Seismic Response of the San Salvatore Hospital of Coppito (L’Aquila) during the 6th April 2009 earthquake

Seismic Response of the San Salvatore Hospital of Coppito (L’Aquila) during the 6th April 2009 earthquake

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  159 Effects on structures and infrastructures 2.8.1 Introduction The recent earthquake of 6 th  April 2009 signifi-cantly hit the city of L’Aquila and its surround-ings both for the serious number of casualtiesand for the damage suffered by residential andimportant structures. Among the latter, one of themost important is surely the San Salvatore Hos-pital of Coppito, the crucial point of the hospitalsystem in the area of L’Aquila, which was com-pletely evacuated during the emergency due thedamage at various floors of the buildings. A thorough analysis of the hospital facilities hasshown besides the essentially non-structuraldamage also some aspects of the construction of the hospital complex, which might be crucial for the seismic response to future shocks and there-fore open more critical damage scenarios.Other smaller hospitals located in neighbouringurban areas showed minor damage, allowingpartial absorption of emergencies, thus reducingthe enormous overload on the field hospital set up close to the San Salvatore Hospital. Recent  valuations, in fact, have shown that more than1500 injured received assistance during thedays after the emergency, which confirms thetremendous impact on the hospital system.The hospital structure has been designed in1966 and took about 30 years to build entirely.Such an information is particularly important if related to developments in domestic seismic reg-ulation. In fact, the first Italian seismic law, con-sidered a forerunner of the most modern ones, was n. 64 of 2/2/1974 (Gazzetta Ufficiale,1974), issued after the 1974 Ancona earth-quake. Previously, references to seismic law came from Royal Decrees (e.g. Regio DecretoLegge n. 2105 of 22/11/1937), while duringthe Republic era there was Act n. 1684 of 1962(Gazzetta Ufficiale, 1962) that followed theCampania earthquake of 21/08/1962, and was later completed by Act. n.1224 of 5/11/1964 (Gazzetta Ufficiale, 1964), and by the Act n. 6090, 1969 (Ministero dei LavoriPubblici, 1969) issued after the Belice earth-quake. However, such references were orientedtowards defining heights, thicknesses, executivemethods and quality of materials rather thancalculation methods and design criteria. After the 6 th  April earthquake, only 3 buildingsout of 15 in the San Salvatore complex sufferedconsiderable structural damage. This was limitedto small areas and primarily was due to evident issues that will be described in detail later in this work. There was slight and relatively limited non-structural damage and significant non-structuraldamage in only a few buildings. In these latter inner partitions significantly helped the lateralresistance by dissipating the earthquake’s energy and suffering critical damages (Fig. 1).The basement and semi-basement part of thecomplex, mostly made up of reinforced concrete walls, showed a stiff box response without sig-nificant damage. Finally, no evident damage was observed in the foundation structures.From the point of view of the human safety, themost widespread and relevant non-structuraldamage was that of exterior façade bricks, cov-ering the entire surface of all the buildings. Sucha coating, not linked to the interior walls, in many cases was partially or totally detached. No sig-nificant damage was observed on the equipment and internal mechanical devices inside.The present paper aims to briefly describe theactivities carried out by Eucentre in San Salva-tore Hospital during the days after the mainshock. Data on the geometric and instrumentalsurveys carried out in the emergency and post-emergency phases are presented together withthe assessment of the damage and usability of the buildings. Finally an example is presented of the vulnerability assessment of one of the hospi-tal buildings, using a simplified procedure. 2.8 Seismic Response of the San Salvatore Hospital of Coppito (L’Aquila)during the 6 th  April 2009 earthquake C. Casarotti 1 , A. Pavese 1-2 , S. Peloso 1  1 Fondazione Eucentre - Centro Europeo di Formazione e Ricerca in Ingegneria Sismica, Pavia.  2 Dipartimento di Meccanica Strutturale, Università degli Studi di Pavia.  2.8.2 The Eucentre intervention unit  Usability assessment surveys and the subsequent detailed tests were carried out using a systemdeveloped by Eucentre, designed and built under the STEP Project, Strategies and Tools for Early Post-Earthquake Assessment (Casarotti et   al., 2009). The system consists of a Mobile Unit (Fig. 2, left), three inspectors teams, an experi-mental team and a central coordination unit. TheMobile Unit’s equipment includes several tools toperform non-destructive or semi-destructive in-situ tests, including thermal imaging, GPR(Ground Penetrating Radar), pachometer, scle-rometer, accelerometers, geophones, flat jacks,equipment for dynamic identification. Suchequipment is completed by a hardware and soft- ware system for retrieving, analysis and storageof data.The mobile unit both supports in field testing andcataloguing of the information, to build a data-base and share it on the web through highspeed satellite connection. The equipment includes, besides data processing hardware andsoftware, also instruments for the vulnerability assessment of buildings, at various levels of accuracy.In emergency conditions, the evaluation systemcan operate both as an aid and as completion of the units directly managed by the Civil Protec-tion.160 Progettazione SismicaFig. 