The management of fungicide resistance in cereals in Finland. Ulla Heinonen, Marja Jalli, Sanni Junnila, Taina Mäkinen (ed.) - PDF

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109 The management of fungicide resistance in cereals in Finland Ulla Heinonen, Marja Jalli, Sanni Junnila, Taina Mäkinen (ed.) 109 The management of fungicide resistance in cereals in Finland Ulla Heinonen,

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109 The management of fungicide resistance in cereals in Finland Ulla Heinonen, Marja Jalli, Sanni Junnila, Taina Mäkinen (ed.) 109 The management of fungicide resistance in cereals in Finland Ulla Heinonen, Marja Jalli, Sanni Junnila, Taina Mäkinen (ed.) This report is one of the publications produced as part of the project Reducing environmental risks in the use of plant protection products in Northern Europe (PesticideLife, ). This deliverable product was originally named in the project plan as Strategy on disease resistance management in IPM. PesticideLife project is co-funded by EU LIFE+ programme and it is coordinated by MTT Agrifood Research Finland. Other partners are Finnish Safety and Chemicals Agency (Tukes) and Nylands Svenska Lantbrukssällskap (NSL). Project partners of PesticideLife: ISBN ISSN Copyright: MTT Authors: Ulla Heinonen, Marja Jalli, Sanni Junnila, Taina Mäkinen (ed.) Distribution and sale: MTT, Jokioinen Printing year: 2013 Cover picture: Aino-Maija Alanko Fungisidiresistenssin hallinta viljoilla Suomessa Ulla Heinonen, Marja Jalli, Sanni Junnila, Taina Mäkinen (toim.) MTT Maa- ja elintarviketalouden tutkimuskeskus, Kasvintuotannon tutkimus, Laboratorium, Jokioinen, Tiivistelmä Kasvitaudinaiheuttajat voivat muuntua kestäviksi kasvitautien torjunta-aineita vastaan. Tätä kutsutaan fungisidiresistenssiksi. Tilanne kehittyy yksittäisen tai samalla tavalla taudinaiheuttajaan vaikuttavan usean fungisidin pitkäaikaisesta ja jatkuvasta käytöstä. Fungisidiresistenssin aiheuttavat yksi tai useammat geneettiset muutokset taudinaiheuttajapopulaatiossa. Muutokset periytyvät ja ovat osa taudinaiheuttajan evoluutiota. Toistaiseksi Suomessa ei ole viljoilla raportoitu markkinoilla olevien fungisidien tehon heikkenemistä. Kuitenkin yksittäisten taudinaiheuttajakantojen testaus on osoittanut, että Suomessa esiintyy kestäviä kantoja ohran verkkolaikusta sekä vehnän piste-, rusko- ja harmaalaikusta. Tehokkaimmat keinot estää fungisidiresistenssiä ovat fungisidien tarpeenmukainen käyttö sekä taudinaiheuttajapopulaatiossa tapahtuvan valikoitumisen estäminen. Fungisidien käytön vähentäminen on IPM-viljelyn ja fungisidiresistenssihallinnan yhteinen tavoite. Fungisidin valinnassa tulee huomioida useat resistenssin kehittymiseen vaikuttavat tekijät. Viljelijöiden, neuvontajärjestön, kasvinsuojelualan yritysten sekä tutkimuksen tiivis yhteistyö mahdollistaa fungisidiresistenssin ehkäisemiseksi tarvittavan tiedon hankinnan ja jakamisen. Fungisidiresistenssin hallinta turvaa fungisidien pitkäaikaisen tehon. Resistenssin ehkäisymenetelmät vaihtelevat fungisidiryhmien, taudinaiheuttajien ja kasvilajien välillä. Kaikki ennakoivat toimet, jotka vähentävät fungisidien käyttöä, ovat osa resistenssin hallintaa. Resistenssin muodostumisen ehkäisyssä yhdistyvät monipuoliset kasvinsuojelumenetelmät sekä tarpeenmukainen, useaan tehoaineeseen perustuva kemiallinen torjunta. Avainsanat: integroitu kasvinsuojelu, IPM, kasvitaudit, kasvinsuojeluaineet, torjunta-aineresistenssi, viljakasvit MTT REPORT 109 3 The management of fungicide resistance in cereals in Finland Ulla Heinonen, Marja Jalli, Sanni Junnila, Taina Mäkinen (ed.) MTT Agrifood Research, Plant Production Research, Laboratorium, FI Jokioinen Abstract Fungicide resistance means that the fungicide loses its efficacy on the target pathogen. This situation develops as a response to the continuous use of the same fungicide or continuous use of another fungicide which is related to it through a common mechanism of antifungal action. Fungicide resistance is a result from one or many changes in the genetic construction of the target pathogen population. Mutations are heritable and one part of the pathogens evolution. So far, all fungicides are efficient at targeting diseases and there are no reported efficacy losses in Finland. However, the testing of single isolates has shown resistant mutations against net blotch in barley and glume blotch, tan spot and septoria leaf spot in wheat. The most efficient way to avoid the development of fungicide resistance is to use fungicides only for need and to avoid the selection in pathogen populations. Reducing the use of the fungicides is a joint target for IPM and fungicide resistance management. When selecting the fungicide product, several factors should be taken into account to avoid fungicide resistance. Good co-operation with farmers and research, the advisory service and the pesticide companies is the base to increase and distribute the knowledge on the fungicide resistance management tools. The target of resistance management strategies is the long-term conservation of fungicide