The archetypal crusader: Henry of Sandomierz, the second youngest son of Bolesław III

The archetypal crusader: Henry of Sandomierz, the second youngest son of Bolesław III

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   Rome, Constantinople and Newly-Converted Europe. Archaeological and Historical Evidence M. Saam, M. Ws, A. Mus, P. Špha, M. Ha, M.P. Kuk, A. Sukwska-Gąska (s.)U źrdeł eUroPy ŚrodKoWo-WScHodniej/FrüHzeit oStMitteleUroPAS  1,1 Kaków-lpg-rsów-Wasawa 2012, . i, p. 215-231 dAriUS von Güttner-SPorzyńSKi THE ARCHETYPAL CRUSADER. Henry of Sandomierz, tHe Second youngeSt Son of BoleSław iii Abstract.   The archetypal crusader. Henry of Sandomierz, the second youngest son of Bolesław  III. th usas w kw  h s f Pa wh a a f h Fs cusa. th Pas as quk mba h suus a mss f h chuh, auhg ampags agas h paga ghbus. H, a p f h Hus f Pas, duk f Sam, was  b bw 1126 a 1133. H was h s f hs Hus  ba h -Sa am f H a  s k ha h was am  hu f  f hs Gma as. cmpa, ab sa, sus pa H a h  f as mahas a p aasg fs  a hgh uu, muh-a a pus kgh wh fu a mma f Kghs Hspa a   usa ghg h paga Pussas. Hphss abu suggsg ha H ha g  , pssb w, pgmags  h H la, a ma  ha  a ma gus . ths pap ffs a -xama f h agums  p f a agas h kh f H f Sam bg a pgm  jusam w ( 1147 a 1154). i w as agu ha h papa f a Psh g  h S cusa s pssb a wu ha b a aua xs f h sg gagm b h Pas ps  h affas f la chsm.H f Sam was h s ugs f h ss f Bsaw iii Kwus (h Wmuh) fm Bsaw’s s maag  Sam f Bg a was b bw 1126 a 1133 (jassk 2004, 247-250) 1 . H was h s f h Pas as  ba h -Psh am f H a  s k ha h was  baps  hu f emp H ii  hs maa gafah H cu f Bg. Wh h a f hs bh H’s fah , a H’s  haf-bh Wasaw ii Wga (h ex [1105-1159]) as h Psh h. th suss, gua b Bsaw iii’s  Act of Succession , ma Bsaw’s s s, Wasaw, as hs h a suss. th a su a fm f gm f   h Psh hsgaph as h  principate  whh p f h s s, as h s amg h Pass ps (h  princeps ),  xs a sua  h Pas pam. th pps’ sa was f h p f l Pa wh s apa  Kaków. th pps ma appms  a h ag a a sasa 1  ths pap us sah, as a hphss xpss  m bk “Pa a H Was: tasmss, rp a h Pa f h ia f cusa 1100-1230” whh s bg ppa f puba. th agums  hs pap ha b ps  aus fms a sags f pm a h iaa cgss f Ma Sus  ls, fs f h l c f h Su f h cusas, h Ma rgus os a h la eas, th Psh-ch Mass fs  G, a h ba fs f h Ausaa a nw zaa Assa f Ma a ea M Sus. Sm agums ha as appa  h  Journal of Medieval  History  a h Crusades . 215  216 daus  G-Spsk fs f h Pas am a xs   Pma a Pmaa. th a as p f Bsaw’s ug ss  b w wh h w ps wh h Pas pam 2 . th Pas jus Bsaw iv (b. 1121/1122), Msk iii (b. 1122/1125), a H (b. 1126/1133), w g u  h mas f Maa, Ga Pa a Sam sp, whs h ugs (pshumus?) s f Bsaw iii, casm ii (b. 1138), was  u  h sm 3 . th ps as f Bsaw iii’s sps a sub  us ba. th hsgaph f h  Act of Succession  (whh s f   b Psh hsas as Testament of Bolesław III  ) s xs a h s  agm  