SOON-OK MYONG. Культурная Aнтропология (6D Philosophy) - PDF

Al-Farabi Kazakh National University UDC 008: On manuscript right SOON-OK MYONG Identity politics of Kazakhstani Koreans (Cultural Anthropological approach) Культурная Aнтропология (6D Philosophy)

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Al-Farabi Kazakh National University UDC 008: On manuscript right SOON-OK MYONG Identity politics of Kazakhstani Koreans (Cultural Anthropological approach) Культурная Aнтропология (6D Philosophy) Dissertation submitted in fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) Supervisors Prof. Dr. Nurzhanov B.G. Al-Farabi Kazakh National University Prof. Dr. Kang Shin-pyo Inje Univesity Kimhae, Republic of Korea Republic of Kazakhstan Almaty, CONTENTS ABBREVIATION AND NOTATION 4 INTRODUCTION 5 1 THEORETICAL AND ANTHROPOLOGICAL BACKGROUND Conceptions of Ethnicity, Diaspora, and Nation Literature Review on the Former Soviet Koreans Cultural Anthropological Methodology Fieldwork and research method 23 2 KOREAN DIASPORA S STATUS AND BOUNDARY Korean Diaspora Formation in Primorski Krai Migration History of Primorski Koreans Status and Ethnic Competence of Primorski Koreans Settlement of Soviet Koreans in Central Asia Persecution and Hardship of Compulsory Migration Adaption and Status of Soviet Koreans Soviet Dissolution and the Status of Kazakhstani Goryeoin The 88 Seoul Olympics and Emergence of a New Motherland Birth of an Independent Republic and the Indigenes Nation-State Construction and the Status of Goryeoin 53 3 IDENTITY FORMATION AND DIVISION OF FORMER SOVIET KOREANS Model Soviet Koreans Language and Naming Differentiation of Korean Ethnic Group Old comer and Newcomer Inner Mainstream and Non-mainstream: Primorski and Sakhalinski 81 4 IDENTITY POLITICS OF KAZAKHSTANI KOREANS Seoul Olympics and Intensification of Soviet Korean Ethnic Identity Ethnicism Incited by the Olympics From the Enemy «South Joseon» to Another Native Country Ethnic Language: from an «Obstacle to Success» to an «Ethnic Asset» Speak-out of the Minority Expectations and Disappointments with Motherland Korean Cacophony between Motherland Korean and Goryeoin in Economic Activity 104 2 4.2.2 Historical Re-evaluation on the Former Independence Movement Activists and the Scandals Becoming Citizens of an Independent State Politics of «Kind Kazakhs» Politics of «Must-Learn State Language» INTERPRETATIN OF KAZAKHSTANI KOREANS IDENTITY POLITICS Vulnerable boundaries and the liberation of the minority Construction of Boundary with South Koreans Significance of Indigenous Language for Kazakhstani Koreans 124 CONCLUSION 127 REFERENCE 131 3 ABBREVIATION AND NOTATION АПРК ГАПК ГАХК АНК АКК АКНЦ КАХАК СОВНАРКОМ ВКП-б AO Joseon Wonho Yeoho Kazris Koryeo Ilbo Lenin Kichi Haezo Shinmun Daedong Gongbo Daeyangbo Kwoneop Shinmun The Presidential Archive of the Republic of Kazakhstan The State Archives of Primorski Krai The Archives of the State Archive of the Khabarovsk Krai The Assembly of People of Kazakhstan Korean Association of Kazakhstan Almaty Korean National Center Korean Scientific & Engineering Society Council of People's Commissars Union Communist Party of Bolsheviks Autonomous oblast The former name for Korea in the last Dynasty era before Japanese annexation of Korea Korean name for citizenship holders of Russia Korean name for citizenship non-holders of Russia First Korean Kolkhoz for Rice farming in Kazakhstan before forced migration under Stalin regime Korean ethnic newspaper in Kazakhstan The former Soviet Goryeoin newspaper The former Korean nationalist newspaper against Japanese colonialism in the Far East The former Korean nationalist newspaper against Japanese colonialism in the Far East The former Korean nationalist newspaper against Japanese colonialism in the Far East The former Korean nationalist newspaper against Japanese colonialism in the Far East 4 INTRODUCTION General characteristics of the work: Based on anthropological approach, this study attempts to explore Kazakhstani Koreans dynamic identity politics in social cataclysm due to a series of landmark events such as the 1988 Seoul Olympics, dissolution of the Soviet Union, and independence of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Relevance of the work: Traditionally, anthropology has attempted communications with other world and pursued self-reflections constantly. Western anthropologists intellectual efforts called ethnography since the Enlightenment with the fieldwork to understand colonial societies for imperialist necessities have contributed to studies on others. The studies to which Western anthropologists have devoted were based on such definite boundaries as we and they in their works. The sights of looking at other cultures as being fixed while assuming that cultures within specific boundaries are essential and homogeneous have become challenged [1, p.354]. After the emergence of