The effect of urban environment on the mineral nutrition status of street trees in Riga, the problems and possible solution Pilsētvides ietekme uz Rīgas ielu apstādījumu koku minerālās barošanās stāvokli, problēmas un to iespējamie ri

Description
The effect of urban environment on the mineral nutrition status of street trees in Riga, the problems and possible solution Pilsētvides ietekme uz Rīgas ielu apstādījumu koku minerālās barošanās stāvokli, problēmas un to iespējamie risinājumi

Please download to get full document.

View again

of 109
All materials on our website are shared by users. If you have any questions about copyright issues, please report us to resolve them. We are always happy to assist you.
Information
Category:

Paintings & Photography

Publish on:

Views: 3 | Pages: 109

Extension: PDF | Download: 0

Share
Tags
Transcript
  LATVIJAS UNIVERSIT  Ā TES RAKSTI685. s ē  jums Zemes un vides zin ā tnes  UDK 567(082)+554 Ze 556  Editor-in-Chief   Prof. Vit ā lijs Zel č s  – University of Latvia  Editorial Board  Prof. Lars Bengt Ake Bergman  – University of StockholmProf. Edmunds Bunkše  –  Doctor honoris causa  of University of LatviaProf. Guntis Eberhards  – University of LatviaProf. M ā ris K  ļ avi ņ š  – University of LatviaAssoc. prof. Zaiga Krišj ā ne  – University of LatviaProf. M ā ris Laivi ņ š  – University of LatviaAssoc. prof. Erv  ī  ns Lukševi č s  – University of LatviaProf. F. Lunden  – University of StockholmAssoc. prof. Viesturs Melecis  – University of LatviaProf. O ļģ erts Nikodemus  – University of LatviaAssoc. prof. Valdis Segli ņ š  – University of LatviaAssoc. prof. P ē teris Š ķ  i ņķ  is  – University of LatviaProf. Aleksis Dreimanis  –  Doctor honoris causa  of University of Western OntarioScienti fi c editor  Dr. habil. geogr. M ā ris Laivi ņ š  Editor Brian Prosser All the papers published in the present volume have been reviewed. No part of the volume may be reproduced in any form without the written permission of the publisher.© Latvijas Universit ā te, 2005ISSN 1407-2157ISBN 9984-783-06-5  Contents Gunta Č  ekstere, Anita Osvalde, Andis Karlsons, Vilnis Nollendorfs, Gun ā  rs Paegle. The effect of urban environment on the mineral nutrition status of street trees in Riga, the problems and possible solution ..........................................................................................7  Zigmantas Gudžinskas. Case studies on the alien fl ora of the vicinity of cemeteries in Lithuania ................................................................................................................21 Vija Kreile. Vegetation of pine forests on the Daugava riversides ......................................38  Solvita R ū si  ņ a. Diagnostic species of mesophylous and xerophylous grassland  plant communities in Latvia ...................................................................................................69  Liene Salmi  ņ a.  New fen communities in Latvia .................................................................96 Satura r ā d  ī  t ā  js Gunta Č  ekstere, Anita Osvalde, Andis Karlsons, Vilnis Nollendorfs, Gun ā  rs Paegle.  Pils ē t vides ietekme uz R   ī  gas ielu apst ā d  ī   jumu koku miner  ā l ā s barošan ā s st ā vokli,  probl ē mas un to iesp ē  jamie risin ā  jumi ....................................................................................7  Zigmantas Gudžinskas.  Kaps ē tu apk  ā rtnes advent  ī  v ā   fl ora Lietuv ā  ....................................21 Vija Kreile.  Daugavas krastu priežu mežu ve ģ et ā cija ............................................................38  Solvita R ū si  ņ a.  Mezof   ī  to un kserof   ī  to z ā l ā  ju augu sabiedr   ī   bu diagnostisk  ā s sugas Latvij ā  .....................................................................................................69  Liene Salmi  ņ a. Jaunas z āļ u purvu sabiedr   ī   bas Latvij ā  .......................................................96  LATVIJAS UNIVERSITĀTES RAKSTI. 2005 . Nr. 685. ZEMES UN VIDES ZINĀTNES The effect of urban environment on the mineral nutrition status of street trees in Riga, the problems and possible solutionPils ē tvides ietekme uz R   ī  gas ielu apst ā d  ī   jumu koku miner ā l ā s barošan ā s st ā vokli, probl ē mas un to iesp ē  jamie risin ā  jumi Gunta Č ekstere, Anita Osvalde, Andis Karlsons, Vilnis Nollendorfs, Gun ā rs Paegle Institute of Biology, University of Latvia Miera iela 3, Salaspils LV-2169, Latvia E-mail: augi@email.lubi.edu.lv Investigation has been done to fi nd out the actual mineral nutrition status of street trees. Soil and plant (lime and chestnut leaves) samples were collected from 11 sites in the central  part of Riga during the months of July, August and September 2003. The concentrations of 15 elements were determined in soil and plant samples as well the soil and electrical conductivity (EC). The investigation showed a severe imbalance in the system of mineral nutrition necessary for healthy tree growth: high concentration of Na in tree leaves and the soil rooting zone primarily from de-icing salt (NaCl), absolute de fi cit of N in all sampling sites and times, decreased  plants supply with K (harmful in