Tampere Polytechnic University of Applied Sciences. LJUNG ANN-LOUISE, STENMAN KAI, UUSITALO EIJA, ÖSTERMAN MATS: Training the Trainer - PDF

Description
Tampere Polytechnic University of Applied Sciences LJUNG ANN-LOUISE, STENMAN KAI, UUSITALO EIJA, ÖSTERMAN MATS: Training the Trainer Tampere Polytechnic University of Applied Sciences Development project

Please download to get full document.

View again

of 29
All materials on our website are shared by users. If you have any questions about copyright issues, please report us to resolve them. We are always happy to assist you.
Information
Category:

Health & Fitness

Publish on:

Views: 17 | Pages: 29

Extension: PDF | Download: 0

Share
Transcript
Tampere Polytechnic University of Applied Sciences LJUNG ANN-LOUISE, STENMAN KAI, UUSITALO EIJA, ÖSTERMAN MATS: Training the Trainer Tampere Polytechnic University of Applied Sciences Development project for Teachers Education 27 pages + 9 appendix pages Tutor of the thesis Sirpa Levo-Aaltonen January 2007 TEACHERS Key words: training, adult learning, trainers, qualitative research EDUCATION CENTRE SUMMARY An industrial company in Vaasa ordered from us a course material in English for its international part-time customer trainers. The reason for this was that the company wanted to improve its courses that had been earlier varying both in their quality and in the results of learning and thus there had been unsatisfied customers in the courses. Also the company plans to create a global network of training centres, so there is a need to be able to standardise the quality and the results of training activities. Development Project in Teachers Education Training the Trainer We applied qualitative methods for the data gathering in our development project because there were Ann-Louise a limited number Ljung of participants in the courses so far, and thus applying quantitative methods would not be justified. We decided to use qualitative methods also because Kai we Stenman wanted to have rich and reliable data for our work. Eija Uusitalo We studied established Mats knowledge Österman from literature and from our studies. i.e. our course material, discussions with our teacher, co-students and our project team. Thus the training material is firstly based on theoretical knowledge about how training should be done and 2007 what things one should take into account. The second point is the existing reality in the company s training environment. Material is also strongly based on practice: the training environment in which the actual work is done, the students and their natural way of learning. After introducing trainers to this material we gathered experiences and feedback. It was quite obvious that already in this phase the material had succeeded. In numbers the effect was quite enormous, ranging rose from 0,75 in the old courses to 4,5 in the new courses. The trainers experienced that they were provided with new tools, had time to plan their courses, the courses were structured and had a clear goal and they received a realistic picture of the preparations and the arrangements. 2 LJUNG ANN-LOUISE, STENMAN KAI, UUSITALO EIJA, ÖSTERMAN MATS: Training the Trainer Tampere Polytechnic University of Applied Sciences Development project for Teachers Education 27 pages + 9 appendix pages Tutor of the thesis Sirpa Levo-Aaltonen March 2007 Key words: training, adult learning, trainers SUMMARY Training the Trainer -course material in English was developed for an industrial company in Vaasa for its international part-time customer trainers. The reason for this was that the company wanted to improve its courses that had been earlier varying both in their quality and in the results of learning and thus there had been unsatisfied customers in the courses. Also the company plans to create a global network of training centres, so there is a need to be able to standardise the quality and the results of training activities. We applied qualitative methods for the data gathering in our development project because there were a limited number of participants in the courses so far, and thus applying quantitative methods would not be justified. We decided to use qualitative methods also because we wanted to have rich and reliable data for our work. We studied established knowledge from literature and from our studies. i.e. our course material, discussions with our teacher, co-students and our project team. Thus the training material is firstly based on theoretical knowledge about how training should be done and what things one should take into account. The second point is the existing reality in the company s training environment. Material is also strongly based on practice: the training environment in which the actual work is done, the students and their natural way of learning. After introducing trainers to this material we gathered experiences and feedback. It was quite obvious that already in this phase the material had succeeded. In numbers the effect was quite enormous, ranging rose from 0,75 in the old courses to 4,5 in the new courses. The trainers experienced that they were provided with new tools, had time to plan their courses, the courses were structured and had a clear goal and they received a realistic picture of the preparations and the arrangements. 