post-fordism in the 1970s that rejected staying at traditional industry and production methods any more, global society has faced to multi-layered and complicated situations. In the situation that global village became smaller by compressed space-time, and the boundary of a state that have been believed as a unified, independent, and separated space was weakened, new terminologies were come into being such as globalization, trans-nationalism, and postmodernism. Also, the emergence of various personal identities raised a question on the existing frame in which identity had been considered essential [2, 1]. While post-colonialist theorists noticed boundary sites which are agitated in the constant correlations between confronted subjects as regards the matter of the dominant and the dominated [3, 4], postmodernists focused on indeterminate and fragmented subjects, and other cultural studies theorists explained identity as a matter of «becoming» instead of «being», as a constructive process of becoming unstable and fluidic subjects [5]. Just as the past imperialists aimed one united and homogeneous society and then united constituents, the Soviet system has integrated all people while allotting territory and ethnics artificially according to the power s willingness, and thus made them «homo sovieticus». The Soviet downfall made independent states of indigenes, which could become the characteristic of liberation to indigenes even though the past pains remained, but migrants became left over as ambiguous beings as neither the people of the motherland, nor the perfect citizens of the independent state. As this kind of ambiguous being is laid in scopes that cannot be subsumed by existing identity theories along with the emergence of various post-colonial beings, new research scopes such as diaspora, hybridity and fluidic subject are arising nowadays. Goryeoin as the research target are the same nationals with the motherland Koreans, having the homogeneous blood-tie but completely different cultural topography. Unlike defining Goryeoin as the homogeneous russianized Koreans in the existing researches, the Goryeoin have suffered from deep-seated schism among diverse inner groups, and from renewal pain of fitting for citizens in new independent 5 country. Furthermore they spurted despair and resentment to motherland and made noise with Koreans in Kazakhstan, unlike having identified with motherland people by which Korea emerged as the wealthy capitalist homeland during the 88 Seoul Olympics. Based on cultural anthropological approach, the study discloses Kazakstani Korean s diversity and dynamics in political process of which Goryeoin appeared inner tension, harmonization and re-division making cultural boundaries with the others. The purpose and the tasks of study: The study establishes following tasks so as to identify the dynamic identity politics of Goryeoin as an ethnic minority in the new external conditions of the dissolution of Soviet Union and Kazakhstani independence. 1. To discuss theoretical background of terms on ethnos, nation and diaspora, and cultural-anthropological methodology with the conduct of fieldwork: participatory observations; in-depth interviews; informal interviews; 2 To examine the settlement history of immigrant Korean as an ethnic minority, and then identify limitations and positions in the host society according to the social change; 3. To explore the historical process of Goryeoin migrants identity formation, and then examine the inner variety and differentiation process of the group; 4. To represent the political process through the narratives of Goryeoin shown in schism, tension, and harmonization in Goryeoin society. 5. To interpret and analyze cultural significance from many voices of Goryeoin noticing the disturbance of boundaries between: major and minor groups; themselves and motherland Korean; themselves and indigene, due to the external structural change such as the 88 Seoul Olympics, the open-door wave, the disruption of existing host society and the independence of host country. Research object: The research aims for exploring the dynamics and fluidity of identity politics in Kazakhstani Goryeoin. Research Subject: The study of subject is Goryeoin s narratives to interpret and represent memories and experiences through participatory observation and informal interviews. To explore a political process of identity which is deconstructed and reorganized in specific historical and social contexts, the study applies professionalized anthropological methodology, and theoretically based upon the non-essentialist view of ethnic identity. Research methods: The research is grounded upon anthropological methodology. The methodological approach is based on as follows: 1. The research data from participatory observation, in-depth and informal interview, which is applied with developmental research sequence of ethnography by James