h A’s pss a  u b qus f h A  fa xs a a. th sus has a  h s f Pa  ha uhs, h bs f h ps a h pusss f Bsaw iii’s sps f Pa a s hs. Aa ws f h as sm a ps b rma (1993; 1994) wh agus f pmgu as h bass f h as sm  Pa. Hw whh Bsaw  h ps g  hs ss  bm h ha psssss (Wumsk 1995, 285)  a apaag ug h fm,  s hgh k ha h Psh h was  b ha  h  f Wasaw ii. Wha s a s ha hs as sm pa h Pass as s f h pps     h pa magas a g wh f w fuas f h w bu whs aga was ua  ms f ss. th suss  a has b suf summas b dwh (1980) a t-Pu (2009, 15-27).th as sm sabsh a h ah f Bsaw iii  1138 bk w wh  abu 1142 Wasaw ii ppa a  wa b ampg  f hs sua a ak   f h ps u h  f hs bhs. As h  wa pgss Wasaw m wh asg pps fm h pas a magas, f whm as pw  ga, a Wasaw ii’s ps  paua, w ufauab  h ss a u. dug h  wa Wasaw ii   a aa wh h paga Pussas wh hab h as h f Maa (h p g b h a f h Pas jus, Bsaw iv). th aa wh h Pussas s  sgh h am fs a Wasaw ii’s spsa, ps Maa wh a ma ha fm h h a su Wasaw’s ma sup (dwsashk 1998, 100-101). Hw, h abs u  1146 a h hgh f h  wa. dug h sg f Pa, h as sgh f h Pas jus. th a f h chuh  Pa, Ahbshp f G, jakub f Ż, xmmua Wasaw ii a hs wf Ags f Ausa ( Gesta Friderici I. imperatoris , p. 57, 81-82; Chronica Poloniae Maioris , . 32, p. 51-52). th Ahbshp was uag b Wasaw ii’s us f paga ps agas hs bhs (labua 1969, 284-285; Smka 1959, 238-239). Whs h paga ps a  ps   h sus, h Bhma h sbg hs s sb Wasaw’s mas as “Saa” mphassg h aa ps f h Psh u wh   fugh hs bhs bu wh us paga as a apsas agas hm ( Vincentii Pragensis Annales,  p. 664). th sg f Pa a h a f h Psh chuh’s supp f Wasaw ii mak h sa f hs fu  h  wa; bf h  f 1146 h was fa, x a ps. Af Kaków su, h as bas f h fs a  Wasaw ii u h mma f hs wf Ags f Ausa, Wasaw’s fam fu saua a h u f Kg ca iii, hs bh--aw, a h x Pas bam kw  ps as Wasaw ii h ex ( cf. Rocznik kapitulny krakowski , p. 789).th x f Wasaw ii hag h baa f pw a ab a h pss f Bsaw iii’s  Act of Succession . th a f Pas jus, Bsaw iv bam h sua f h Pas am a  a  hs p f Maa k  f Wasaw ii’s Ssa. As h pps Bsaw iv as  h p f l Pa. th Pas pam was w g b a uma: h ma Bsaw iv  aa wh Msk iii f Ga Pa a H f Sam.H’s saus as  f h us f Pa a b auha fm a umb f has ssu af 1146. i a ha f a Psh b zbu (ssu 1152/1153) H s pa as  f h h  bhs gg Pa “[...] Bsa, Ms, H fabus gmas  Pa ppabus.” 2  Bsaw iii’s ss fm hs maag  Sam f Bg a kw   h Psh hsgaph as h Pas jus. i w us hs m as  hs pap. 3  th s  ufm asa f Psh ams f h ps  egsh. F xamp: Ga Pa  Ga Pa (Psh: Wkpska, la:  Polonia Maior  ); l Pa  lss Pa (Psh: Mapska, la:  Polonia Minor  ), Sam (la: Sandomiria ).  