3 LJUNG ANN-LOUISE, STENMAN KAI, UUSITALO EIJA, ÖSTERMAN MATS: Training the Trainer Tampereen ammattikorkeakoulu Opettajankoulutuksen kehittämishanke 27 s + 9 liites. Ryhmänopettaja Sirpa Levo-Aaltonen Maaliskuu 2007 Avainsanat: koulutus, aikuisoppiminen, kouluttaja TIIVISTELMÄ Vaasalaiselle teollisuusyritykselle kehitettiin englanninkielinen kurssimateriaali, minkä avulla kouluttaa kansainvälisiä osa-aikaisia kouluttajia hoitamaan työnsä mahdollisimman hyvin. Syynä tähän hankkeeseen oli se, että yritys halusi kehittää kurssejaan ja koulutustoimintaansa, jonka tulokset olivat aiemmin vaihdelleet sekä opetuksen laadun, että oppimistulosten osalta, mikä puolestaan oli johtanut siihen, että osa asiakkaista oli ollut tyytymättömiä järjestettyihin koulutuksiin. Yritys myös suunnittelee perustavansa globaalin koulutuskeskusten verkoston, joten on olemassa selvä tarve sille, että koulutustoiminnan laatua ja toimintaa koulutustilaisuuksissa pystytään standardoimaan. Kehittämistyön pohjalle tarvittavaa tietoa kentältä hankimme käyttäen laadullisia tutkimusmenetelmiä. Tämä valinta oli perusteltu, koska koulutustoimintaan osallistujia oli tiedonhankinta-aikaan vielä rajallinen määrä, jolloin tilastollisten tutkimusmenetelmien käyttäminen ei olisi ollut perusteltua ja toisaalta myös siksi, että halusimme saada mahdollisimman rikasta ja luotettavaa aineistoa kehittämistyöhömme hyödynnettäväksi. Tämän ohella tutkimme kirjallisuudesta saatavia tietoja ja käsitteistöä sekä hyödynsimme opiskelustamme kertynyttä kurssimateriaalia. Tämän ohella koostimme ideoita, tietoja ja kokemuksia opettajamme, muiden kurssilaisten ja työryhmämme sisällä käymiemme keskustelujen perusteella. Laatimamme koulutusmateriaali pohjautuu ensikädessä teoreettiseen tietämykseen siitä, miten koulutustyö tulisi tehdä ja mitä asioita siinä pitäisi ottaa huomioon. Toinen asia mihin työmme pohjautuu, on yrityksen sisäinen ja ulkoinen toimintaympäristö, joka on osaltaan määrittämässä miten koulutustyö juuri tässä yrityksessä pitäisi tehdä. Koulutusmateriaalimme on siten myös vahvasti ankkuroitu käytäntöön: ympäristöön, missä varsinainen koulutustyö tehdään ja opiskelijoihin, heidän taustatietoihinsa ja kokemukseensa sekä heidän luonnolliseen tapaansa oppia. Sen jälkeen kun kouluttajat oli perehdytetty laatimamme materiaalin käyttämiseen, keräsimme heiltä kokemuksia ja palautetta. Oli selvästi havaittavissa, että kouluttajat olivat saaneet uusia työkaluja käyttöönsä, heillä oli nyt aikaa suunnitella kurssejaan, kursseilla oli selkeä rakenne ja tavoite, ja että kouluttajilla oli nyt realistinen kuva tarvittavista valmisteluista ja järjestelyistä. Kurssipalautteet olivat nousseet vanhojen koulutustilaisuuksien saamasta arvosanasta 0.75, uusien koulutustilaisuuksien arvosanaan 4.5. 4 Contents SUMMARY 2 TIIVISTELMÄ BACKGROUND FOR DEVELOPMENT PROJECT The objectives of the development project Methodology for field work Evaluation 8 2 KNOWLEDGE BASE FOR THE DEVELOPMENT PROJECT Constructivism David A. Kolb's experiential learning theory Brain Based Learning Motivation for adults to learn Communication Creating a good learning environment FIELD STUDY Observations, interviews and course feedback Findings and conclusions for trainer s manual TRAINING THE TRAINER CONCLUSIONS..24 REFERENCES..26 APPENDIX 1.28 APPENDIX APPENDIX 3.33 APPENDIX 4.34 APPENDIX 5. 36 5 1 BACKGROUND FOR DEVELOPMENT PROJECT An industrial company ordered from our project group a course material in English for its international part-time customer trainers. The material is being used as the course material for the company s Training the Trainers course. The material should be based on established pedagogical theories, be well documented and practical. The company wants to improve its courses. The reason for this is a negative feedback it received for its product course in November The companies own sales people have criticised the very fluctuating quality of the courses due to the part-time trainers different pedagogical skills, language skills, training materials and methods. The part-time trainers experience they are unprepared for the task and in need of new solutions in their training sessions. In the company history training has been a duty of every expert. The task should be done beside their main tasks. Training received a negative reputation because the experts were forced to give trainings they were not prepared for. Often the information that they should train customers came so late that it was practically not possible to be well prepared for the task. No training material existed and every expert had to make his own materials. They did not know if anybody else had done a similar material that could be re-used or slightly modified. The result was most often MS Power Point presentations that the trainer showed to the audience whether they were interested in the content or not and whether they learned about the subject or not. The industrial company wants to change its training culture and ordered the Training the Trainers course material as one of the tools used for this aim. The company has once earlier arranged a course in this subject for its part-time trainers without any good material. 