РЕПРЕЗЕНТАЦИЯ КОНЦЕПТА «СЫЛГЫ/ЛОШАДЬ» В ЯЗЫКОВОМ СОЗНАНИИ НОСИТЕЛЕЙ ЯКУТСКОГО ЯЗЫКА - PDF

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РЕПРЕЗЕНТАЦИЯ КОНЦЕПТА «СЫЛГЫ/ЛОШАДЬ» В ЯЗЫКОВОМ СОЗНАНИИ НОСИТЕЛЕЙ ЯКУТСКОГО ЯЗЫКА DİLSEL BİLİNÇ AÇISINDAN ANADİLİ YAKUTÇA OLANLARDA SYLGY / AT KAVRAMI REPRESENTATION OF THE SYLGY/HORSE CONCEPT IN THE

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РЕПРЕЗЕНТАЦИЯ КОНЦЕПТА «СЫЛГЫ/ЛОШАДЬ» В ЯЗЫКОВОМ СОЗНАНИИ НОСИТЕЛЕЙ ЯКУТСКОГО ЯЗЫКА DİLSEL BİLİNÇ AÇISINDAN ANADİLİ YAKUTÇA OLANLARDA SYLGY / AT KAVRAMI REPRESENTATION OF THE SYLGY/HORSE CONCEPT IN THE LINGUISTIC CONSCIOUSNESS OF THE YAKUT NATIVE SPEAKERS Postgraduate student Alina VASILYEVA ABSTRACT This article attempts to identify and describe the methods of conceptual indications forming the structure of the sylgy / horse concept in the Yakut linguistic consciousness. Studies of national and cultural identity of the Yakut linguistic consciousness in terms of socio-cultural and linguistic contacts may serve as a scientific and methodological basis for a more in-depth study of language processes, including the mental lexicon of the ethnic group. The study is based on the analysis of semantics of the sylgy / horse concept and associative-verbal network of linguistic consciousness of the Yakut native speakers. It is shown that the traditional world view and perception of the world are reflected in the traditional knowledge, linguistic and mythopoetic consciousness of the Yakut people. Key words: linguistic consciousness, concept, traditional culture, associative reactions. РЕЗЮМЕ В статье предпринята попытка выявления и описания концептуальных признаков, формирующих структуру концепта «сылгы/лошадь» в языковом сознании якутов. Исследования национально-культурной специфики языкового сознания якутов в условиях социально-культурных и языковых контактов могут послужить научно-методологической базой для более углубленного изучения языковых процессов, в том числе ментального лексикона этноса. Проведено исследование на основе анализа семантики концепта «сылгы/лошадь» и ассоциативно-вербальной сети языкового сознания носителей якутского языка. Показано, что традиционное мировоззрение и мировосприятие находят отражение в традиционном знании, языке и мифопоэтическом сознании якутов. Ключевые слова: языковое сознание, концепт, традиционная культура, ассоциативные реакции. ÖZET Makalede yakut dilinde «сылгы/at» kelimesinin belirtileri üzerinde çalışılmıştır. Sosyal-kültürel ve dilsel temaslar şartlarda Yakut ların dil bilinç özelliklerindeki millikültürel özelliklerini incelediğimizde bilim açısından dilin gelişme süreçlerinin ve ulusun mantalite sözlüğünün daha da etraflıca araştırmamız mümkün olmaktadır. İşbu çalışma «сылгы/at» kelimenin anlamı ile Yakutçanın çağrışım-sözlü ağlara dayalı yapılmıştır. Çalışmalar sonucunda geleneksel dünya görüşler ile dünya kavramlar tarafından Yakut Dilinin, destan bilincinin ve ilminin oldukça etkilediği tespit edilmiştir. Anahtar Kelimeler: Dil bilinci, kavrayış, geleneksel kültür, çağrışım karşılıkları. Nowadays, in the modern development of the society the trends to understanding the traditional culture of ethnic groups are becoming more and more relevant, the preservation and development of national traditions of each nation, its independent contribution to the general treasury of human culture are updated. Legitimate processes of globalization are opening new opportunities for the development of all aspects of life of the countries, peoples and of the individual, but at the same time, creating new threats to their existence. In this regard, preservation of the traditional culture of the peoples of the North becomes a particularly acute problem of the scientific discourse. The longevity of the nation depends on the maintenance of self-consciousness, ethnic memory, which represents an important psychological mechanism