combination with Na abundance), an unfavourable soil pH as well as an insuf  fi cient level of S and B in the substrate and plant leaves. The main measures to improve the conditions of Riga city plant growth are fertilizer application (soil and foliar), soil pH reduction etc. Keywords:  street trees, urban soil, biogenous elements, sodium chloride. Introduction Street trees, parks and greeneries are one of the city’s visiting cards and very important and valuable part of city environment. Unfortunately there are serious  problems with the physiological status of the street trees in the central part of Riga – ever increasing visible foliar damages of plants. The damage of most of the deciduous trees appeared as chlorosis, burning of the leaf margins. In severe cases the leaves were completely brown and necrotic.Tree status in the city can be in fl uenced by many factors, such as application of de-icing materials during winter months, soil structure and chemical properties, microclimate, supply with biogenous elements, soil and air pollution, insect damages etc. (Ripa, 1967; Ripa, P ē tersons, 1968; Schwedtfeger, 1970; Bergmann, Neubert, 1976; Blauermel, 1978; Meyer, 1978; Zvirgzds, 1986; Rupais, 1989). 7.–20. lpp.  8 ZEMES UN VIDES ZIN Ā TNES For optimal tree and bush growth, the essential mineral nutrients must be present in adequate levels and correct proportions. There are also some speci fi c demands for mineral nutrients by different plant species. The essential elements (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Mo, B) all have speci fi c roles in plant structure, and metabolism. Any disbalance could lead to the stunted growth of plants (Meyer, 1978; Bergmann, 1988; Ri ņķ  is, 1989; Leh, 1993; Kafka fi  and Bernstein, 1996).Soil pH also effects the availability of nutrients in the soil and the ability for  plants to take up those nutrients. Neutral and alkaline pH of the soil can have adverse effects on the microenvironment of the rhizosphere by reducing mycorrhizae (Meyer, 1978; Zvirgzds, 1986). The most common de-icing material applied in Riga is sodium chloride (NaCl).  Na can affect the fertility status of the soil by exchange with the available nutrients on the soil complex (Holmes 1961; Brod, Brod, 1975; Bergmann, Č umakov, 1977; Meyer, 1978; Glenn et al., 1997; Blomqvist, Johansson, 1999; Schlup, Ruess, 2001; Bryson, Barker, 2002). An excess of sodium in the soil also reduces soil structure and can alter the physical  properties of the soil by dispersing soil aggregates, which would lead to puddling of fi ner textured soils (Davison, 1971; Meyer, 1978; Bryson, Barker, 2002). This  produces decreased soil porosity, reduced oxygen at the roots, increased denitri fi cation, desulti fi cation process and CO 2  content in the soil (to 12%), which suppress the  biological processes in the soil. At the same time high levels of Na and Cl in a plant can decrease the activity of several enzymes and chlorophyll concentrations, causes damage to different processes of a plant’s metabolisms, such as photosynthesis, gas exchange, and others (Ripa, P ē tersons, 1968; Rich, 1972; Buschbom, 1973; Ruge, 1978; Dobson, 1991; Sparks, 1995; Bryson, Barker, 2002).Several investigations were conducted by Ripa and P ē tersons in 1966 and 1967 to determine the impact of sodium chloride on the trees in Riga. As the result they found out that excess sodium and chlorine suppressed nutrient uptake ability of  plants and reduced the biomass of physiologically active roots. It was also stated that increased concentrations of sodium, chlorine and sulphate ions in the plant leaves stimulated degradation of chloroplasts and expansion of protoplasm colloids (Ripa, P ē tersons, 1968).Another problem is toxic impact of heavy metals on plants due to transport emissions. It is well known that a variety of motor vehicles produce trace metals. Some of these metals are lead, cadmium and zinc (Rodriguez-Flores, Rodrigues-Castellon, 1982; Nyangababo, Hamya, 1986; Бериня , Калвиня , 1989; Шарковскис , Никодемус , 1989; Park, 1997; Goudie, 2000; Iqbal, Sha fi g, 2000).The visual symptoms of salt and heavy metal damage on trees as well as the imbalance in the system of plant mineral nutrition does not always appear in the leaves (Ri ņķ  is, Ramane, 1989). At the same time tree growth and development could be seriously inhibited. Plant analysis can detect toxicities or hidden de fi ciencies before the visual symptoms appear. Therefore it is very important to control the growing environment as well as plant material – tree leaves. The plant leaf test represents not only the effects of soil nutrient status and the degree of pollution, but also all the factors controlling plant growth, whilst the soil test is very important in determining the pH electrical conductivity and nutrient levels. Soil and plant tissue analysis used
Related Search
Similar documents
View more...
We Need Your Support
Thank you for visiting our website and your interest in our free products and services. We are nonprofit website to share and download documents. To the running of this website, we need your help to support us.

Thanks to everyone for your continued support.

No, Thanks