effectiveness. Strategies vary for the different fungicide groups, pathogens and the crop. Every action which leads to avoidance of the fungicide spray is part of fungicide resistance management. Resistance management should integrate preventative cultural practices and optimum fungicide use. Keywords: integrated pest management, IPM, plant diseases, pesticides, fungicide resistance, cereals 4 MTT REPORT 109 Hantering av fungicidresistens hos spannmål i Finland Ulla Heinonen, Marja Jalli, Sanni Junnila, Taina Mäkinen (ed.) MTT Växtproductionsforskning, Laboratorium, FI Jockis, Abstrakt Sjukdomsalstrare hos växter kan bli resistenta mot växtskyddsmedel. Detta kallas fungicidresistens. Denna situation uppstår genom långvarig och fortlöpande användning av en enskild fungicid eller flera fungicider som påverkar sjukdomsalstraren på samma sätt. Fungicidresistens orsakas av en eller flera genetiska förändringar i sjukdomsalstrarpopulationen. Förändringarna nedärvs och är en del av sjukdomsalstrarens evolution. Tills vidare har man inte rapporterat att effekten av fungicider som finns på marknaden skulle ha försvagats i Finland. Tester av enstaka sjukdomsalstrarstammar har visat att det i Finland förekommer resistenta stammar av kornets bladfläcksjuka och vetets blad-, brun- och gråfläcksjuka. De effektivaste sätten att förebygga fungicidresistens är att använda fungicider endast vid behov samt att förhindra att det sker urval i sjukdomsalstrarpopulationen. Minskad användning av fungicider är ett gemensamt mål för IPM-odling och hantering av fungicidresistens. Vid val av fungicid ska flera olika faktorer som påverkar utvecklingen av resistens beaktas. Ett intensivt samarbete mellan odlarna, rådgivningsorganisationen, företagen inom växtskyddsbranschen och forskningen gör det möjligt att skaffa och distribuera information som behövs för att förebygga fungicidresistens. Hantering av fungicidresistens tryggar att fungiciderna har en långvarig effekt. Metoderna för förebyggande av resistens varierar beroende på fungicidgrupp, sjukdomsalstrare och växtart. Alla förebyggande åtgärder som minskar användningen av fungicider är en del av hanteringen av resistens. I arbetet för att förebygga uppkomsten av resistens kombineras mångsidiga växtskyddsmetoder samt kemisk bekämpning som bygger på behov och på flera effektiva ämnen. Nyckelord: integrerad växtskydd, IPM, växtsjukdomar, växtskyddsmedel, fungicidresistens, sädesväxter MTT REPORT 109 5 Contents 1 Introduction Cereal cultivation in Finland Climatic conditions Cereal production Cultivation systems Use of plant protection products Integrated pest management, IPM Fungicide resistance Resistance as part of evolution Different types of resistance Management of fungicide resistance in Finland Preventing cereal leaf diseases Fungicide use patterns Role of research in the management of fungicide resistance References Appendices MTT REPORT 109 1 Introduction Finland is the most northerly country with cereal production. Because of its northern location, Finland has a short growing season but a lot of daylight in summertime. Half of the Finnish agricultural land area is in cereal production and the most common cereal crops are barley and oats. The cereal yield levels are lower than in southern Europe. The use of the fungicides in cereal production is quite common in Finland: three-quarters of all active farmers uses fungicides at least in some fields every year. Barley and spring wheat are the usual targets for the fungicide sprays. It is rather common to spray the fungicides together with herbicide sprayings and again later in the growing season. In terms of fungicide resistance management, this kind of strategy makes it more challenging. In fungicides, there are five different modes of action in the Finnish market. It is very important to ensure the effectiveness of the products in the market by using them wisely. This is only possible through good co-operation with farmers and research, the advisory service and the pesticide companies. The main target is to increase farmers knowledge of fungicide resistance and help them to handle diverse plant protection tools. So far, all fungicides are efficient at targeting diseases and there are no reported efficacy losses in Finland. However, the testing of single isolates has shown resistant mutations against net blotch, glume blotch, tan spot and septoria leaf spot. Even if the fungicides are effective at the field level, the incidence of resistant isolates may increase if farmers do not take fungicide resistance management into account. The Finnish integrated pest management approach is based on balanced plant protection guidelines: prevention, monitoring and identification, determination of control requirement, and actual control using an appropriate control method. The general principles of IPM must be taken into practice from From the fungicide resistance management point of view, it is positive because IPM is the best way to prevent fungicide resistance. Photo 1. Barley is the most cultivated cereal crop in