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OBSAH : STRANA: 1. THE PROPER CHOICE OF WORDS ONE WORD FROM ANOTHER ONE WORD AND ANOTHER ONE WORD FOR ANOTHER ONE WORD OR ANOTHER ONE WORD, MANY MEANINGS STYLE 18

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OBSAH : STRANA: 1. THE PROPER CHOICE OF WORDS ONE WORD FROM ANOTHER ONE WORD AND ANOTHER ONE WORD FOR ANOTHER ONE WORD OR ANOTHER ONE WORD, MANY MEANINGS STYLE BUILDING SENTENCES THE SIMPLE AND CONCISE SENTENCE WRITING A PASSAGE OF GOOD, 20 CLEAR ENGLISH KEY 23 EXAMINATION TESTS 31 If you have breadth of vocabulary and vague idea of the elements of style of the English language, you will never be able to fully understanding an English person, read an English book, or write a clear English letter. To help you build on the foundation of a basic vocabulary and enlarge your knowledge of English words, we have included exercises into this Guide where you can compare one word with another, find out which words are related to each other, and where by learning words of opposite meaning you learn two words instead of one. We have tried also to think of the difficulties you may have when translating from one lenguage to another. You will find a number of hints about English words which, although they sound similar and look the same, have totally different meaning. The second section of this Guide is devoted to style. This you will practise in exercises on sentence structure, paraphrasing and summarizing. When you have mastered the elements of this work, with the aid of the model answers, you will have learned something which will be of invaluable help, not merely in the examination, but also afterwards. A person who knows what good style is will be able to write effective English. The model answers to every exercise can bu quickly found in the key. But you should not look at key until you have done your best to find the right answer. If, when checking your answers with the key, you notice that you are meking too many mistakes in a certain section, do not go on. Practise again and again until you are confident, then it is worth continuing. Above all do not get discouraged when you make a number of mistakes at first that is what we expect. Everything in this Guide is written for you` it contains only those points which an Slovak student with insufficient practicient practice often gets wrong. 1. THE PROPER CHOICE OF WORDS The English language is very rich in the variety of its words. You will never get very far in your English studies without a minimum vocabulary, and you will certainly never get real enjoyment from an English book or be able to say exactly what you want without an even wider vocabulary. Some students think that they can increase their store of words with the help of a dictionary;this is quite hopeless. Although a good dictionary is a necessity, it can be very dangerous and lead you into making unnecessary mistakes. Basically, for all its richness, English is a simple language. however, this is, of course, a generalization and does not help you. In this section we have chosen a number of different ways of helping you to ncrease your vocabulary and get a thorough grasp of the multitude and variety of the world of English words. HOW TO MAKE THE BEST USE OF THIS SECTION: Each group of exercises is concerned with a particular problem. Here are a few words of advice and help. O n e W o r d f r o m A n o t h e r : In order to answer the questions there is no pattern which you can follow. You must learn each separate case as you meet it. You will find it easier to learn the new words by using them in sentences, and you will be able to see how they work. When you write such sentences, make sure that the meaning is clear and that you are talking about everyday matters and objects in the same way as an English adult might. O n e W o r d a n d A n o t h e r : This exercise is to help you to practise your feeling for the language. It will also help you when you come to use an English-English dictionary. Remember that in the second part of the exercise there is more than one answer. Try to find the word you think fits best. O n e W o r d f o r A n o t h e r : Although we often hear and use the word synonym there is hardly a word which means exectly the same as another word. In spoken English we do not worry about slight differences, but in written English the proper choice of words is very important. Try to make your definitions in the second exercise short but quite clear. O n e W o r d o r A n o t h e r : Here again we have had you, the Slovak student, particularly in mind. The words given in this exercise often lead to the small mistakes which spoil a good piece of work. O n e W o r d, M a n y M e a n i n g s : Here you will find training for the writting of an exact translation. We have given you a number of examples of words which can be translated into Slovak in many different ways. Notice in particular that not only one word on its own may have many meanings, but that the addition of a adverbial particle to a verb can