to ensure cultural continuity. The research in the study of linguistic consciousness, linguistic processes in particular, mental lexicon of the Yakut ethnic group, promotes the development of mechanisms for updating language preservation and revival of national culture in a globalizing world. The structure of the world view is shaped in the early stages of ethnogenesis, and remains largely immutable throughout the life of an ethnic group. It defines ethnic identity and uniqueness of a particular culture and, hence, its bearers are the members of an ethnic group comprising a social community characterized by a specific cultural model, which mediates the nature of their activity in the world (Zamorshchikova: 2012, 124). The processes taking place in the bowels of the language can determine the location of the elements of traditional culture in the ordinary minds of people; identify the cultural identity of linguistic consciousness of the Yakut. The Yakut language is one of the most archaic Turkic languages spoken by about half a million people. The Yakut language has been actively supported by the policy of national culture revival in the last two decades, and the fact that there were attempts to study the introduction the ethnic elements of traditional culture in the everyday consciousness of representatives, their place in the culture of the people is the most interesting. Study of the elements of traditional culture of the indigenous peoples of the North, including the representation of the sylgy / horse concept in the linguistic consciousness of the Yakut is an interesting material for the study of deep values and features of the tradition of horse breeding as part of the material and spiritual culture of the people. Since ancient times the reflection of the cult of the horse in the Yakut image of the world is primarily due to the fact that the horse was of great importance not only in their economy (husbandry), culture and way of life, but also played a major role in the spiritual life of the Yakut people. Yu. S. Stepanov notes that a concept is a clot of culture in the human mind, the form of how culture is perceived in the mental world of the individual; on the other hand, it is a means of how one enters into the culture. The concept exists in the mental world of a person not in clear terms, but as a bundle of ideas, concepts, knowledge, associations and emotions that accompany the word, it also includes the complex structure of the concept, and what makes it a factor of a culture (Stepanov, 2004: 43). The object of study is the content of the sylgy / horse concept in the Yakut linguistic consciousness. The subject of the study is the specifics of the Yakut linguistic consciousness related to the functioning of the sylgy / horse concept. The aim is to identify and describe the conceptual features that form the structure of the sylgy / horse concept in the linguistic consciousness of the Yakut people. In our work we used the following methods: free association experiment; semantic and cognitive analysis; semantic gestalt by Yu.N. Karaulov. The study materials are the Yakut language dictionary by E.K. Pekarskiy (1958), Dictionary of Yakut language edited by P.A. Sleptsova (2004, 2006), Associate dictionary of Yakut language and brief Yakut-Russian dictionary by T.I. Petrova (2006). The sylgy/horse concept is objectified in the Yakut language by the words sylgy / at (horse). According to the Yakut language dictionary by E.K. Pekarskiy, the word sylgy is the common name of horses, mares and stallions, horse cattle, horses (as a collective). Sylgylar horses, mares, mare; sylgyta, ynaga his mares, cows, his horse and cattle; kulunnaakh sylgy mare with foal; bylyt sylgyta false foggy mare, which the tricky and at the same time powerful shamans brought up at the sky instead of the real one, but such horses are not accepted by the gods in