REVISTA ECONOMICĂ. Journal of economic-financial theory and practice - PDF

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REVISTA ECONOMICĂ No. 4-5(63)/2012 Journal of economic-financial theory and practice CNCSIS reference: B+, Code 478 Frequency: 6 issues / year ISSN: Indexed in: RePeC Ulrich`s Periodicals Directory

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REVISTA ECONOMICĂ No. 4-5(63)/2012 Journal of economic-financial theory and practice CNCSIS reference: B+, Code 478 Frequency: 6 issues / year ISSN: Indexed in: RePeC Ulrich`s Periodicals Directory DOAJ - Directory of Open Access Journals Editor Prof. Dan POPESCU Ph.D., D.H.C. of University of Rennes 1, France and Dr.H.C. of Academy of Economic Studies of Moldova Deputy Editor Prof. Liviu MIHĂESCU, Ph.D. Editorial Board Prof. Dan POPESCU, Ph.D., D.H.C. Lucian Blaga University of Sibiu, Romania Prof. Liviu MIHĂESCU, Ph.D. Lucian Blaga University of Sibiu, Romania Assoc. Nicolae EȘANU, Ph.D. Lucian Blaga University of Sibiu, Romania Assist. Alin OPREANA, Ph.D.candidate Lucian Blaga University of Sibiu, Romania Assist. Eduard STOICA, Ph.D. Lucian Blaga University of Sibiu, Romania Assist. Florin MARTIN, Ph.D.candidate Lucian Blaga University of Sibiu, Romania 2 Scientific Committee Prof. Dan POPESCU, Ph.D., Dr.H.C. Lucian Blaga University of Sibiu, Romania Prof. Liviu MIHĂESCU, Ph.D. Lucian Blaga University of Sibiu, Romania Prof. Livia ILIE, Ph.D. Lucian Blaga University of Sibiu, Romania Acad. Prof. Iulian VĂCĂREL, Ph.D. Romanian Academy Prof. Lucian Liviu ALBU, Ph.D. Director, Institute of Economic Forecasting of the Romanian Academy, corresponding member of the Romanian Academy Prof. Sergiu CHIRCĂ, Ph.D., Dr. hab. Academy of Economic Studies of Moldova, Honorary Member of the Romanian Academy Prof. Mircea CIUMARA, Ph.D Director, National Institute of Economic Research Prof. Viorel CORNESCU, Ph.D. The University of Bucharest, Romania Prof. Francesco D'ESPOSITO, Ph.D. The Gabrielle d'annunzio University, Pescara, Italy Prof. Ion POHOAŢĂ, Ph.D. Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iaşi, Romania Prof. Robert LABBÉ, Ph.D. University of Rennes 1, France Acad.Prof. Grigore BELOSTECINIC, Ph.D.Dr.hab., D.H.C. Academy of Economic Studies of Moldova Prof. Alexander KOSTOV, Ph.D. Director, Institute for Balkan Studies, Sofia, Bulgaria Assoc. Nicolae PETRIA, Ph.D. Lucian Blaga University of Sibiu, Romania Assoc. Răzvan ȘERBU, Ph.D. Lucian Blaga University of Sibiu, Romania Lect. Bogdan MÂRZA, Ph.D. Lucian Blaga University of Sibiu, Romania Prof. Carmen COMANICIU, Ph.D. Lucian Blaga University of Sibiu, Romania Prof. Emanoil MUSCALU, Ph.D. Lucian Blaga University of Sibiu, Romania Prof. Ilie ROTARIU, Ph.D. Lucian Blaga University of Sibiu, Romania Assoc. Mihaela HERCIU, Ph.D. Lucian Blaga University of Sibiu, Romania Assoc. Silvia MĂRGINEAN, Ph.D. Lucian Blaga University of Sibiu, Romania Assoc. Claudia OGREAN, Ph.D. Lucian Blaga University of Sibiu, Romania Assoc. Cristina TĂNĂSESCU, Ph.D. Lucian Blaga University of Sibiu, Romania Assoc. Marian CRISTESCU, Ph.D. Lucian Blaga University of Sibiu, Romania Lect. Dan Alexandru POPESCU, Ph.D. Lucian Blaga University of Sibiu, Romania Lect. Liviu FLOREA, Ph.D. Washburn University, USA Prof. Eugen IORDĂNESCU, Ph.D. Lucian Blaga University of Sibiu, Romania 3 Lucian Blaga University of Sibiu 10 th Victoriei Bd. Street , Sibiu, Romania Center for Economic Research Lucian Blaga University of Sibiu 17 th Calea Dumbrăvii Street Phone/Fax: (+4) , Sibiu, Romania G.P.E. «Continent» 2 nd Dr. Ion Raţiu Street Phone: (+4) , Sibiu, Romania Copyright All the copyright of the present volume belongs to Revista Economică. All rights reserved. All the papers of the present volume were peer reviewed by two independent reviewers of the Scientific Committee of the Revista Economică. Acceptance was granted when both reviewers recommendations were positive. The authors have the full responsibility of the papers presented in this volume. Mail: Web: 4 CONTENTS MARINESCU Paul, TOMA Sorin-George LEADERSHIP AND THE SOURCES OF POWER 7 MĂRGINEAN Silvia, ORĂȘTEAN Ramona CONTAGION PHENOMENA: OCCURENCE AND TRANSMISSION MECHANISMS MÂRZA Bogdan, SAVA Raluca, ȘERBU Răzvan CONSIDERATIONS ON ECONOMIC INFORMATION SYSTEM OF PROFIT UNITS 36 MUSCALU Emanoil, STANIT Alexandra EMPLOYMENT TREND AND UNEMPLOYMENT ISSUE IN ROMANIAN ECONOMY CRIŞAN Silviu PURCHASE STRATEGY NECESSITY AND CONSTRAINTS 58 COMANICIU Carmen, BUNESCU Liliana SEVERAL COORDINATES REGARDING CIVISM TAXATION POPESCU Doris-Louise, BELAŞCU Lucian THE ROMANIAN VILLAGE IN THE CONTEXT OF ITS TRADITIONAL ISSUES AND OF THE PRESENT GLOBAL CRISIS TODERICIU Ramona, FRATICIU Lucia CHANGES AND CHALLENGES OF THE CONTEMPORARY KNOWLEDGE BASED ECONOMY BLAJ Robert, SAND Camelia, CIORTEA Gligor WOODS, THE MOST COMPLEX TERRESTRIAL ECOSISTEM BRĂTIAN Vasile, OPREAN Camelia THE LIVING LOGICAL SYSTEM PARADIGM ON THE KNOWLEDGE OF THE ECONOMIC PROCESS BANU Ilie, BUTIUC Ioana-Mădălina OPTIMAL FISCAL SYSTEM AND PUBLIC FINANCE SUSTAINABILITY INDICATORS IN EAST EUROPEAN COUNTRIES WITHIN THE EU BUNEA Daniela EVOLUTION OF INCOME DISPARITIES