give it a totally different meaning too. 1.1 ONE WORD FROM ANOTHER a ) A d j e c t i v e f r o m N o u n s : Make adjectives from the following nouns: 1. act 11. fury 2. courage 12. wit 3. wealth 13. sensibility 4. responsibility 14. thought 5. peace 15. curiosity 6. space 16. confidence 7. anxiety 17. logic 8. home 18. vocation 9. talk 19. defect 10. honour 20. substance b ) A d j e c t i v e f r o m N o u n s : Here is a list of adjectives; each adjective can be made into a noun: 1. capable 11. secure 2. deep 12. scarce 3. solid 13. greedy 4. difficult 14. necessary 5. able 15. economical 6. high 16. silent 7. bright 17. efficient 8. wide 18. tactful 9. stupid 19. co-operative 10. accurate 20. hot c ) N o u n s f r o m V e r b s : Please from nouns from the following verbs: 1. to accept 14. to fly 2. to advise 15. to give 3. to enquire 16. to establish 4. to happen 17. to mean 5. to occur 18. to refuse 6. to calculate 19. to offend 7. to choose 20. to oppose 8. to compare 21. to use 9. to consider 22. to think 10. to decide 23. to translate 11. to differ 24. to act 12. to dislike 25. to reply 13. to accomplish d ) A d j e c t i v e s f r o m V e r b s : Find the adjectives which correspond to the following verbs: 1. to like 14. to manage 2. to hate 15. to show 3. to bear 16. to please 4. to cost 17. to sin 5. to forget 18. to legalize 6. to forbid 19. to fill 7. to sell 20. to impress 8. to sleep 21. to heat 9. to spring 22. to thank 10. to act 23. to think 11. to compete 24. to value 12. to rain 25. to offend 13. to stick e ) Please put in the correct noun or adjective taken from the above lists: 1. He is interested in financial and political problems, so he had better study My oldest daughter, aged ten, looks after her younger brother in quite a motherly way; she feels... for him. 3. I like vodka and garlic, but I have a strong... of beer and onions. 4. Our little boy was at the honey-poy again he feels... all over! 5. I have looked for a flat for months now and I am very... indeed to get this one. 6. The... of the water in the swimming pool is seven feet. 7. Sometimes I can t get the motor to start, said the motorist. Well, answered the mechanic. The starter is Luther s... of the bible is famous all over the world. 9. Sunny weather is a good thing, but there have to be... days as well. 10. The sun was blazing down from a cloudless sky and the people had deserted the square, fleeing into their house from the My father plays football every Sunday and walks for two hours every day; I think that he is very... for his age. 12. Driving a car without a driver s licence is not He is an accomplished pianist, but he lacks the... of the really great artist. 14. What is the... of this word? 15. I feel so... I cannot hold my eyes open for another minute. 16. The profits from six companies have made him very The... of the bank is guarded by a new bulgar alarm system. 18. Those two eggs look identical to me or do you see any...? 19. We want to get rid of our house, but it is so big and old that it is hardly.... f ) Add prefixes to make negatives or opposites: 1. legal 14. moral 2. honest 15. to continue 3. responsible 16. symmtrical 4. loyal 17. contented 5. logical 18. fortune 6. patient 19. accesible 7. like 20. complete 8. possible 21. modest 9. efficient 22. normal 10. productive 23. limited 11. punctual 24. resolute 12. necessary 25. to agree 13. credible g ) O p p o s i t e s : What are the words opposite in meaning to the following? 1. hot 14. full 2. rough 15. strong 3. wide 16. rude 4. different 17. wet 5. clever 18. useful 6. sad 19. heavy 7. wealthy 20. difficult 8. good 21. loose 9. late 22. refusal 10. fast 23. poverty 11. question 24. professional 12. rare 25. finish 13. huge c ) Alter the following sentences in such a way that you can put the underlined words into their negatives or opposites: Example: This suitcase is not heavy. This suitcase is light. But please do not reconstruct the sentences in a purely mechanical way but take notice of the meaning of each sentence and consider, if reconstruction is necessary! 1. Carrying a gun with a licence is legal. 2. I do not like strong tea. 3. There are things that must not be done in hot blood. 4. He cannot go faster, be patient! 5. You want things that are not possible. 6. An honest man will not tell a lie. 7. It is bad for your health to sleep in wet clothes. 8. You cannot work very well on a full stomach. 9. It just isn t like you to be punctual. 10. We agreed about most points of the agenda. 1.2 ONE WORD AND ANOTHER a) Complete the following sentences by choosing the correct word from the possibilities given. 