the sky (Pekarskiy: 1958, 2446). The word at which is synonymous in the Yakut language Explanatory Dictionary edited by P.A. Sleptsova is defined as: miinerge, kelyerge tuttullar djie sueһyte (ogustan, tabattan uraty) - domestic horse, draft animal (horse) (Sleptsov: 2004, ). According to N.V. Kryuchkova, in order to describe the concept in its synchronous state, it is necessary to study synchronously the representations of the concept in the lexical-semantic system of a language, supplemented by the possibility of analyzing the results of experiments and associative learning of discursive functioning of the words that are lexical representations of the concept. Such analysis allows us to see what certain concepts contain and to identify the relationships that exist in the conceptual system of the native speakers. Associative experiments material makes it possible to identify the largest majority of concept features that are most relevant to the current state of consciousness (Kryuchkova: 2005, 23). The semantic gestalt method (SG), constructed by Yu. Karaulov, is used to interpret the analysis results of the associative field of the sylgy / horse concept. We have chosen this method because the gestalt embodies the aspect of language consciousness of a native speaker, which is associated with the reflection of the surrounding reality, the images of the national-cultural world, photographed in their native language, and reveals the ethnonational specifics in the Yakut language (Sentries: 2000, ). Semantic gestalt is one of the ways of representing knowledge about the world in the linguistic consciousness of all languages and cultures. The analysis materials are associative reactions obtained from the data of the Yakut associative dictionary edited by L.S. Zamorshchikova, I.Z. Borisova, and R.A. Romanenko. Associative dictionaries are considered as descriptive vocabularies (Sentries: 1996, 6). Association experiment provides a wide range of material for cross-cultural studies, identifies the universal characteristics of free associations, as well as the specific relationships between words in different cultures (Zalevskaja: 1977). According to the Yakut associative dictionary, reactions to the stimulus word sylgy (horse) were the following words (numbers indicate the frequency of reactions): at - horse 82 (6.7%); syeһy cattle -81 (6.6%); ynakh - cow 75 (6.2%), et - meat 63 (5.2%); kyyl - animal 52 (4.3%); siel - horsehair 39 (3.2%); kyulyunchyuk - colt 25 (2.1% ); Djehegey - Dzhesegey 23 (1.9%); ubaһa - foal up to 1 year old 21 (1.7%); bie - mare 19 (1.6%); yer - a herd 18 (1.5%); kymys drink, mare's milk; ete - meat 12 (1%); djie kyyla domestic animal; Djehegey ogoto young one of Dzhesegey; deriebine village; siele horsehair; serge horse standing 8 (0.7%); as food; sylgyһyt - groom 7 (0.6%); alaas - alaas (meadow surrounded by wooded hill); tyrgen fast; yere a herd 6 (0.5%); attar horses; baaj - richness; byar liver; Djehegey Dzhesegey; kuturuk tail; ot grass; tymnyy cold; khoton - shed, barn; yngyyr - seat 5 (0.4%); ajan - the long journey; baar there is, to be; mangan white; meat meat; sakha sakha; taba deer; tuyah hoof; yryng - white 4 (0.3%); at sүyyrdyyte - horse racing; deybiir waving thing; saiyn summer; syyryk runner; syyrer gallops; sylgy horse; syspay sielleeh - epithet of horses; ubaһa ete - young horse meat; kharta - horse colon 3 (0.3%); aiyy ogoto - the creation of the bright world; atyyr stallion; battah hair; byara liver; byang - abundance, wealth, prosperity; dogor friend; ideһe - slaughter cattle; kistiir to nicker; keme help; kumaar mosquito; kyһyn winter; minniges tasty; minniges et - delicious meat; ogoto young; saaga - horse droppings; sakha baaya - the wealth of the people of Sakha; sier roan; syarga sled, wood-sledge; sylaas warm; tong et - frozen meat; tyj - two-year colt; ulakhan big; yle work; khaar snow; khonuu - field, meadow; erel - hope 2 (0, 2%), Aan alahchyn - the spirit of nature; aat nickname; agal to bring; ayilga nature; ayilga kyyla - wild animal; ayii syeһyte - a divine animal; atahtaah - has legs; attammatah sylgy - entire horse; aһylyk food; baaj-duol wealth; balagan - chalet, farce; white white; borong - dark gray; buola - to walk on all fours; bukhatyyr hero; dal - corral, barnyard; danaa; doruobai healthy; doruobuya health; djie kharamaya domestic animal; Djehegej ayii - Dzhesegey deity; djyegelerim my friends; animal - an animal; iit to breed; karusel carrousel; kegechcher gray; kele team; kelyner kele - draft, working cattle; konyushya horse stable; kulun - foal up to 6-7 month old; kymys; kut - soul; kuttanabyn to fear; kuturuga tail; kyys force; kyysteekh strong; kyah - ability, aptitude; kyra small; kyraһyabaj beautiful; kyraһyabaj kyyl - beautiful animal; kyym - a spark; loshad horse; maany - honor, respect; miiner kyyl mount; miiner minge horse, a ride horse; ebyge teryte - from the time of the ancestors; ejdeekh smart; ojuur wood; olokh life; oto hay; saakh litter; salgyn air; sakhalar Yakut people; sakhalar attara - Yakut horse; sakhalar bylyrgy transportara - ancient transport (vehicle) of Yakut; sakhalar iiter djaryktara - employment of Yakut; Sakha massyynata - machine of Yakut; sakha syeһyte - cattle of Sakha people; sakha sylgyta - horse of Sakha people; Sakha teryte - the ancestor of the Yakut people; sedlo saddle; siteri - until the end, completely; sielleeh kyyl - an animal with a mane; siem to eat; sie to eat, sien eat; siehhe - let's eat; sovkhoz - state farm; stado - a herd; suol road; suola traces; suorat - sorat (boiled fermented milk); syyryy running; syyryyte riding; suһuokh plait; sya fat; syldjar to walk; sytar to lie; syһyy - plain, prairie, meadow; syydam fast; syyl to crawl; tabaarys comrade; tangara deity; taraһata peritoneum; taһyrdja - in the yard, on the street; tiis tooth; tebe head; tegyryk yj - the full moon; tuyah tyaһa patter of hoofs; tyullyuk bullfinch; tyert atakh - on all fours; tyyleekh wool; tyynnaah lively; yer at - a herd of horses; yer ata - a herd of horses; yot fire; uruu wedding; yyt milk; uһun long; uһun ajan - a long way, road; ychygej good; kharagy synnatyy - eyes have a rest; kharamaj animal; khara sylgy - black horse; khataaһylaa - to ride; khataaһylyyr to ride; khatyng birch; khaһaajystyba husbandry; khvost tail; (sylgy) chyychaaga wagtail; chyychaakh bird; yraakh far; yһyakh - ysyakh (national holiday); yһyakhtaaһyn to celebrate ysyakh; yytar - to be on horseback; emis - a thick; emteekh healing; erillibit et - minced meat 1 (0,1%). The total number of subjects is The number of different reactions The number of test failures The number of individual reactions The Yakut respondents gave the following most frequent response reactions to the stimulus word sylgy: at (horse) 82; syeһy (cattle) 81; ynakh (cow) 75; et (meat) 63; kyyl (animal) 52; siel (mane, horse hair) 39; kulunchuk (foal) 25; Djehegej (deity Dzhesegej) 23; ubaһa (foal in the first winter) 21; bie (mare) 19; yer (herd) 18; kymys, ete (mare's milk, young horse meat) 12; djie kyyla, Djehegej ogoto, deriebine, siele, serge (a domestic animal, a young one of diety Dzhesegey, village, mane, horse standing) 8; as, sylgyһyt (food, groom) 7; alaas, tyrgen, yere (alaas, fast, herd) 6; attar, baaj, byar, Djehegej, kuturuk, ot, tymnyy, khoton, yngyyr (horses, wealth, liver, Dzhesegey, tail, hay, cold, barn, saddle) 5, etc. Bulatnikova E.N. in her work highlights the association of denotative and cultural types, and explains the fact that the degree of density of the semantic connection of the received reactions with a stimulus word denotation is different (Bulatnikova: 2006, 64). In our analysis, we follow this procedure, as it is the most appropriate and allows fully revealing the semantics of the concept. Denotative