AND MIGRATION WITHIN ROMANIA: BRAIN DRAIN OR BRAIN GAIN? BURCEA Marin A MULTIREGIONAL ANALYSIS OF THE ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN ROMANIA S RURAL AREAS IN THE CONTEXT OF EUROPEAN FUNDING OPPORTUNITIES CIUMARA Tudor, O MAHONEY Joe THE ENVIRONMENTAL CONTINGENCIES OF KNOWLEDGE DISSEMINATION: THE CASE OF CONSULTANCIES IN INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT 172 JABA Elisabeta, BALAN Christiana Brigitte, OŢELEA Marina THE ANALYSIS OF THE DISTRIBUTION OF EUROPEAN COUNTRIES ACCORDING TO THE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT LEVEL AND HEALTH STATUS OF THE POPULATION POLLIFRONI Massimo GLOBAL CRISIS: SEARCHING THE ORIGINS BY BUSINESS ECONOMICS POPA Ionela, CODREANU Diana, ALBICI Mihaela FISCAL AND BUDGET POLICIES MAJOR COMPONENTS OF ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL POLICY MIX IN ROMANIA AT PRESENT AND IN FUTURE ȘTEFAN Raluca-Mariana, ŞERBAN Mariuţa NEURAL NETWORK PRINCIPLES TO CLASSIFY ECONOMIC DATA. 223 VINTILA Denisia FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENTS IN POLAND: TREND AND EFFECTS ON THE ECONOM DRUICĂ Elena, CORNESCU Viorel, IONESCU Vladimir-Codrin BETWEEN SUBJECTIVE AND OBJECTIVE IN MAKING DECISIONS ON THE ROMANIAN HIGHER EDUCATION MARKET Article ERRATUM 252 6 LEADERSHIP AND THE SOURCES OF POWER MARINESCU Paul 1, TOMA Sorin-George 2 University of Bucharest Abstract The aims of our paper are to demonstrate that power can influence the quality of leadership in a system and, that the leader of an organization can choose to delegate power to the employees, keeping them motivated and improving the overall performance of the organization. The ability to influence others is based on native traits and constitutes a product of personal development. The TeamWork association, comprising students mainly from the Faculty of Administration and Business, University of Bucharest, is a good example of the way in which power and leadership influence each other contributing to the development of a system. Keywords: leadership, power, team, strategy JEL classification: M12 1. Introduction Since the earliest times, the subject of leadership, viewed as both the art and the science of organizing people to achieve a common goal, has been the subject of numerous researches. Philosophers, military, political and economical leaders have all tried to shad light on the specific abilities that allow some people to have significantly better results then others in leading, motivating and influencing people or groups. 1 Professor, Faculty of Administration and Business, Department of Economical Science, University of Bucharest, Romania, 2 Professor, Faculty of Administration and Business, Department of Economical Science, University of Bucharest, Romania, 7 Like any subject that arouses such interest the study of leadership has yielded an extremely large but not always extremely relevant literature. In the rush to identify different points of view, authors have analyzed the styles of different military leaders (from Attila the Hun to Abraham Lincoln), philosophers ( If Aristotle Ran General Motors ), spiritual leaders ( The 25 Most Common Problems in Business: And How Jesus Would Have Solved Them ) and even fictional characters ( Winnie-the-Pooh on Management ) making this ocean of writings extremely difficult, and sometimes even frustrating, to navigate. Even the seemingly simple task of defining leadership proves to be more complex then would seem at a first glance, because different schools of thought view leadership and the attributes that make if effective from different angels, highlighting some aspects and disregarding others. In short, we think that leadership can be viewed as the ability to organize people and there efforts in a certain direction. In this respect, it is very important the ability to bring different forces together, to motivate them to work together, but above all else the ability to determine and define common goals or ideals. The aims of our paper are to demonstrate that power can influence the quality of leadership in a system and, that the leader of an organization can choose to delegate power to the employees, keeping them motivated and improving the overall performance of the organization. 2. Leadership Theories The multitude of theories on leadership makes an exhaustive presentation extremely difficult, however we think that this theories can be grouped in three main categories based on the aspect they find dominant. From these point of view we can identify theories that focus of the leaders traits, theories they emphasis the leadership style and theories that study the conjuncture in which leadership takes place. From a historical point of view the first approach considered that leaders owe there success to some innate traits that differentiate them from the rest of the people, this is known as the trait theory of leadership. This school of thought began with the ancient philosophers, especially Plato in The Republic and Plutarch in Parallel lives tried to find an answer to the question What qualities distinguish an individual as a