1. I would like to thank you for your... invitation. (pleasant, nice, kind) 2. Can you tell me the... way to the station? (nearest, shortest, nex,) 3. Nty wife liked the flat because the rooms were.... (delicious, spacious, luxurious) 4. We have a very... gardener, he is always working. (industrial, industrious, diligent) 5. They are giving... performances of the film. (continuous, continual, continuing) 6. This ice cream tastes really.... (good, well) 7. He earns good wages because he works.... (hardly, hard) 8. She has... enough to eat these days. (hard, hardly) 9. Please treat this... it is strictly.... (confidential, confidentially) 10. Smith won the race because he ran so.... (fast, quick) 11. Please... me to buy some more cigarettes. (remind, remember) 12. Don't forget to... me to your parents. (remind, remember) 13. He... the machine in the workshop. (proved, tested, proofed) 14. She... her handbag at her friend' s house. (left, forgot) 15. The director was pleased because he was... good businesswith England. (making, doing) 16. These oranges were... in Spain. (grown, produced) 17. My friend has a sweet... sister. (little, small) 18. Immanuel Kant was a... philosopher. (great, big, large) 19. The 'Daily Mirror' has one of the... circulations in the world. (greatest, largest, biggest) 20. The answer to your question is... obvious. (quite, completely) b) Now we are leaving the choice completely to you. In each sentence a word is missing. Which word can you put in the gap to make the sentencecomplete and to give it a clear meaning? 1. The mistake was quickly Walking on the grass is strictly After the fire the building was completely The firm was asked to... the goods at once. 5. These shoes do not... me, they are too big. 6. That hat does not... you, green is not your colour. 7. The room looked so dull that they had the painters in to... it. 8. The library... many travel books. 9. The crocuses were in... early in February. 10. Speak... so that we can understand you. 11. We have... been here for thirteen days. 12. His words were... inaudible hope 1 shall be able to... my difficulties. 14. Do not... the flowers in the park, it is not allowed. 15. The old lady... a sigh of relief when she saw her dog again. 16. His curiosity was... by the strange parcel. 17. How are you going to... the furniture in this room? 18. I... everywhere for my book, but I could not find it. 19. The village... in a quiet valley among the hills. 20. The committee was formed to... money for the new church tower. 1.3 ONE WORD FOR ANOTHER a) Complete the second sentence by a word of similar meaning to the underlined word in the first sentence. This procedure will show you that in most cases you cannot exchange one word for another in the same context, even though the two words may have, largely spoken, the same meaning. 1. A clear pronunciation will help you to make yourself understood. I have the... feeling that my salary is going to be raised. 2. What are your plans for the future? He wanted to see her again, but all his... to meet her by accident fell flat. 3. I am afraid I have quite forgotten your name. That is... your own business. 4. It surprised me very much to see him suddenly coming down the street. He was... at my good memory. 5. He is a most eager pupil. The shopkeeper was most... to please us. 6. Why won't they permit us to travel across the border? Dogs are not... at the butcher' s. 7. The fence prevents the cows from getting out of the field. How are you going to... me taking my revenge? 8. It was a great mistake to start smoking, 1 spend too much now. There is a... somewhere in this machine. 9. We had never got on well at our previous meetings. He often visits his... school. 10. He grew up in very objectionable surroundings. There are many pleasant walks in the She is a very sensible girl. I shall sell the house if you make me a... offer. 12. Tom never enjoys big parties, he is far too shy. There was a... knock at the door. 13. The lioness defendes her cubs savagely. He looked... around for a place to hide. 14. As a secretary she is perfectly competent. I am quite... to come to my own decisions. 15. After the final curtain the lights went down in the house. When the... guest had left I went to bed at once. 16. Will you please come back at a more suitable time? Well, yes - of course, perhaps at seven o'clock if that's...to you. 17. The directors of the firm presented Mr. Jones with a gold watch when he retired. My wife... me a gold watch for my birthday. 18. I think, I hear somebody at the front-door. Don't... everything you hear! 19. We are glad to inform you that we obtained a fifteen year lease on the house in question. He always wants to... the last word. 20. The publishers displayed their books to the best advantage at the fair. She... herself in the best light. b) Try to explain the meaning of the following words by giving a short definition, Example: skill - special ability 1. opportunity 13. remote 2. gap 14. to remove 3. summary 15. suspicion 4. to reason 16. incident 5. to reconcile 17. continual 6. recent 18. continuous 7. property 19. various 8. conscience 20. different 9. comment 21. to prefer 10. contemporary 22. sample 11. obvious 23. to remember 12. mood 24. to remind 1.4 ONE WORD OR ANOTHER The words in the following groups are very often confused by foreign students. Please put in the correct word: 1. remember/remind He... me strongly of his brother whom I... very well. 2. drive /ride They went to Italy, that is she... in the car with him as far as the frontier, and then she took a train while he...on to Rome. 3. agree/accept But yesterday we... that we would never... such terms! 