associations are linked with the dictionary definition of the word sylgy that suggests a circle of sustainable, stereotypical associations, also words that are correlated with the name of the concept by sustainable linguistic contexts. As a result, the interpretation of the associates as linguistic representations of certain cognitive features that form the content of the sylgy / horse, concept we have summarized them in integrated cognitive features that can highlight certain areas in associative semantic fields. In line with this, we modified the SG method. The semantics of the word sylgy / horse contains components that reflect a functionally oriented view of the animal on behalf of the human. The first group of attributes of the concept identified by denotative reactions has reactions that call the different qualities of the horse-animal; they can be summed up in a semantic gestalt zone animal that makes up 34% (416). The stimulus word sylgy associates with at - horse 82, attar - horses 5-87, syeһy - cattle 81, kyyl 52, animal 1, kharamaj 1 animal 54, kulunchuk 25, kulun 1 - foal to 6-7 months - 26, yer 18, yere 6, stado 1 - herd - 25, ubaһa - foal to 1 year 21, bie - mare 19, sylgy 3, horse 1- horse 4, syspaj sielleekh - an epithet of horses 3, atyyr - stallion 2, tyj - foal from 1 to 2 years 2, yer at 1, yer ata 1 - herd of horses - 2, ogoto young one 2, ayilga kyyla - wild animal 1, sielleekh kyyl - an animal with a mane1, tyynnaakh - live 1 are interpreted as objectification of a generalized cognitive feature animal, and the frequency of individual associates summarized Domestic animal 85 - ynakh - cow 75, djie kyyla domestic animal 8, djie kharamaya - domestic animal 1, attammatakh sylgy - entire horse 1. The second group of denotative features belonging to the semantic field of the concept denotation refers to the substantial ones; they call the proper qualities of the animal, independent from the person. These characteristics include the associations, called the action and properties of a horse. Responses referred to the typical actions, quality and condition of the horse. We added them to the semantic zone signs, which are reactions, indicating activity, physiological characteristics, physical characteristics, and appearance: the percentage ratio - 5% (62). Physical structure / appearance 23 (kuturuk 5, kuturuga 1, tail 1-7, tuyakh - hooves 4, saaga 2 saakh 1 - horse droppings 3, ulakhan - 2 large, atakhtaakh has legs-1, tiis - teeth 1, tebe - head 1, tyert atakh - on all fours 1, tyyleekh - wool 1, emis - thick, kyra - small); Paint / coat pattern 14 (mangan 4, white 1-5, yryng - white 4, sier - roan, 2 borong - dark gray, kegechcher - gray, khara sylgy - black horse 1); The ability to reach speed 7 (tyrgen 6, syydam 1- fast); Need for food 6 (ot 5, oto 1 - grass 6); The ability to move 5 (syyrer - to ride 3, syldjar to walk 1, sytar to lie 1); Physical quality 4 (kyys - force 1, kyysteekh strong 1, kyakh - the ability 1, doruobaj - healthy 1); Typical sounds 3 (kistiir to nicker 2, tuyakh tyaһa patter of hoofs 1). The following semantic area evaluation includes reactions indicating characteristics of mental abilities, estimates characteristics: as a percentage - 0.2% (3). Aesthetic value 2 (kyraһyabaj - beautiful, kyraһyabaj kyyl - beautiful animal 1); Intellectual abilities 1 (eydeekh - smart 1). The third group includes denotative associations, called relational features, they represent associations that relate to the various aspects of interaction between animal and human. These features characterize the horse not as the subject of the natural world, but as an object, involved by a person in certain activities. We have identified the semantic zone the use, purpose, sphere, which includes word reactions, indicating the purpose, location, accessory items, sphere. It g
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