leader? . The same path was followed by Thomas Carlyle who in his On Heroes and Hero Worship and 8 the Heroic in History (1841) analyzed the importance that heroic leadership had on the evolution of human society. In his work Hereditary Genius (1869) Francis Galton examined the leadership qualities present in the families of powerful man. After having analyzed the number of brilliant persons among the first and second degree relatives of powerful people, and observing a decrease among the latter, he concluded that leader s abilities are inherited, in other words that leaders are born and not formed. The biggest drawback that critics of this school of thought have identified is that by focusing on innate abilities leadership becomes the sole attribute of a few chosen by destiny and can not be replicated by other people. In analyzing this view we have to take into account, in our opinion, the historical context in which it evolved. In that period very few commoners could hope to achieve positions of power in society, so it was easy to consider leadership as the trait of an elite. It is also clear that members of this elite had every reason to portrait themselves as special, chosen by destiny and thus justify the privileges they held. Although this initial theories are now outdated, some aspects of the trait theory of leadership are still relevant, even if they bare little resemblance with the original. Although the idea of innate abilities essential to someone s success as a leader is a thing of the past, there are a few configurations of traits that seem to be common to a series of top level managers in public and private organizations, among this the most frequently mentioned are: intelligence, initiative, self-confidence and the ability to see the big picture. After conducting a study among top-level managers John W. Hunt of the London Business School concluded that some of the factors they consider most important are: the ability to work with different types of people, taking on global responsibility for important tasks, setting high goals for personal development, extensive experience in management positions from early in the career. An alternative school of thought focuses on the way leaders behave in order to determine individuals and groups to accomplish a certain task. Leadership styles became a subject of analysis after the publishing, in 1983, of the White and Lippit study in which the authors identify three different styles that can be chosen by a leader, each with its own advantages and disadvantages. The authors identified the autocratic style, in which the leader makes all the decisions, and which they consider functional only if the 9 leader is always present; the democratic style, in which decisions are taken after consulting all the members, a style they consider most efficient all-round and the laissez-faire style, in which the members of the group work independently, the leader being generally absent, and which they consider efficient only if the tasks and objectives are clear to all the members beforehand. One very useful model in the leadership style theory is that developed by American psychologists Robert Blake and Jane Mouton. In this model they rank leadership style according to the relative importance they give to two aspects, they consider of paramount importance: focus on production and focus on people. From this point of view focus on production means the importance leaders put on completing the organizational goals and the authors quantify this on a scale from 1 to 9 (1- totally unimportant and 9-totally important), and focus on people means the importance given by leaders to motivating team-members, satisfying there needs and creating a friendly atmosphere, quantified on the same scale. In this frame of reference the authors identify five basic styles: style 1,9-Country-Club Management (highest interest for people, low interest for production, strong chances of not meeting the goals because of the atmosphere being to friendly), style 9,1- Authority-compliance Management (highest interest for production, low interest for people, likely to generate tensions between group members and the leader), style 1,1- Impoverished Management (low interest for people, low interest for production, total lack of interest from the leader, high chance of inefficiency), style 5,5- Middle of the Road Management (medium interest for people, medium interest for production, an overall balanced style, should aim to become 9,9), style 9,9- Team Management (high interest for people, high interest for production, maximum involvement by leader, is very likely to lead to efficiency). The leadership style approach offers a more in-depth approach to the study of leadership because, according to this view, a manager can change and improve his leadership abilities, the accent being put not on innate and thus impossible to duplicate abilities, but on the effort made by every leader on personal development and optimal use of the authority of position to influence individuals and groups. The third school of thought considers leadership as the product of a series