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The Recording Career of Vasílis Tsitsánis ( ) An Analysis of his Music and the Problems of Research into Greek Popular Music Nikolaos Ordoulidis Submitted in accordance with the requirements for

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The Recording Career of Vasílis Tsitsánis ( ) An Analysis of his Music and the Problems of Research into Greek Popular Music Nikolaos Ordoulidis Submitted in accordance with the requirements for the degree of PhD The University of Leeds School of Music August, 2012 ii The candidate confirms that the work submitted is his own and that appropriate credit has been given where reference has been made to the work of others. This copy has been supplied on the understanding that it is copyright material and that no quotation from the thesis may be published without proper acknowledgement The University of Leeds - Nikolaos Ordoulidis iii To music that lives forever iv Acknowledgements This study would not have been accomplished without the help and support of the Tsitsánis family, for they kindly opened up their archive to me, and they also supported economically my research. I ought a lot to Kóstas and Victoria Tsitsánis. Their support and encouragement was inspiring and moving, for they stood next to me since the very beginning of this project. I can say, and I can be sure about that, that Kóstas stood next to me as a father and believed in me and my purposes. I will never forget his attitude. I should express my great gratitude to Charles Howard for giving me copies and letting me study his archive. His contribution to my research was more than catalytic. I am sure that I made a very good friend for ever. Many thanks to my friends-brothers for everything: Thános and Έvi, Sótia Iliádhou, Dhimítris Kális, Thanásis Miliókas, Ghiórghos Bakális and Anas Al-Fattal. Each one of them, with their own way, helped me in fulfilling my aims. I owe a lot to my family for supporting psychologically and physically my purpose, as they have ever been doing so. Ghiórgho, Mélpo and Έli, many thanks from my heart. I should thank my inspiring professors and supervisors, Kevin Dawe and Derek Scott. They were more than teachers to me. Many friend-musicians contributed in their own way in the completion of this project. The discussions and advice of these people were constructive. Many thanks to Dhimítris Sfíngos, Sákis Kontonikólas, Stávros Kromídhas, Vasílis Tsouflídhis, Mihális Kalaitzís, Dhimítris Tihálas, Alékos Kizirídhis, Dhimítris Mistakídhis, Leftéris Pávlou, Strátos Samiótis, Níkos Strouthópoulos, Ghiórghos Kontoghiánis, Manólis Pápos, Kóstas Papadhópoulos, Evangelía Margharóni and George Dalaras. I should thank the following for giving me information from their archives: Theófilos Anastasíou, Stélios Karaghiórghos and the Tsitsánis Museum, Sotíris Likourópoulos and AEPI, Háris Tsakmatsián and EMI, Bámbis Papadhimitríou and Lyra-Legend, Napoleon Saripanídhis, Frankískos Kouteliéris and Kóstas Matsoúkas. Many thanks to Kóstas Vlisídhis for the advices as well as for giving me copies of several rare texts from his archive. His willingness to help was moving. Many thanks to Strátos Samiótis, Mihális Kalaitzís, Ed Uribe and David v Courtney for the consultation lessons I had with them. Many thanks to the Association of Friends of Music of Imathía, to Tsitsánis Museum, to ALP Business Solutions SA and to my godfather Lámbis Karipídhis for supporting economically my research. I should express my gratitude to my cousin Níkos Keramídhis for constructing the website s coding of the Tsitsánis Electronic Database, and to Andónis Kasítas for giving me permission to reprint two photographs from his book. Finally, I should also thank Ghianákis Perisorátis and Pétra Karaharísi. Without their efforts, I would have not become wise enough to finish this study. May God pay back my debt to