6 1.1 The objectives of development Project The industrial company aims to build training centres in other countries, i.e. a global trainer s network, standard course modules and materials that supports the trainers in its subsidiaries. The Training the Trainer course is being offered first in Finland, but the company has also customers in many countries abroad, and it needs to train these trainers to advice and educate customers to use its products properly and efficiently. In order to meet this demand the company has to use many trainers to do this work. Thus our task is to provide material by which the trainers that do this job can be trained to do their tasks properly. Now the precise task of our team is to prepare material: how to instruct the trainers so that they could do their work properly? The basic work is done to fit the Scandinavian countries due to a similar culture and atmosphere. It should be remembered that when applied in other cultures this material should be localised. 1.2 Methodology for field work Our team had two meetings where we considered, discussed and evaluated various methodologies that we could use in this particular development and research setting. Our problem was how to make sure that we will get reliable, valid and rich data? We concluded that normal research approach, i.e. methods that would use statistical testing of hypotheses would not be usable because there would not be so many participants or observations if you like, that we could have been able to compute even statistical basics. Secondly, our interest for data was raised from practical needs, so also the data had to come directly from practise and represent customers and trainer s opinions, experiences, conceptions and evaluations from the existing reality. The development of trainer s already existing operations and practises that they use needs to have a good and rich data on which we can trust and thus base a successful 7 development work in our project. So, it seems to be justified to look at qualitative research and data gathering methods. According to Hirsjärvi, Remes & Sajavaara (1997, 165) qualitative research approach fits quite perfectly to our needs since it builds on following principles: 1. Research should include as many aspects as possible and the research data will be gathered in real life situations. 2. Human is the main instrument of data gathering. 3. Inductive analysis will be preferred, researcher aims to discover unexpected matters. Starting point is not existing theory or testing hypotheses, but rather multifaceted and detailed examination. 4. The use of qualitative methods in data gathering, i.e. interviews, observations, discussions. 5. Data will not be gathered by sampling, but rather by the real need for information. 6. Research plan is organic and it will find its form during the research, and the research should be carried out with flexibility and plans can be changed by the context or circumstances. 7. Cases are understood as unique and data should be researched according to that principle. If there is only a small amount of observation units, then there is a good reason to stay in qualitative methods (Alasuutari 1995, 214). Also this is the case with our development work. There is a limited number of trainers and customers who are involved with the training work and thus to be included to our work. So it is possible to have personal contact with nearly all of them, and also to get the answers directly from them than to gather data by sampling. The company in our development work used earlier questionnaires to gather feed back from its training, but there were nearly none questions concerning the content of the training. Of course we will use the information that is restored to these questionnaires to the extent that it gives us valid information and thus helps us to understand and interpret. 8 Qualitative research helps us to understand the research object (for example Company or customer) and to explain its behaviour or the reasons behind its decisions (Heikkilä 2002, 16). The company s formerly used questionnaires don t give us this kind of information, so we must adapt qualitative methods. For our development work to be successful we need to get as close as possible to valid data. 1.3 Evaluation Formative Evaluation is a bit more complex than summative evaluation. It is done with a small group of people to test run various aspects of instructional materials. For example, you might ask a friend to look over your web pages to see if they are graphically pleasing, if there are errors you've missed, if it has navigational problems. It's like having someone look over your shoulder during the development phase to help you catch things that you miss, but a fresh set of eye might not. At times, you might need to have this help from a target audience. For example, if you're designing learning materials for third graders, you should have a third grader as part of your Formative Evaluation. (Evaluation.) Summative evaluation provides information on the product's efficacy (its ability to do what it was designed to do). For example, did the learners learn what they were supposed to learn after using the instructional module. In a sense, it lets the learner know how they did , but more importantly, by looking at how the learner's did, it helps you know whether the product teaches what it is supposed to teach. Summative evaluation is typically quantitative, using numeric scores or letter grades to assess learner achievement. (Evaluation.) 