of circumstances and, from this point of view, one can not define an ideal style of management, but should struggle to find the best option in every 10 given situation. This school of thought analyzes leadership at an even deeper level then the leadership style theory because it treats every situation differently and takes into account other variables except the leader s behavior. The most influential authors that support the conjuncture theory are Robert Tannenbaum and Warren H. Schmidt who, in 1958, developed a model that analyses the connection between the way leaders use there authority and the freedom of choice there followers have. From this point of view a leader starts by holding most of the decision making powers himself, and then begins to gradually delegate them to the members of the group once they start gaining abilities, maturity and involvement. Although the trend is towards delegating, the leader maintains the ability to act in an authoritarian way if the circumstances demand it (for example, if a situation arises in handling which the group members lack experience). A very important aspect according to this school of thought is that the decisions that a leader makes aren t solely based on his personality (although this remains an important factor) but also on the interactions with his followers (their abilities, attitudes, etc.), the task at hand and the context in which he (and his group) have to function. Seen from this point of view leadership isn t regarded as an individual process anymore, but as a collective one, as we can not analyze a leader in the absence of a team, and we can hardly understand a team disregarding the task or the environment. This approach focuses on the leader s capacity to adapt to the context he has to navigate in and, on the other side, suggests that he might, at some point, create contexts. We can, to some extent, consider that today s virtual context will become tomorrow s reality. In the contexts he has to act in, or that he creates, the leader has to balance the abilities his team members have and the roles assigned to them, on one side, and the completion of the tasks at hand according to the applicable performance criteria, on the other. 3. Power sources and strategies of influence Whichever of the models presented in this paper, or for that matter, whichever of the many different models available in the literature we decide to choose, it is clear that we can t analyze leadership in the absence of its main catalyst, and that is power. If we define power as the ability of an individual or a group to influence other persons or groups, the next notion we need to 11 define is that of influence. Generally influence is viewed as the process through which a person or a group gains the ability to affect what another person or group does or thinks. From this point of view, it is clear that the bear nature of a leader is strictly connected to his ability to hold and use power over the members of his group, to his capacity to influence that group s members and to the way he can gain authority over them. The power of a person or group is not a inherent trait, rather it is based on a few sources, or basis. The way in which these are held and used in a certain context determines the level of power that the person or group actually holds. Generally we can differentiate between power based on resources, social power, expertise power, personal power, power based on information and power based on force. At the level of a group or organization some of this sources are considered legitimate, while the use of others (like physical force, for example) is banned. Power based on resources is based both on the rarity of those resources and on the ability of the holder to use them according to his will. In case this two conditions aren t meet at the same time we can talk about partial power at most. At the same time the value that others place on those resources determines the exact level of power the holder has. Power of expertise is based on the professional capabilities the holder has and, at the same time, on the value the group members place on that knowledge at a given time. We can differentiate between technical knowledge and process knowledge (the difference between knowing how something can be done and how something should be done). Personal power is given by the qualities a person has, and is from this point of view, close to expertise power, in some instances the two can overlap. Usually, these qualities are hard to quantify and measure as they also depend on the way a person is viewed by the group members. Social power depends on the position formally held in a group or organization but also on the more complex social relations a person has developed, both formally and informally, with the stakeholders of that group or organization, the latter being usually the most important. Power based on information gained a paramount importance in today s context when, although the access to information is easier than ever, the importance they hold in any organizatio
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