217 th ahpa usa. H f Sam, h s ugs s f Bsaw iii ( C. diplomaticus Maioris Poloniae , n. 18, p. 23-24). Sma,  a ha ssu  1153 b ja Ahbshp f G  s sa ha “[...] Bsa, Ms, H gmas fabus ppaum  Pa bus.” ( C. diplomaticus Maioris Poloniae , n. 372, p. 1-2). th gaph f h s m bw 1150 a 1165 b Bsaw iv suggs ha h h s Pas jus fm a sg, u uma. th s, whs pg Bsaw iv  a ma ps shw h h Pas jus gh as h us f Pa (Suhsk 1961, 68).Bsaw iv’s as suggs ha h was  f h supp f hs ug bhs Msk iii, H a casm ii, wh (wh h xp f casm) u h w uhs wh h Psh mah. Wh h supp f h pas a h magas, Bsaw iv su hs u as h sua f a Psh as. Amgs h s as f h w uma, i agu, was h papa f Msk iii  h Wsh cusa, s fw b Bsaw iv’s gasa f a xp agas h Pussas a f H f Sam wh  h S cusa  h H la. *** “Wh h [H f Sam – d. .G.-S.] ah h H la saf a hu h H Spuh, h  h am f Baw, Kg f jusam, a  gaa fu h kgh u f ghg wh h Saas. Ahugh h am f a ma’s w hs wsh was  ga. Hag sp a wh a  h H la, b whh m ma f hs kghs ha b k h  ba  b h m ma, h u  Pa uham. Bh hs bhs Bsaw a Msk a h Psh s  hm wh ga  a s . Baus f hs as ws was spa f h , sa a gasa f h H la, a f h  a b bas bg fugh  s f (  Dlugossii Annales , b. v, p. 52-53) 4 . th Pas as as h  hs fh-u au w b h Psh hsa ja dugs, wh ps a usa xp f a wfh-u Pas p’s s  h H la. th us f H’s pgmag  dugs’s  Annales  s sm,  f amp,  s ga mpa  h wfh u as a as wh f mmba a a. th passag as ps sp  abu hw h a f usa was asm  h Psh s, a sg suggss ha h Psh u was hgh p  fma abu h usas a h pgss as a as h S cusa.th S cusa bga wh a amaa whh pa fm h egsh p f damuh  Ma 1147 ag duh, egsh, Fmsh, Fsa, Gma, nma a Ssh usas. i h sam mh, a Gma am f f jusam,  b Kg ca iii. ca was ampa b hs phw Fk f Swaba, a haf-bh Bshp o f Fsg, a, ag  h Gk h jh Kams, ca’s assa vasa ii f Bhma. th Gmas a  csap  Spmb 1147 af mahg hugh Ausa, Huga a Bugaa (Bha 1883, 591; B 1969, 483). Fh ps f h S cusa, u h mma f Kg lus vii, bga h mah  ju a a  csap  ob 1147. jh Kams (camus), was a wfh-u Ba hsa a a mpa sa  emp Mau i cmus (1143-1180). Hs h was s  b h ua f h  Alexiad    f Aa cma, as  s 1118-1176 (Kams; oma 1999, 45-55). Kams a ha  ob 1147 “[...] h Gmas ha b fqu fa b h tuks a s ma f h m;  h aba passag hugh Phm, h has bak. cmg  nkaa [ik], h m h h Fh wh w mahg  h a, a h h kgs wh w bgg wh hm ag fs:  f hs u h chs’ a, a ha smg b app kg b ca; h h, ha f h Ps wh a a Sh pp a w bs h ws Hugaas.” (Kams, p. 70).th fma ps b Kams s aua a ps  sp f h chs a h u, vasa ii, wh a  hs w wh h pmss f emp Fk ii. i s as kw ha vasa ii f Bhma, hs bh a a umb f ch bs k h css af p f h l 4 “Psquam  tam Saam ums ag, Sa Spuh aa m Baw ihsmum gs s ug fssmqu ms  ambus um Saas habs pa xs, ma pamamb s suspaba apuum. vum um h  ss u bg  pss, a g  xa aqubus mbus sus, pam  bus huusm ss, pam mp s absumps  paam ssps ,  am a gmas sus Bsa  Msau quam uss P pmabus maxm h  amum gaua xpus s. cuus a  quaas,  sausqu t Sa  quam ama quamqu fssma um babas p us fs agau pa, p uga  ffu”. egsh asa b daus  G-Spsk.  218 daus  G-Spsk fm Ba Abb f caaux ( Vincentii Pragensis Annales,  p. 662-663; C. diplomaticus regni Bohemiae ,  n. 150, p. 151-153). Papa b h ch ps s as m b a umb f h sus a h s ha Kams suss  hs Chronicle  a