them. vi Abstract There is a clear and abundant evidence to suggest that Vasílis Tsitsánis ( ) was a well known songwriter, bouzouki virtuoso, lyricist and singer both in Greece and abroad. The evaluation of his work reveals that he remains a key figure in the history of Greek popular music. Vasílis Tsitsánis as musician and composer was an innovator, his musical roots in rembétiko being transformed through his creative effort is said to have led to the development and establishment of the modern laikó style. An analysis of Vasílis Tsitsánis's commercial recordings does indeed reveal aspects of his unique contribution as both performer and composer. However, the analysis also reveals the development of a style that was to have a major impact on the history of Greek popular music. Situating Tsitsánis's work in the context of broader social and political developments in Greece, this thesis is the first in-depth analysis of Tsitsánis's musical style with a focus on songs found on his commercial recordings, from 1936 to Research on the recording career of Vasílis Tsitsánis not only reveals information regarding his own music, which is in itself important alone given the contribution he is said to have made by rembétiko scholars, it also sheds light on more general issues regarding the Greek popular style that have been previously neglected. vii Table of Contents Acknowledgements... iv Abstract... vi Table of Contents... vii List of Tables... x List of Figures... xi Notes on Transliteration... xvi Tsitsánis Electronic Database Access... xviii Chapter 1: Aims of This Thesis... 2 Rationale and Methodology... 7 Author s Background... 8 The Educational System in Greece Outline of This Thesis Biographical, Historical and Cultural Background The Backbone: Tsitsánis Electronic Database Chapter 2: Popular Musicology and Rebetology Popular Musicology In Need of a Term A Changing Musical Style Musical Analysis Rebetology Academic and Non-academic Treatment of Rembétiko Key Studies in Rebetology Chapter 3: The World of Historical Recordings Source Criticism: Some Problems Dating the Recordings Mysteries around the Sources in Greece Historical Recordings and Recording Technology A Limitless Range of Sources Tsitsánis s Recording Career: Basic Statistics : a Key Year for Laikó Song... 95 viii Chapter 4: Introduction to the Greek Laikó Modes and Harmony The Greek Popular Modes: the Root of a Long-Lasting Problem The Makam Tradition The Byzantine Tradition The Western Tradition The Special Role of the Rāga System Other Musical Styles that Affected the Modes Chapter 5: Modes and Harmony in the Songs of Vasílis Tsitsánis: Selected Examples Minóre: the Problem of a Vague Term Dhrómos Matzóre [Μαηδóξε Major] Dhrómos Hitzáz [Υηηδάδ Hicâz] Dhrómos Hitzaskiár [Υηηδαζθηάξ Hicâzkâr] Dhrómos Ousák [Οπζάθ - Uşşak] Dhrómi Houzám and Segiáh [Υνπδάκ Hüzzâm and εγθηάρ Segâh] Statistics: Number of Recordings by Dhrómos Chapter 6: Greek Laikó Rhythms in the Songs of Vasílis Tsitsánis: Presentation and Analysis from Selected Examples General Comments on the Rhythmic Patterns Εετκπέθηθν [Zeimbékiko (Turkish: Zeybek)] Παιηό Εετκπέθηθν [palió = old zeimbékiko] Καηλνύξην Εετκπέθηθν [kenoúrio = new zeimbékiko] Μπεξδεκέλν Εετκπέθηθν [berdheméno = mixed zeimbékiko] Καξζηιακάο [karsilamás] Υαζάπηθν [hasápiko = the butchers dance] Σζηθηεηέιη [tsiftetéli = belly dance (Çiftetelli)] and Μπνιέξν (αλαηνιίηηθν; νξηεληάι) [bolero (anatolítiko = oriental)] Greek Rural-Traditional Rhythms Καιακαηηαλόο [kalamatianós (Kalamáta = city in Peloponnesus) Μπάινο [bálos] πξηόο [sirtós = drawn along] The Latin American Influence ix Chapter 7: The Greek Laikó Rhythms in Vasílis Tsitsánis s Work: Comments and Statistics Chapter 8: Conclusions Re-evaluation of Tsitsánis s Significance The Lyrics The Re-determination of the Role of the Bouzouki The Shift towards the West The Foundations for the Future Evolution