix, 2011). They are ubiquitous predators as generalist feeders mainly attacking insects (Wise, 1995) and therefore been assumed as playing a major role in suppressing insect pest populations (Maloney et al., 2003) and proposed as model terrestrial predators for ecological studies (Wise, 1995). Because of some species venomous to man, some countries have severe problems with spiders as pests as well; and even if they pose no threat, many people are prone to a substantial phobia in their presence (Jocqué et al., 2006). Still, spiders inspire people from a variety of interests, from hobbyists to researchers of many disciplines, all around the world. Although spiders have been such a center of interest, our current knowledge on their biology is far from being complete. Even faunistic studies are not complete for most of the world, only very limited areas have been comprehensively studied (Jocqué et al., 2006). As a matter of fact, knowledge on spider fauna of Turkey is imperfect too. There have been efforts to constitute checklists of Turkish spider fauna; and the number is increasing every year with new records of described species and descriptions of species new to science; but still it is very unclear that how many new species or new records are waiting to be discovered in Turkey. 1 1.1. General Information on Spider Biology General information on biology of spiders is provided here, which is thought to be necessary to implement a general understanding on spider science. Recent higher level taxonomy is given and morphology of spiders is very briefly described by a special focus on taxonomically important structures Higher Level Taxonomy of Spiders Order Araneae is examined under three suborders: Mesothelae, Mygalomorphae and Araneomorphae. The Mesothelae is proposed as the phylogenetically oldest spiders for exhibiting primitive characters. Mygalomorphae is distinct with their chelicerae lying parallel to each other; and often with reduced spinnerets. Araneomorphae includes more than 90 % of all known spiders (Foelix, 2011). As a result of extraordinary rich diversity of spiders under this suborder, high level taxonomy of Araneomorphae is still quite unclear (Foelix, 2011). Currently there are recognized species worldwide, grouped under 111 families (Platnick, 2012). However the complete spider fauna is only known for limited areas on the globe; while for most of the world knowledge remains imperfect (Jocqué et al., 2006) Spider Morphology A typical spider displays two major body parts: the prosoma and the opisthosoma. These two body parts are connected by a structure called pedicel. See Figure 1 for illustrations of main parts Prosoma Head and thoracic part are fused,
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