P. Spradley [6, 7] who gives a professionalized and systematized model for participatory observations and interviews; 6 2. Experimental ethnography centered on insider s view, the exploration of researcher and polyphonic voices in writing, cultural relativism; 3. Thick description by Clifford Geerts [8] which explores the hidden structure and context of hierarchically multi-layered meanings beyond the limitations of phenomenal and superficial observations. Activities and information on fieldwork are as follows: 4. Research subject is Kazakhstani Goryeoin in Almaty, elderly (average age: 71 years old) experienced in former Soviet System; 5. Fieldwork places are Goryoin Chorus practice room and Almaty Korean National Center, Korean Evangelical Church and Korean Won Buddhism; 6. The performed period of fieldwork is from June 2010 to October Participatory observation was conducted in worships, chorus rehearsal, and subsequently in-depth interview and informal interview were done; 8. Informal interview was done by 19 Informants in their convenient time and comfortable place such as personal home, cultural center, church and outsides; 9. Ethic principles [6, 7] adapted for cultural anthropologists in Council of the American Anthropological Association in 1971 are applied to the research. Scientific novelty: Beyond the previous superficial studies on Goryeoin society that stayed at utilizing document-based data or questionnaire survey, this study analyzed the inner depths of Goryeoin society through anthropological research based on participatory observation and in-depth interview, which provides new significance of research as follows: 1. Avoiding a homogenous-ethnic perspective in approaching ethnic minority or migrants, this study revealed the variety and dynamics inside the kazakhstani Korean ethnic group based on the insiders view; 2. Escaping from a viewpoint of considering identity fixed and essential, this study highlighted the fluidity and vulnerability of its boundary, capturing the scenes at which an inner boundary built by the Korean subgroups was augmented or dissolved by the relative change of heterogeneity and homogeneity according to the context of external environment; 3. Instead of the existing researches cyclical discussion of identity on how much an ethnic group assimilated to the residential society and how much it kept the traditional and cultural elements of the motherland, this study analyzed the value and significance of life interpreted by the Goryeoins themselves disclosing correlations and tensions inside the group; 4. This study suggested a viewpoint that productions of exclusive discrimination and oppositional dichotomous frame toward a minor subgroup within the Korean ethnic group were not so much ascribed to essential difference, as to a stereotype with negative emotion strengthened by past experiences and memories; 5. The study revealed for the first time in Korean Studies that internal conflicts between different groups of Goryeoins positioned unequally by external power led to constant cognitive violence to the weak who had been marginalized by the strong, using a new power-methodology in cultural anthropology; 7 6. The study disclosed an emotional psychological aspect of the Kazakhstani Koreans. The weak and repressed group psychologically as a non-subjective being who concealed themselves from the power could not speak out their subjective voice to the outside in residential society. The conflict of linguistic identity is due to past social and psychological traumas which lasted across generations from fearful experiences and memories of extremely being repressed by the Soviet power. Statement submitted for defense 1. The ethnicity of Kazakhstani Korean is as constructed and fluidic, not essential, in the process of division, harmonization and re-division due to massive social changes; 2. The difference, the majority s differentiating resource into the minority, is produced and reproduced holding up a dichotomous frame of superiority versus inferiority by mobilizing past experiences and memories about the preoccupation of social foundation, different ideology between two motherlands, and stereotypes on different characters; 3. The augmented heterogeneity or homogeneity that makes schism, conflict and harmony within the group is easily connected with emotion such as the selfish sense of superiority, disgrace and sense of insults; sense of absolute ethnic homogeneity; 4. Exclusive emphasis on one identity gives repression and violence to others. The old comer appropriates all private and public realms in the ethnic group, absolutizing the basis of survival and russianized values. The newcomer is a chronic target of cognitive violence. By the way, the target of contempt is not another but the same ethnic group; 5. The boundary between the self and the other based on the oppositional dichotomy is vulnerable by emphasis on