1Evidence of the reinforcedconcrete frame structurethrough the damagedpartitions: Building 9 (a);Building 10 (b).Fig. 2The Eucentre Mobile Unitand a scheme of thecommunication system. 2.8.3 Description of the structures of the SanSalvatore Hospital In terms of typology, the San Salvatore Hospitalcomplex consists of a series of reinforced con-crete frame structures, with interior and exterior masonry walls, built from the mid ‘70s on, andput into service in the second half of the ‘90s.Some of the buildings of the complex are not hospital property.The buildings differ in typology, materials andheterogeneous construction details dependingon the different age of construction. A covered walkway connects the various blocks on four floors, two above ground and two underground.There are several building typologies: L-shapedof 2 or 3 storeys, tower blocks of 3 or 4 floors,in-line buildings of 2 or 3 storeys and someground-level buildings. Most of them have one a. b.  Building 11 (Other property)Group 1Group 2Group 3Group 4Group 5Building 1Building 10    B  u   i   l  d   i  n  g  D  e   l  t  a 8  Building L3 Building L4 Building L5Building L1 Building L2Building 9Church    B  u   i   l  d   i  n  g  D  e   l  t  a 7   B  u   i   l  d   i  n  g  D  e   l  t  a 6 Building 3A Building 2A Building 3BBuilding 2BBuilding 6 (Other property)Building 12 (Other property) or two basement floors.The approximate date of construction and themain function of the various blocks, identified onthe basis of the numbering given in figure 3, wasprovided by the Technical Department of thehospital and is shown in table 1.161 Effects on structures and infrastructuresFig. 3Site plan with differentblocks (the groups ofbuildings identify theclassification of usability asdescribed in section 4). Table 1  - Buildings of the San Salvatore Hospital complex, Coppito, L’Aquila Denomination Function Construction ageBuilding 1 Thermal Power station and refectory 1977/78Building 2 Analysis laboratories 1976/77 Building 3 Diagnostics and radiotherapy 1976/77 Building 9 Emergency room 1978Building 10 Pharmacy and operatory rooms 1978/79Building L1 Direction 1983/84Building L2 Obstetrics and gynaecology 1983/84Building 6 Wards 1987 Building L3 Oncology 1979/80Building L4 Infectious Diseases 1979/80Building L5 Neurology 1983/84Delta 6 Wards 1987 Delta 7 Medical Delta 1985Delta 8 Surgical Delta 1980  2.8.4 Usability surveys and structural response The buildings of the hospital complex have beenrepeatedly checked because of a succession of significant after-shocks related to the so-calledseismic swarm, and were grouped into cate-gories depending on the assessed damage. All the buildings have an exposed brick wallcovering, which is not enough or not at all con-nected with the infill panels and the reinforcedconcrete frame structure. These are thereforecritical for human safety since they can be dan-gerous and might fall onto the walkways (Fig.4). Another type of frequent and potentially dan-gerous non-structural damage is the completedetachment of the coating of many of theground floor tiled walls.In all the buildings of the complex there are alsoseveral structural joints of sizes and characteris-tics not appropriate to shock induced movements.The resulting local pounding between adjacent bodies caused localised damage, somewhereparticularly evident. Figure 5, for example, showsthe damage to a structural joint ending on the topof a column, which have caused an abnormalconcentration of pressure on the joint. Figure 6shows the cracking continuing in the ceiling fromthe damaged joint in the wall, found in a connect-ing walkway (Building 2).Some local damage have been caused becauseof improper construction detailing, at least according to current seismic design criteria, suchas the not always appropriate confinement of the structural elements, the insufficient concretecover (Fig. 7), the presence of columns madesquat by the infill masonry walls (Fig. 13). Group 1: usable buildings Regarding the basement, 6 metres underground, where the thermal power station is located,Building 1 shows moderate non-structural dam-age, particularly in the offices at the lowest floor.The portion housing the power plant shows a162 Progettazione SismicaFig. 4Damage to the coating ofBuilding 2 (a), Building 9(b) and Building L3 (c).Fig. 5Improper structural jointending on the top of acolumn. structural joint  a. b. c.  moderate damage in some beams, mainly as aresult of the relative movement of the Gerber half joint, and it is therefore usable.The rest of the building, however, shows greater damage in the upper storeys, even if it does not constitute a danger to the floor below, and it istherefore to be considered unusable. Group 2: buildings that can be made usable with short term countermeasures Some buildings with slight non-structural dam-age can be reopened shortly, and therefore canbe usable by means of simple short term coun-termeasures, among which: removing fallingcladding, plaster and detached coatings, mak-ing safe damaged false ceilings, repairing light damage to claddings and partitions, checkingall the fixings hanging from cladding and falseceilings, in order to evaluate the possibledetachment risk, creating localized barriers to 163 Effects on structures and infrastructuresFig. 7Examples of impropertransversal reinforcementand insufficient concretecover in Building 2A and inthe external connectingwalkways.Fig. 6Damaged structural joint onwall extending to ceiling.
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