Presentación IFALPA Barcelona

1. The future is not anymore as it was 2. How is the future now? <ul><li>Every few years the available knowledge is multiplied by two.…

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  • 1. The future is not anymore as it was
  • 2. How is the future now? <ul><li>Every few years the available knowledge is multiplied by two. </li></ul><ul><li>It is not anymore feasible having encyclopedic men (No human head has enough room for the whole human knowledge). </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge is fragmented and shared. </li></ul><ul><li>Men are not anymore the only support for knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>The problem is not in the amount of knowledge but in its links and who is qualified to see them. </li></ul>
  • 3. But…Is this the IFALPA meeting or a session about epistemology? Let’s see
  • 4. The flight as it was… <ul><li>Hard to control. </li></ul><ul><li>Designers had to rely on </li></ul><ul><li>pilots’ ability. </li></ul>
  • 5. The flight as it became… <ul><li>Once air activity became common: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Designs were made for more </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>common people. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Emphasis moves from physical </li></ul><ul><li>abilities to knowledge: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Systems of the plane. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Navigation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fuel management. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SOPs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>… how and why the plane flies. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Aviation was not still for common people. </li></ul>
  • 6. What happened when air travelling started to be common? The first low-cost carrier in the world
  • 7. What happened when air travelling started to be common-II? … and the last one till the moment
  • 8. Problems in the new environment <ul><li>Hard competition on prices…driving to… </li></ul><ul><li>Hard competition on costs…driving to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fuel-efficient planes: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unstable and hard-to-fly… </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>But flown by average people… </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>With the help of automation. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cheaper to operate and maintain: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Automation. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>From 4 technical people to 2. Could it be less? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cross-crew ratings. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Less time required to train a pilot. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 9. Put them together… <ul><li>Complex automation: </li></ul><ul><li>Pilots know inputs and outputs in normal situations. </li></ul><ul><li>It can be confusing under abnormal situations. </li></ul><ul><li>Pilots can be losing abilities to handle </li></ul><ul><li>manually the plane. </li></ul><ul><li>Hard to get and average workload: High or low. </li></ul><ul><li>From 4 to 2 and counting: </li></ul><ul><li>They came after the radio… </li></ul><ul><li>After that, they came after the flight engineer… </li></ul><ul><li>After that, it seems they go after the first officer… </li></ul><ul><li>Later, they will come after me and it will be too late (Bertolt Brecht). </li></ul><ul><li>Cross-crew ratings: </li></ul><ul><li>Source of specific mistakes. </li></ul><ul><li>Less time required to train a pilot: </li></ul><ul><li>So the pilot is more easily expendable. </li></ul>
  • 10. So…what’s the problem?
  • 11. Let’s see two environments
  • 12. The game of the 5 differences <ul><li>If there is a safety problem in the NPP, the reactor stops…the plane, not. </li></ul><ul><li>In the NPP, there are always people who know better. Inside a plane, not. </li></ul><ul><li>In the NPP, all the documents about the design are always available (with the reactor stopped). In the plane, not. </li></ul><ul><li>In the NPP, the operator is required to behave always following the SOPs and, if the system does not work as expected, to ask. In the plane, there is not someone to ask getting an answer fast enough. </li></ul><ul><li>The NPP has always redundant people for an emergency, the plane not. </li></ul>
  • 13. CONCLUSIONS <ul><li>Pilots can be considered as safety critical systems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There are not alternative resources. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Redundancy is required. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They are not operators. Under unforeseen situations, it is expected more from them than from any operator. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>To act as safety critical systems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Designs have to allow workloads as near as possible to average under any situation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Designs have to be human-centered. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Since human are more pliable than computers, it can be easier to make a human fit the computer’s limitations than to design the computer to fit the human needs. When that happens, the human becomes a prisoner trapped by the computer rather than liberated by it (Karla Jennings). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They require training beyond operative issues. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rassmussen rule: The operator has to be able to run cognitively the program that the system is running. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 14. TWO POSSIBILITIES EMPHASIZE THE RASSMUSSEN RULE: In critical safety systems, The operator has to be able To run cognitively The program That the system is executing. IN OTHER WORDS: Know-how is not enough. Know-why is required. EMPHASIZE THE MORIN RULE: The machine-machine Is always superior To the man-machine.
  • 15. Where is the next stop? The world could not go beyond the capacity of a human head The world cannot go beyond the capacity of the systems that supposedly serve the human. ?
  • 16. The decision, at least partially, is yours Thank you very much
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