Within Popular Music Studies in Greece: Laikology at its Birth The Labour Market What Comes Next Bibliography Discography Personal Archives in.wav or.mp3 Format Compact Discs Albums Downloaded from the Internet Miscellaneous Downloaded from the Internet Long Play (33 rpm) List of Abbreviations Appendix A Tsitsánis Chronology of Events Index x List of Tables Table 1.1: Columns found in the Tsitsánis Electronic Database (T.E.D.) Table 3.1: The columns in Maniátis (2006) Table 3.2: Genre definition errors in Maniátis (2006) Table 3.3: Rhythms definition errors in Maniátis (1994 and 2006) Table 3.4: Publications with errors in their songs catalogues Table 3.5: Examples of Tsitsánis s songs ending with the fade-out technique Table 3.6: Examples of Tsitsánis s songs with the panning technique Table 3.7: Examples of Tsitsánis s songs with the reverb effect Table 3.8: Examples of Tsitsánis s songs with an electric bouzouki Table 3.9: Number of recordings by other songwriters in Table 4.1: The values of the accidentals in makams Table 5.1: Number of Tsitsánis s recordings by dhrómos Table 6.1: Changes found in contemporary recordings of zeimbékiko songs (Tsitsánis) Table 6.2: Examples of Tsitsánis s songs in mixed zeimbékiko Table 6.3: Examples that show the range of tempi noted in karsilamás (Tsitsánis) Table 7.1: Number of Tsitsánis s recordings by rhythm Table 7.2: Examples of songs with mixed rhythms within Tsitsánis s recordings Table 7.3: Number of Tsitsánis s recordings by rhythm and year (A) Table 7.4: Number of Tsitsánis s recordings by rhythm and year (B) Table 7.5: Interesting cases of taxímia in the songs of Tsitsánis Table 7.6: Dominant rhythms in each recording year for Tsitsánis songs Table 7.7: Number of Tsitsánis s recordings by singer and year (A) Table 7.8: Number of Tsitsánis s recordings by singer and year (B) Table 7.9: Number of Tsitsánis s recordings by singer and rhythm (A) Table 7.10: Number of Tsitsánis s recordings by singer and rhythm (B) Table 7.11: Examples of heavy zeimbékiko songs (Tsitsánis) Table 7.12: Examples of light songs in hasápiko (Tsitsánis) Table 8.1: Tsitsánis s songs connected to political circumstances Table 8.2: The wages of teachers at public schools in Greece xi List of Figures Figure 1.1: Chart sales of Vasílis Tsitsánis (1940)... 3 Figure 1.2: Chart sales of Vasílis Tsitsánis (1967)... 4 Figure 1.3: Chart sales of Vasílis Tsitsánis (1978)... 5 Figure 1.4: Map of Greece and the city of Tríkala Figure 2.1: Photograph where Evangelía Margharóni can be seen (first from right; Tsitsánis is first from left; photograph given by Kóstas Tsitsánis) Figure 2.2: Vamvakáris's bust in Síros (the author, July 2011) Figure 3.1: Se toúto to palióspito label (Tsitsánis) Figure 3.2: To palióspito label (Tsitsánis) Figure 3.3: Label of the song methisménos tha rtho apópse (Tsitsánis) Figure 3.4: Label of the song afoú dhen m aghapoúses (Tsitsánis) Figure 3.5: A record label where the three types of codes are visible Figure 3.6: Charles Howard's and Ghiórghos Ghramatikós s notes Figure 3.7: A page from the logistics books of Columbia Figure 3.8: A record label where the '-3' type of matrix code is visible Figure 3.9: A page from the list of EMI of Greece Figure 3.10: Hiótis with his equipment (1) Figure 3.11: Hiótis with his equipment (2) Figure 3.12: Tsitsánis with his electric bouzouki (1) Figure 3.13: Tsitsánis with his electric bouzouki (2) Figure 3.14: Tsitsánis with his electric bouzouki (3) Figure 3.15: Tsitsánis with his electric bouzouki (4) Figure 3.16: Number of Tsitsánis s recordings by year Figure 4.1: Dhrómos Ousák; makam Kürdî; makam Uşşâk; dhrómos Kiourdí; makam Karcığar Figure 4.2: Introduction of min kánis ónira trelá Figure 4.3: Supposed scale of the mode of min kánis ónira trelá Figure 4.4: Idioms of the Ousák dhrómos Figure 4.5: Dhrómos Kiourdí as given by Paghiátis (1992: 57) Figure 4.6: Dhrómos Kiourdí as given by Nikolópoulos (n.d.: 34) Figure 4.7: I panaghiá transcription using the Byzantine notation (song by Apóstolos Kaldháras) xii Figure 4.8: Soft diatonic scale Figure 4.9: Harsh diatonic scale Figure 4.10: The construction of the intervals in the soft and harsh diatonic scales. 