heterogeneity or homogeneity. Approbation of work: The material of this research were presented and discussed at: 10 th International conference on Korean Studies entitled Central Asia and Diaspora (Almaty, Kazakhstan, Central Asia Association for Korean Studies, 2010); International Scientific Round-table Conference on People and World of Tradition (Almaty, Kazakhstan, 2010); 14 th International Scientific and Conference on Modernization of the Kazakhstan Economy: Actual Problems of Postcrisis Development (Almaty, Kazakhstan, 2010); International Conference on Kazakh Culture between Tradition and Experiment dedicated to the 20th anniversary of Kazakhstan's independence (Almaty, Kazakhstan, 2011); Turkbilimdergisi-08 (Baski Tarihi, Turkey, EGE University, 2012); Collection of Treatises in Celebration of the 20th Anniversary of the Establishment of Diplomatic Relations between the Republic of Korea and the Republic of Kazakhstan entitled Exchange of Korean and Kazakh Studies (Seoul, Korea, Hanyang University, 2012); World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology (Paris France, Issue 66 June 2012). Scientific-theoretical and practical significance of the work: The research data are based on anthropological methodology - participatory observation, in-depth and informal interview - by participating in Goryeoins activity sphere in Almaty. Applying qualitative and microscopic method, the study represents and interprets the 8 significance and value of the Kazakhstani Goryeoin s lives by exploring inside dynamic ethnic group, and thus identifies that the identity of Kazakhstani Goryeoin is seen as variable and dynamic, not so much essential. Structure of the dissertation: This dissertation consists of abbreviation and notation, introduction, 5 chapters, conclusion, and references. The manuscript contains 140 pages including 10 tables. In the dissertation chapter1 gives the methodological and theoretical perspective of the research, and reviews previous work on nation and ethnic identity and Goryeoin studies. Chapter 2 investigates status and boundary of the former Soviet Koreans in Kazakhstan. The 3 rd chapter shows the identity formation and division of Goryeoin ethnic group in historical context. The last chapter represents narratives of Kazakhstani Goryeoins and interprets and analyses their political essentializing process of identity in transitional period. Publications: The material presented in the thesis published in 13 journals and conferences listed below. 1 Генезис древней корейской народности и её кочевая культура // Вестник, КазНу им. Аль-Фараби, Серия философия, Серия культурология, Серия политология). Алматы, (34). P Claude Lévi-Strauss experiences in Korean tradition // 10 th International Conference on Korean Studies, Central Asia Association for Korean Studies, August 14, Almaty, P Transnational Era and Identity Issues // International Round-table Conference on «Человек и Мир Традиций». - Almaty: KazNU, P Anthropological Approach in Marketing Research // 14th International Scientific and Practical Conference on Modernization of the Kazakhstan Economy: Actual Problems of Postcrisis Development, 2-3 December, Almaty: UIB, P The Study Viewpoints on Others in Anthropology // Философский Альманах, Серия Философские Науки. Алматы, (45). - P Постмодернизм и идентичность // Вестник, КазНу им. Аль-Фараби, Серия философия, Серия культурология, Серия политология. Алматы: КазНУ, 2011, - 1(36). P Мультикультурализм и политика идентичности // Мир человека, философский и общественно-гуманитарный журнал. Алматы (47). P Политика идентичности: ассимиляция и различия // Казахстанская Культура : Между Традицией и Экспериментом, материалы международной научно-практической конференциии. Алматы: КазНУ, P Experimental Ethnography in Cultural Anthropology // Turkbilimdergisi, - Baski Tarihi: EGE University, Турция. 03, (8). P Sorrows of Goryeoin Exile Intellectuals from North Korea and Aspirations for Motherland Reunification // Collection of Treatises in Celebration of the 20th Anniversary of the Establishment of Diplomatic Relations between the Republic of 9 Korea and the Republic of Kazakhstan: Exchange of Korean and Kazakh Studies, - Seoul: Hanyang University, Korea (01). P Identity Politics of Former Soviet Koreans: One of Most Prominent Heritages of 1988 Seoul Olympics // International Conference on Identity, Culture and Communication, June , WASET 2012 Paris France. P Identity Politics of Former Soviet Koreans: One of Most Prominent Heritages of 1988 Seoul Olympics // Proceedings of World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology. June 2012 Paris France. - Issue 66. P Postmodern Media and Shifts in the Structure of Identity // Kazakhstan: Culture, Traditions, and Contemporary Issues, Vol.1 MT: ICET (International Center for Education and Technology, LLC), USA, P 1 THEO
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