Finland. Photo: Marja Jalli. MTT REPORT 109 7 2 Cereal cultivation in Finland 2.1 Climatic conditions Finland is the most northerly country with cereal production. Most of the cereal production in the other Nordic countries is concentrated in more southern areas than it is in Finland. The Gulf Stream has an influence on the Finnish climate but it is not as strong as in north-west Europe. The climate is more temperate in Finland than in other parts of the world on the same latitude. The growing season in Southern Finland is about 180 days and in the North it is less than 120 days (Picture 1 a). The growing season normally starts in the south at the end of April and ends before the end of October (Picture 1 b, 1 c). There is more rain than evaporation in Finland. Annual precipitation varies between mm in the main cereal production area. Precipitation during the growing season is mm in the same area (Picture 1 e). The day length during the growing season is long (Picture 2). In Southern Finland the days are shorter than in the North. In Finland, the cereals develop rapidly because of the significant amount of sunshine and the short growing season. The normal sowing time of spring cereals in Southern Finland starts at the beginning of May and ends at the end of May. The sowing time of winter cereals is from the middle of August to the end of September. Harvesting starts at the beginning of August and normally ends in September, relating to the growing time of the cultivars. Winter in Finland is long (Picture 3). A continuous frozen winter is very rare in Finland and it is normal that there are mild periods with cloudy weather, rain and brisk wind in wintertime. a) b) c) 8 MTT REPORT 109 d) e) Picture 1. a) The length (days) of the growing seasons (the average temperatures over 24 hours are over +5 C), b) the beginning of the growing season, c) the end of the growing season, d) the effective temperature sum (Celsius) over the growing season (the sum of the degrees above +5 C) and e) the average precipitation (mm) over the growing season. The pictures are long-term averages. Source: Ilmatieteenlaitos, Oulu Helsinki Picture 2. The day length graphs from Oulu ( N, E) and Helsinki (60.17 N, E). The X-axis shows months and the Y-axis the time of the day using the 24-hour clock. Yellow means sunshine, red dusk, blue dawn and grey darkness. The displacement in the graphs represent the start and end of Daylight Saving Time. Source: MTT REPORT 109 9 a) b) c) Picture 3. a) The beginning of winter (the average day temperature is less than zero Celsius), b) the beginning of spring, c) the length (days) of the winter. The pictures are long-term averages. Source: Ilmatieteenlaitos, 2.2 Cereal production In Finland, the area used for agriculture is about 6% (2.3 million hectare) of the total area. The average size of the farms was 38.9 ha in Two-thirds of the farms are used for plant production and close to one-third for livestock production. More than half of the agricultural area is under cereal production (Picture 4). Milk production is the biggest livestock sector in Finland. Most of the cereals are sown in spring, only 3.7% of the cereals are winter types (winter wheat and winter rye). Spring barley has been the most common cereal in Finland (Picture 5) since the end of the 1970s. Earlier, the most common cereal was spring oats, which is now the second largest cereal crop in Finland. In recent years the highest increase in growing area has been for spring wheat. The growing areas for rye and oil seed crops have slightly decreased in recent years. The Finnish official variety list is published annually in the Finnish Plant Variety Journal. The highest amounts of cultivars are released in spring barley (Table 1). In Finland, there is one plant breeding company, Boreal Plant Breeding Ltd, which is the market leader in their sector. 10 MTT REPORT 109 Utilised agricultural area in 2012 Other crops 7% Fallow 13% Grassland 29% Cereals 51% Other grains 0.2% Mixed grain 2.8% Malt barley 8.8% Cereals in Finland 2012 Oats 30.6% Spring wheat 19% Feed barley 34.8% Winter wheat 2% Winter rye 1.7% Spring rye 0.2% Picture 4. Cereals are the most common field crops in Finland. The cultivated area of cereals was thousand hectares in See also Appendix A. Source: OSF, Utilised Agricultural Area ha Rye Winter wheat Spring wheat Barley Oat Picture 5. The cultivated area of cereals in Finland in Source: OSF, Utilised Agricultural Area, 1910 and MTT REPORT Table 1. The number of the cereal varieties on the Finnish seed market in Source: Evira, Finnish Plant Variety Journal Number of varieties 2012, total Variety applicant: Boreal Plant Breeding Ltd. Variety applicant: other Oats Hulled oats Barley, total Multi-rowed Two-rowed Malting barley Winter rye Spring rye Spring wheat Winter wheat Triticale Cultivation systems Farms are quite small in Finland (Picture 6). In addition, the plots are relatively small and the shape of the fields is often scrappy. Ploughing is the most common cultivation method in Finland (covering 50% of the cereal growing