115 Figure 4.11: The construction of the two scales (soft and harsh diatonic) Figure 4.12: The Rast idiom of the dhrómi Ousák and Hitzáz Figure 4.13: Dhrómos Hitzáz Figure 4.14: Cadences and dominant notes with accompanying chords in Ousák dhrómos Figure 4.15: Vasílis Tsitsánis's guitar (the author, February 2012) Figure 4.16: Dhrómos Hitzaskiár and makam Hicâzkâr Figure 4.17: Example of the falsification of Hitzaskiár dhrómos (Tsitsánis song: se zilévo se ponó CD Track 1) Figure 4.18: Dhrómos Segiáh and makam Segâh Figure 4.19: Example of the falsification of Segiáh dhrómos (Tsitsánis song: i sklirókardhi CD Track 2) Figure 4.20: Arghosvínis móni transcription CD Track 3 (Tsitsánis) Figure 5.1: Minóre Natural, Minóre Armonikó, Niavénd and a popular combination Figure 5.2: Dhrómos Minóre Armonikó and makam Nihâvend Figure 5.3: Dhrómos Niavénd and makam Neveser Figure 5.4: Makams Nihâvend, Hüseynî and Bûselik Figure 5.5: Ti thélis apó ména transcription CD Track 4 (Tsitsánis) Figure 5.6: Filótimo dhen éhis piá transcription CD Track 5 (Tsitsánis) Figure 5.7: Thélo na íne kiriakí transcription CD Track 6 (Tsitsánis) Figure 5.8: Matsaránga transcription CD Track 7 (Tsitsánis) Figure 5.9: To xefándoma transcription CD Track 8 (Tsitsánis) Figure 5.10: Ghiá miá ghinéka háthika transcription CD Track 9 (Tsitsánis) Figure 5.11: The construction of dhrómi Hitzáz and Minóre Armonikó Figure 5.12: Ap ti mána moú dhioghménos transcription CD Track 10 (Tsitsánis) Figure 5.13: Esí poú me xemiálises transcription CD Track 11 (Tsitsánis) Figure 5.14: Mondérnes ke mangítises athinéises transcription CD Track 12 (Tsitsánis) xiii Figure 5.15: Chords used in Minóre Natural, Minóre Armonikó and Niavénd Figure 5.16: Dhrómos Matzóre, dhrómos Rast, makam Rast Figure 5.17: O takatzífas transcription CD Track 13 (Tsitsánis) Figure 5.18: Fína tha tin pernáme transcription CD Track 14 (Tsitsánis) Figure 5.19: M' énan pikró anastenaghmó transcription CD Track 15 (Tsitsánis) 150 Figure 5.20: Tsarkítsa transcription CD Track 16 (Tsitsánis) Figure 5.21: Akóma ke stin kólasi transcription CD Track 17 (Tsitsánis) Figure 5.22: O mángas káni dhió dhouliés transcription CD Track 18 (Tsitsánis) 153 Figure 5.23: Miá levéndisa kopéla transcription CD Track 19 (Tsitsánis) Figure 5.24: Vráse ti roúmba ta souíng transcription CD Track 20 (Tsitsánis) Figure 5.25: Vasílis Tsitsánis and Mikis Theodorakis (photograph given by Kóstas Tsitsánis) Figure 5.26: Chords used in dhrómos Matzóre Figure 5.27: Dhrómos Hitzáz and makam Hicâz Figure 5.28: The matzóre pentachord idiom in dhrómos Hitzáz Figure 5.29: O ouranós éhi mavrísi transcription CD Track 21 (Tsitsánis) Figure 5.30: Proxenévoun to stamáti transcription CD Track 22 (Tsitsánis) Figure 5.31: O nikokíris transcription CD Track 23 (Tsitsánis) Figure 5.32: Maharaní transcription CD Track 24 (Tsitsánis) Figure 5.33: Chords used in dhrómos Hitzáz Figure 5.34: Dhrómos Hitzaskiár and makam Hicâzkâr Figure 5.35: Dhrómos Pireótikos and makam Zengüleli Sûznak Figure 5.36: Tha vro miá áli me kardhiá transcription CD Track 25 (Tsitsánis) Figure 5.37: Pikrós (tha) íne o pónos moú transcription CD Track 26 (Tsitsánis) 163 Figure 5.38: Ghiá séna xenihtó transcription CD Track 27 (Tsitsánis) Figure 5.39: Mavromáta transcription CD Track 28 (Tsitsánis) Figure 5.40: To 'ho ríxi sto xeníhti transcription CD Track 29 (Tsitsánis) Figure 5.41: Chords used in dhrómos Hitzaskiár Figure 5.42: Melahriní kopéla transcription CD Track 30 (Tsitsánis) Figure 5.43: Matzóre pentachord in Ousák Figure 5.44: Ala toúrka hórepse moú transcription CD Track 31 (Tsitsánis) Figure 5.45: Ti ki an zoúsame