subsaa  a umb f sus. Hw, h  kw f  h aa f h Psh usa am a h Bspus s ma b Kams. G hs aua  h ps Kams’  abu h Ps s ga ap.th Gma a Fh ams ha pa   fs a  Musm  gh; hw, h sw ha xp pgss f h Fh, a h as f  agas h a ppua mm  b Gma ss sa  csap,  h Ba emp Mau  psua ca iii  ss  Asa a. S af hs ssg ca’s fs w aak a fa b h tuks a dum  25 ob 1147 (h  sb ab b Kams). ca sa hmsf b ag wh hs mu kghs was naa, wh, ag  Kams, h u h ps f h Fh, ch a Psh ams (Bha 1883, 624; ruma 1952, 266-268). th Psh a ch usag gs ma ha a  csap gh a  a h Bspus  wh h Fh a Bhmas, as p b Kams. th s uua a gus s bw h Ps a chs supps h pssb f s -pa bw Bhma a Psh usas (Gas 2002, 65).th hga ss Psh su  h s u b Kams whh ms Psh  papa  h la usas s h s f h xa Psh aas, h  Annals of Lubiń . th  Annals of Lubiń  p u h a 1154 ha a Pas p, H f Sam w  jusam (  Rocznik lubiński,  p. 113). la Psh aas p H’s u  jusam aus u h as 1154 a 1155, a k h  wh h fua f h Hspa mma  zagść, h s Hspa ups  h g (  Rocznik Krakowski,  p. 833;  Rocznik Sędziwoja,  p. 875;  Rocznik Traski,  p. 833;  Rocznik małopolski , p. 157). th pus  fh-u au fm h  Annales  f dugs, s k   b pma bas up u a a dugs’s kwg f h ab wfh-u Psh aas. i as pas H f Sam’s u  1154 (  Dlugossii Annales , b. v, p. 52-53).ths fs  h u f H f Sam  jusam ss-f wh Kams’ Chronicle  p sg  f a u f a Pas  jusam. M, hs fs fuh fm abu h fua f h s Hspa hus  Pa sp b H’s papa  a usa a xpsu  h as f h ma s  h H la. th Psh annales  hw f  w spaa s a  Pas s wh h H la. Fs, h f  h aua  pgmag, a s h m h subsqu fua f h Hspa cmma. i s pbab ha h Psh aass a h s f H’s usa (whh ha ak pa a) wh h subsqu fua f h Hspa cmma  zagść (dąbwska, Mhawsk, tmaswsk 1964; dąbwska, tmaswsk 1969; dąbwsk 2002; Smsk 1996, 225-251; tmk 1912). th wg f h ua fua ha ssu f h Hspas b H f Sam supps h h ha hs w spaa s.i h ha, whh sus  h ga (a s  f h s xa ums ssu b a Psh u), H f Sam fs,  a  f sf-pah,  hs g a s  w h Hspas : “F ahugh h as f hs w p m, a s,  fu a w uak g ag  bu a huh  h g f G a h hu f Sa jh h Baps […] i am fug hs w w […].” ( C. diplomaticus Poloniae , n. 4, 4-5).   th fua ha f h Hspas  zagść as f h p af h S cusa a bf H’s ah  1166, a h hsgapha ba summas  b M. Smsk (2008, 11-15) s k  ma us. M. Saawska (1999, 27) bs ha h wm was  xs. i h ha hw H f Sam ps h Hspas wh a sa, whh ss ss, sk, w ags, a  as w as a a, fu gsmhs a aus pgs ( C. diplomaticus Poloniae , n. 4, 4-5). i suggs ha hs was a w- sa wh sus ab  supp h Hspas  sabshg a huh, h  as w as b h o’s mss.i h Psh hsgaph h ssu f h sm f h Hspas  zagść su  a us ba. o f h ma ps f h spu a h gs f h kghs wh s  zagść a h qus f ag f h fua ha f h Hspas. B. Kassa (2000, 153) agu ha h Hspas wh a  zagść w iaas. Sh supp h agums wh h aass f h ahua s f h huh bu  zagść M. Gas (2002, 105-106) agu ha h kghs a  219 th ahpa usa. H f Sam, h s ugs s f Bsaw iii af 1147/1148 (s pgmag f H f Sam  h H