Rapid reading (Rychlé čtení) - PDF

Rapid reading (Rychlé čtení) synonyms: effective reading, dynamic reading text books: e.g. Papík, R.: Learn to read (in Czech) Grada, Praha 1992; Gruber, D.: Rychločtení, rychlostudium, info managementů,

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Rapid reading (Rychlé čtení) synonyms: effective reading, dynamic reading text books: e.g. Papík, R.: Learn to read (in Czech) Grada, Praha 1992; Gruber, D.: Rychločtení, rychlostudium, info managementů, MP Praha 2008 aim: to understand 70 80% of the text with a reading speed of words per minute; harmony between speed of reading and understanding of the text extent of understanding: precise and complete understanding basic ideas and remembering main facts and data 1 Writing systems pictographic and ideographic (pictures or symbols represent objects and ideas) - used by the ancient Chinese culture since around 5000 BC and began to develop into logographic around 2000 BC logographic (visual symbols - glyphs - represent words and meaningful components of words, but also some phonetic elements) e.g. Ancient Egypt, China, Japan segmental phonetic scripts (symbols represent basic unit of sound of a language) e.g. Latin alphabet (separate letters for both consonants and vowels), Hebrew (symbols for consonants only) 2 Readability fonts, styles, spaces: serif sans serif handwriting (cursive) like regular narrow bold upright italic lower-case UPPER-CASE letters spaces regular narrow extended the same spaces between words block alignment black on straw-coloured black on white white on dark coloured on coloured short and unhyphenated words well known unusual words font size, adequately wide columns correct illumination 3 Understanding the text perception - receiving and assumption of sensory information cognition - understanding in the process of thought speaking ( words per min) hearing (300) thinking ( ) eyes make short rapid movements - saccades (10 % of time) interrupted with short stops - fixations (0,2 0,4 s) at which we receive data (usually 7 9 letters) unskilled reader: 7 9 fixation per average line regression backward movement to the text which has been already read aim: 20 signs (3 words) per one fixation 4 History E. Javal 1878 eyes do not move continuously along a line of text, but make short rapid movements (saccades) intermingled with short stops (fixations) the first experimental course on rapid reading in 1925, University of New York the first textbook Pitkin, W.B.: The Art of Rapid Reading. New York training courses and centres in GB, France, Germany, later also in our country not suitable for reading imaginative literature 5 Reading standards in the USA basic school words per min lower classes of the secondary school upper classes of the secondary school university highly qualified Styleof thetext easy (250 words per min) normal (180) careful (135) difficult (75) extraordinary mother foreign language smooth elaborated mathematical typesetting 7 Bad habits articulation at reading, movement of lips, tongue and vocal cords (developed form of inner speech) mental repeating author's formulations pointing the finger in the text (but: proofs!) small eye extension (what we sense by one fixation) frequent regression movements unconcentrated attention passive reading (with no particular aim) 8 Active approach to reading particular aim of reading comprehension the text composition distinguishing substantial and useless concentration empathy with author's way of thinking asking questions in the course of reading 9 Orientation, cursory and selective reading orientation survey (10 min per article) = title, abstract, keywords, figure legends and tables (necessary language skills!), without dictionary! cursory reading (skimming, diagonal reading) = catch basic data and thoughts, quickly evaluate the importance, understand the fact of the matter selective reading (skipping, scanning) = to get sense 10 Memory short-time (s-min) - capacity for holding a small amount of information in mind in a readily available state for a short time long-time (fixing knowledge, skills, habits) indefinitely stores a seemingly unlimited amount of information, training by repeating particularly in the first moments after reading mechanical and logical (20-times effective) memory mnemonic tools written notes 11 SQ3R, Method of rational remembering There are 5 basic steps to follow using this methods, these steps are: survey (make comprehensive view quickly the structure, go through, contents) question (ask yourself questions, motivate your interest) Read recite (repeat what you have read) review (repeat gained knowledge) 12 SQ3R, Method of rational remembering SURVEY: acquire as much information as possible before reading an assignment, check the Table of Contents to see what you will be learning, read any handouts, go page by page through the chapter looking at subheadings, graphs, pictures, key ideas, italics, whatever attracts attention. Try to determine the organization/plan, main ideas of the material. 13 SQ3R, Method of rational remembering QUESTION - asking questions helps focus reading and study. Questions give purpose to the work and make it an active, rather than passive, process; read & think about any question in the text. Go page by page through the chapter again & ask yourself questions here and there about what you see. (Subheadings are especially easy to turn into questions.) W-type questions are easiest to ask. (Who, What, When, Where, Why, How?) 14 SQ3R, Method of rational remembering READ - read straight through if the material is easy to understand;difficult material should be read page by page, section by section, or even paragraph to paragraph; take notes, underline main ideas. RECITE - most study time is spent here. When you get to the end of a section: Stop reading, look away, or close your eyes and ask, What did I learn? ; Recite the answers in your own words; don t go on until you understand each section. 15 SQ3R, Method of rational remembering REVIEW - it is normal and natural to forget what you study. That is why review is so critical and must be done; Make a conscious effort to recall what you studied. Look again at the Table of Contents, outlines, and summary paragraphs. Think about the questions you asked and be sure you know the answers. Know details for the major points, and review previous material before continuing on. 16 Concentration Cerebral waves: - the brain emits waves and the various levels or states of consciousness (waking, sleeping, thinking, meditating, etc.) generate different types of waves which are registered by encephalograph β - they register when the person is awake at tension and stress, frequencies of Hz α - typical for states of relaxation, unconcern, placidness; they register in moments before sleeping 8 14 Hz, supported with auto-suggestion, autogenic training,during hypnosis θ (theta) during the dream and hypnosis; favors greatly the imagination, meditation and aimed concentration),4-7 Hz. δ - during the deep sleep without dreams, deep hypnosis, 1-3 Hz. 17 As an author short words of basic vocabulary short sentences no ballast no useless scientific terms explanation of terms (with exception of the basic terms of the field) correct building up of paragraphs and text subsections well-arranged pictures, tables 18 Rapid reading GAJU project report Thank you for attention 19
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