mazí transcription CD Track 32 (Tsitsánis) Figure 5.46: Periplanómeni zoí transcription CD Track 33 (Tsitsánis) xiv Figure 5.47: Chords used in dhrómos Ousák Figure 5.48: Dhrómos Houzám and makam Hüzzâm Figure 5.49: Dhrómos Souzinák and makam Sûzinâk Figure 5.50: Chords in dhrómi Houzám, Segiáh and Souzinák Figure 5.51: Number of Tsitsánis s recordings by dhrómos Figure 6.1: Old zeimbékiko rhythmic pattern Figure 6.2: Guitar bass-line technique in old zeimbékiko Figure 6.3: Guitar cadence technique in old zeimbékiko Figure 6.4: Bass technique of the music of the cafés (old zeimbékiko) Figure 6.5: Bass technique in new zeimbékiko type Figure 6.6: The development of tempo in old zeimbékiko (Tsitsánis s recordings). 187 Figure 6.7: Number of Tsitsánis s recordings in old zeimbékiko by year Figure 6.8: Comparison between the new zeimbékiko and the tsiftetéli rhythms Figure 6.9: New zeimbékiko rhythmic pattern Figure 6.10: The development of tempo in new zeimbékiko (Tsitsánis s recordings) Figure 6.11: Number of Tsitsánis s recordings by year in new zeimbékiko Figure 6.12: Ime aghóri ke dhen káni rhythmic development (Tsitsánis song) Figure 6.13: Mixed zeimbékiko-2 rhythmic pattern Figure 6.14: Number of Tsitsánis s recordings by year in mixed zeimbékiko Figure 6.15: Number of Tsitsánis s recordings in all zeimbékiko types Figure 6.16: Rare performance technique of the percussionist in miá levéndisa kopéla (Tsitsánis) Figure 6.17: Karsilamás rhythmic pattern Figure 6.18: Hasápiko rhythmic pattern Figure 6.19: Label of the song i ghinéka ótan fíghi (Tsitsánis) Figure 6.20: The development of tempo in hasápiko (Tsitsánis s recordings) Figure 6.21: Innovative performance technique of the hasápiko by Kóstas Karípis (Tsitsánis song: dhen me stefanónese CD Track 34) Figure 6.22: Blues-style hasápiko rhythmic pattern Figure 6.23: Tsiftetéli rhythmic pattern Figure 6.24: Bolero rhythmic pattern Figure 6.25: Kalamatianós rhythmic pattern xv Figure 6.26: Reversed kalamatianós rhythmic pattern Figure 6.27: Bálos rhythmic pattern Figure 6.28: Sirtós rhythmic pattern Figure 6.29: Laikized rumba rhythmic pattern Figure 6.30: Laikized bayo rhythmic pattern Figure 6.31: Laikized guaracha rhythmic pattern Figure 8.1: Vasílis Tsitsánis during work Figure 8.2: Vasílis Tsitsánis and Ghrighóris Bithikótsis (in the middle; photograph given by Kóstas Tsitsánis) xvi Notes on Transliteration Although I used the transliteration system suggested in the style sheet of the journal of the Modern Greek Studies Association (JMSGS), 1 I have made some changes owing to the fact that I located some transliteration problems in this particular style which are explained here. I should underline that the point of my transliteration is the pronunciation and not the orthography/spelling of the words, something that seems to be impossible for any language. However, we can succeed in being as close to a word s pronunciation in its original language as possible. This can be achieved by using correctly the available alphabet of the language into which it is being transliterated, or by figuring out new ways, like the usage of the accent and by combining some letters. A comparison between JMSGS transliteration system with mine follows (Table i). 2 1 See for the Modern Greek Studies Association and p. 11 for the transliteration rules. 2 Table i contains only the differences between JMSGS system and mine. xvii Greek letter English letter (as in the JMGS) Examples T.W.T.B.T.G. 3 English letter (as in this thesis) Γ, γ G, g (before a,o,u and gámos, megálos γθάκνο, κεγθάινο 4 Gh, gh 5 consonants) Y, y (before i,e) yínete, yéros γίλεηαη, γέξνο 6 Γ, δ D, d drómos, pódi ληξόκνο, πόληη Dh, dh 7 Υ, ρ Ch, ch (if phoneme has scholío, chróma ζθνιείν, 8 θξώκα H, h long been known in English this way and after s) H, h (otherwise) ého, háno έρσ, ράλσ Γρ, γρ Nk
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