la) a bf 1153/1154 (s  pgmag). Gas as suggs ha jaxa f Mhów, wh w  h H la  1147/1148 a a 1162 u ha b a ma bw h Hspas a h Pas p. r M. Smsk shf h fus f h ba abu h mma  zagść was xama f h w pa x f ma s’ ps  eas ca eup (Smsk 1996; 1997; 2002; 2008). i Smsk’s agum h fua f h mma  zagść was s a  h pa aa bw h bh a h f H f Sam, casm ii a h Bhma a Maa ass (Smsk 1996, 237-250). i s a k hphss as as bw h Hspas a H f Sam ma ha b a su f h u f hs x fam fuh sgh b hs pgmag  h H la. i s as m k ha h Hspas wh a  zagść a h fm Bhma a Maa baus h s fuas f h Hspas w ma  h p fwg h S cusa ( C. diplomaticus regni Bohemiae , ns 245, 246, 214-218) 5 . i s as k, as Smsk agus, ha h shf  h Pas fg p ma ha s as h pa um f h fua f h mma  zagść. i h a 1150s h asa f a pa fa whh am a sug a g asg sm wh emp Fk i Babassa (1152-1190), mgh ha  H f Sam  ma h xamps f hs fw usas, h Bhma a  paua Maa ps a  h Pass hugh h subsqu maag f H’s ug bh casm ii.H f Sam’s ha,  a  ag h sa  h Kghs f Sa jh a ah asp f Ws us  H’s as. i h ha sabshg h cmma  h sa f zagść, H f Sam a h bgas f h pasa a asa ss f h sa, awg f liberi hospites , wh w aw  a h fua sa af h fu h s f h a wh h fua . tmwsk agu ha h ha f H f Sam was  ha H was a g maag a a “w-ag amsa a gas f h a sas” baus f hs a aapa f Ws mhs f h sm f pasas a h bgas  h fua s (t 2000, 260-261; tmwsk 1980, 105-113).i h ha, H, as fu f h cmma xpss g a h pspm f h aua fua,  b h Psh aas u h a 1154. th s sab sagm  hs p hw. o xpaa s ha H f Sam k pa  h usa  1147 a h Hspa cmma was subsqu fu  zagść  1154. th s a s paa f a a fua f a Hspa mma as vasa ii f Bhma u fm h S cusa  1148 a w h Hspas  1169 ( C. diplomaticus regni Bohemiae , n. 246, 216). thf  s hgh k ha h f  H f Sam’s u a h fua f h Hspa cmma u h sam a (1154)  h Psh aas s a a f w spaa s. Suh a xpaa s fuh supp jh Kams’ f  a Psh usa am a h Bspus  1147  h wa  jusam. th fma ff  jh Kams’ au s sga baus  ks Psh papa  h usas   h aa f h usag ams  csap ug h S cusa. if u, papa  h la usa wu pa h papa f Msk iii  h Wsh cusa (ju-Augus 1147) a Bsaw iv’s usa agas h Pussas (nmb-dmb 1147). ths a usag ff b h Pas jus fw h   h  wa (ag h su f h supp g  h Pas jus b h Psh pas a magas). th Pas jus’ pwfu aa f sua a huh ss u h ps f Bsaw iii whh am a h subuga a chsasa f h ma paga bs  Pa’s h. Papa f h Psh g  h S cusa was a xs f h sg gagm b h Pas jus  h affas f la chsm. H’s ffs w supp b hs bhs, whs mas w  a aus. A Psh am  b H was a mas f gmsg h u f Bsaw iv  h s f h chsa us, a  paua, h Pp, wh, u  h supp f ca iii, was smpah  hs a, Wasaw ii. Papa b Ps  h usa pp as s as pf  h s f chsm ha Ps w a 5 th s fma abu h Hspa mma  Pagu s u  h ua has ssu b vasa ii f Bhma (1140-1172). th has ga h Hspas h paag f h chuh f Sa Ma  Pagu a sas a pgs. ths wm ga h Hspas h bas  sabsh a wk f mmas a sas f h o  Bhma, Maa a Ssa.
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