area). About 10% of the total area is under no-tillage and the rest is under minimum tillage. The tillage is generally carried out in autumn (Table 2). The average yield of winter wheat in Finland is 3,750 kg/ha, spring wheat 3,600 kg/ha, rye 2,500 kg/ha, feed barley 3,400 kg/ha, malting barley 3,600 kg/ha and oat 3,200 kg/ha (Appendix B). The fertilizer levels are related to the crop, soil type, locality, yield level and environmental limits. For example, for winter wheat 120 kg/ha nitrogen can be used if the expected yield level is 4,000 kg/ha and 140 kg /ha nitrogen can be used for 5,000 kg/ha expected yield. Even though the benefits of crop rotation are well known, the practical use of crop rotation is relatively low (Table 3). There are some visible changes in good crop rotation practice within those farms that produce wheat or rye (Table 4). Feed cereals, barley and oats are most often cultivated in monoculture (Table 3 and 4). 12 MTT REPORT 109 Picture 6. The number of farms and the average field area per farm in in Finland. Source: OSF, Number of farms and average arable land area Table 2. Basic cultivation by production sector 1 July June Source: OSF: Tike, Farm Structure Survey, Agricultural Census Source: OSF: Tike, Farm Structure Survey, Agricultural Census 2010 Production sector Utilised Tilled and/or sown Method of cultivation, % of the arable area agricultural arable area Autumn Spring Conservation Sowing in area 1000 ha 1000 ha % ploughing ploughing tillage 1) untilled soil 2) Pig husbandry Poultry husbandry Cereals production together All production sectors ) Cultivation performed with a cultivator, disk cultivator, harrow, rotary hoe, etc. If the arable area was both conservation tilled and ploughed, it is only included in the ploughed area. 2) Does not include supplementary sown grassland area. Table 3. Arable land cultivated with the same crop 1) in the years , by production sector. Source: OSF Production sector 1000 ha % of the utilised agricultural area Pig husbandry Poultry husbandry Cereals production All production sectors ) Does not include area that was used for permanent grassland, berry bushes or fruit trees, or greenhouse area. MTT REPORT Table 4. The percentage of field hectares with the same crop over two continuous growing seasons. The percentage values are counted per three periods. Source: Jauhiainen, L. and Keskitalo, M. Viljelykäytännöt peltolohkotilastojen näkökulmasta, Period Crop Feed barley Oat Spring wheat Malting barley Winter wheat Winter rye Use of plant protection products In agriculture, herbicides are the largest pesticide group, accounting for 85% of the total volume of active substances sold in 2011 (Picture 7). The use of the plant protection products in Finland per hectare remains clearly below the rates used in Central and Southern Europe. In Finland, fungicides cover 10% of the total volume of the active substances sold in The rhythm of cereal growth is very fast in Finland (Picture 8). The growth of spring barley is particularly rapid between the beginning of stem elongation stage (the first fungicide spraying time) and the flag leaf stage (the second fungicide spraying time) there is normally only one week between these growth stages. According to Aleksi Mäenpää s survey of Finnish farmers, three-quarters of all active farmers use fungicides in at least some fields every year. Fungicide use is more frequent on bigger farms. 80% of the farms with hectares use fungicides every year and in farms more than 110 ha fungicides are used annually. Barley in particular is sprayed routinely every year. Farmers have listed several factors, like observations made in the field and the price of the cereal yield, which have influenced the decision of fungicide use. There is variation in the timing and dosage of the fungicide sprayings. The primary fungicide spray together with herbicides is either half (50% of farmers) or full (16% of farmers) doses. The primary fungicide spraying together with growth regulators is done by 31% of farmers with half dose and 24% of farmers with full dose. The primary fungicide spray alone at the time of the flag leaf is done by 21% of the farmers with half dose and 30% of the farmers with full dose. There are five different mode of action groups in fungicides for spraying and four different mode of action groups in seed treatment fungicides on the Finnish market (Tables 5 and 6). There is only one biological product for cereal seed treatments on the Finnish market. The most common active substance in the spraying products is propiconazole, which is a common partner in the mixtures. Among the seed treatment products, the most common active substance is imazalil. 14 MTT REPORT 109 tn Growth Herbicides regulators Fungicides Insecticides Total Active substance sales 2011 (tn) Product sales 2011 (tn) Picture 7. Summary of the volume of agricultural plant protection product sales in Finland in Source: Plant protection products Sales statistics Table 5. Fungicide spraying pro
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