9 2 KNOWLEDGE BASE FOR THE DEVELOPMENT PROJECT 2.1 Constructivism There are many conceptions from how a human being learns. Engeström (1994) divides these concepts into four categories: 1. human learns by reacting into stimulus in a certain manner, learning is weakly conscious 2. human learns by imitating after teacher has shown model how to do a certain thing or task 3. try-mistake learning, learner knows the task and the goal, but the principle by which the problem could be solved is unknown 4. In the highest level of learning the learner is conscious and oriented to his/hers learning. Learner forms already in the beginning a picture of the whole that is to be learned. There are also two different strategies in learning: surface-strategy and deep learning-strategy Engeström (1994). The surface-strategy is strongly related to the three first levels and the deep learning-strategy is related to the last category. The target group or learners of our case company are adults. This means that most of them have long working experience thus they also have a quite large pre-existing knowledge of the subject, have good educational basis and also up to date information of the latest advancements in their fields of expertise. In this kind of situation it is not justified to try to use any of those three first categories. We recommend that the fourth category should be used. Learners should be provided with information that they can use. The prevailing social constructive conception of learning is encouraging teaching that is flexible and uses actively learners own strengths, so the learner will be responsible for his/hers own learning process (Eloranta 1996, 178). Also experimental learning (Kolb 1984) has been found out to improve the results of 10 learning, because the learner can reflect the substance of teaching to his/hers own experiences. Some principles in constructivism are: new knowledge is learned by using formerly learned knowledge social interaction has a important role in learning interpretation and understanding is done by many different ways and in this situation good interaction helps to create a shared understanding understanding is emphasised in learning learning is dependent on situation learning needs to have shared responsibility and social support (Kero, Leskinen, Mielonen, Piha, Vehkomäki 2004, 48). A constructivist teacher: understands the subject and the skills it needs that he is teaching understands and supports the different learning styles of his students knows the theoretical substance of learning and teaching processes so that he is able to continually improve his plans of teaching and reflect his own actions and thus be able to direct his own and students attention towards goals understands the meaning of social interaction masters the skills of social interaction (Kero et. al. 2004, 48). When world around us is more and more rapidly changing and thus the substance that we have learned transforms to inadequate, then the skills of learning come even more important. One must have skills that help him to learn in any given situation and substance (Kero et. al. 2004, 49). In this respect the learning that is done in work settings and teaching done by real work life experts has a great advantage from applying these principles. Feedback is also an important part of learning. It gives the student possibilities to interpret and make assessments from his skills and make judgements about his own solutions. This process is very important because it fosters learning. (Rauste-von Wright & von Wright 1997.) 11 We apply constructivism because the students are adults with working experience. The theory fits the demand that the adult students have when coming to courses their employer has sent them to. 2.2 David A. Kolb's experiential learning theory While searching an appropriate learning theory for our purposes we took into use David A. Kolb s theory of Experiential Learning. His model bases on his wide experience of adult learning. He is interested in the nature of individual and social change, experiential learning, career development and executive and professional education. This model is made up of four elements: concrete experience, observation and reflection, the formation of abstract concepts and testing in new situations. Picture 1. Kolb s cycle of experiential learning. (Kolb s learning cycle 1996.) According to Kolb learning can begin at any one of these four points and it continues step by s
Related Search
Similar documents
View more...
We Need Your Support
Thank you for visiting our website and your interest in our free products and services. We are nonprofit website to share and download documents. To the running of this website, we need your help to support us.

Thanks to everyone for your continued support.

No, Thanks