4. spectacle/spectacles The coronation was a really impressive... ; what a pity that I had forgotten my..., so I could not see very well. 5. custom/customs I is the... with most tourists never to cross a frontier without trying to smuggle something through the manner/manners His... left everything to desire, but the affected... he adopted when in the presence of a lady was quite unbearable. 7. break/brake When he put the... on, the car... down completely. 8. beach/coast/shore 1 like to lie in the sun on a sandy... or to walk along the rocky... of Cornwall, but most of all I love the green... of the Thames. 9. childish /childlike I' m afraid of the dark, she said and looked at him with wide... eyes.... he answered shortly. Don't be 10. bring/take... this invitation to your master, but don't... me no for an answer. 11. ansver/reply Have you... your brother' s letter yet? No, I haven't had time to... to it. 12. formally/formerly...i used to go to Epsom every year, he said and bowed latter/later ... in the year John and Peter went to London, but only the... stayed there through the winter. 14. straight/ straits When we've passed the... of Dover we'll go... to bed. 15. last/latest On the table lay The Mystery of Edwin Drood , Dicken' s... novel, and the... copy of Life magazine. 16. loose/lose The right front wheel of your car is so... you're most certainly going to... within the first mile! it 17. proof/prove There was not enough... to convict him of the crime, but on the other hand he could not... his innocence. 18. product/produce He owned a firm in London and a farm in Wales. but while he could not find a market for the firm' s... in Wales he could at least sell part of his farm... to tourists from London. 19. principal/principle The... reason for Mr. Jones becoming the... of the local grammar school was his friendship with the chairman of the Board. 20. conscious/conscientious She was a most... secretary and she was very... of this fact. 21. personal/personnel The... of my firm do not like to be asked... questions about their families. 22. definite/define She could not... her feelings towards him, but she was quite... that she was not in love with him. 23. temporal/temporary On my... stay in London I visited the House of Parliament and there I learned that in the House of Lords there are lords spiritual and lords advise/advice Can you... me what to do with my dog when I'm away? My... would be to leave it with your neighbour. 25. beside/besides She sat... the stove, crouched in her chair. There were other people there... her but I could not make them out in the dim light. 26. council/counsel They took... among themselves and decided to submit a petition to the local... asking them to do something about the roads. 27. economic/economical The... value of your salary does not corne to much if you are too... with your money and do not spend it. 28. storey/story Do you know the gruesome... about the lady who jumped from the fifty-fourth... of a skyscraper? 29. nearest /next The... station is five miles off and the... train is leaving in ten minutes' time! 30. publish/publicize Don't go around... (-ing form!) the fact that your new book our firm is going to... next spring hasn't been written by you at all! 1.5 ONE WORD, MANY MEANINGS a) Translate the following sentence's into Slovak. The thick word is the same in each group but be careful, the meaning is always different. 1 Verbs 1. They have asked the United Nations to settle the matter (dispute). 2. Tile grocer went to the wholesaler to settle his account. 3. The Pilgrim Fathers settled in North America. 4. If you agree to my plan then everything is settled. 5. Mummy, cried the little boy, I've broken another window! - That settles it! said his mother and sent him to bed. 6. The English firm met with strong competition on the continent. 7. We are afraid we are unable to meet your wishes. 8. Quite by chance I met your brother this morning. 9. Mary is very selfless, she even meets her travelling expenses from her pocket money. 10. I must get the car out and go to town to meet John at the station. 11. Have another cigar, Peter, they are really very light. 12. I had my hair cut at the new hairdresser's today. 13. Let's have a walk this afternoon, it' s such a lovely day. 14. I always have my breakfast in bed on Sundays. 15. My wife thought it was time we had a day at the sea again. 2. Adjectives 16. It looks as though we are going to have fair weather today. 17. We can t complain, we bought first class goods at a fair price. 18. Do you prefer girls with fair hair, or do you prefer dark hair? 19. She did not know how much money I had in my pocket, but she made a fair guess. 20. I have saved a fair amount of money. Don't you think we should build a house of our own? 21. It is quite easy to learn to drive a
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