Portugal [REPÚBLICA PORTUGUESA] research partner centre CONSELHO NACIONAL PARA A PROMOÇÃO DO VOLUNTARIADO Rossana CASELLI Centro Nazionale per il Volontariato (CNV), Lucca Sandra NUNES Employment and Vocational

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Portugal [REPÚBLICA PORTUGUESA] research partner centre CONSELHO NACIONAL PARA A PROMOÇÃO DO VOLUNTARIADO Rossana CASELLI Centro Nazionale per il Volontariato (CNV), Lucca Sandra NUNES Employment and Vocational Training Observatory 137 C O U N T R Y F A C T S H E E T 138 country fact sheet Population 2007: 10,599,095 inhabitant Area 92,391 sq. Km Population density 2007: inhabitants per sq. km System of government Portugal is a democratic republic ruled by the Constitution of 1976 with four main sovereign organs which are the President of the Republic, the Assembly of the Republic, the Government and the Courts. The largest unit of classification is the one established since 1976 into mainland Portugal (Portugal Continental) and the autonomous regions of Portugal (Azores and Madeira). Portugal has an administrative structure of 308 municipalities (concelhos), which are subdivided into more than 4,000 parishes (freguesias). For Continental Portugal the municipalities are gathered in 18 Districts, while the archipelagos have a regional government directly above them. The European Union s Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics is also used. According to this system, Portugal is divided into 7 regions (Norte, Centro, Lisboa, Alentejo, Algarve, Madeira, Açores), which are subdivided into 30 sub regions (28 in Continental Portugal). European elections 24 European parliamentarians (2007). Social security and welfare system The Portuguese social security system consists of the Public Social Security System, the Social Aid System and the Supplementary System. The Public Social Security System, provided by the state, comprises the Insurance Subsystem, the Solidarity Subsystem and the Family Protection Subsystem. The Insurance Subsystem, which is a contributory scheme, covers most employees or similar workers and also the self-employed (although the latter are subject to special conditions). The Solidarity Subsystem aims to guarantee, on the basis of the whole community solidarity, the fundamental rights in order to prevent and eradicate poverty and exclusion and provide support in proven situations of personal or family need that are not covered by the welfare subsystem. It comprises a non-contributory scheme, a special social security scheme for agricultural workers and a social integration income. The Family Protection Subsystem covers most people, providing assistance in cases of possible increased family expenditure, particularly in cases of disability or dependency. The Social Aid System is provided specifically by public institutions, namely local authorities, and by private not for profit institutions, with the aim of providing special protection for more vulnerable (in particular, by making services and equipment available), as well as in other situations of financial or social need that are not covered by the solidarity subsystem of the Public Social Security System. The Supplementary System, which is optional, comprises supplementary group-initiative schemes, individual initiative schemes and a public capitalisation scheme that is the responsibility of the State, still at the settlement stage, that will complement the benefits provided by the welfare subsystem and of which membership by workers will be voluntary. Both the employer and the employee enrolled in the social security system are required to pay contributions. The rates generally applicable are 23.75% for employers and 11% (deducted at source from gross pay) for employees. The self-employed have to pay monthly contributions at a rate of 25.4% of their declared income (if covered by the compulsory protection scheme alone) or 32% (if they opt for the broad protection scheme). Public health system The Portuguese health system is organised around a National Health Service (NHS), with some responsibilities delegated to re- V O L U N T E E R I N G A C R O S S E U R O P E gional bodies. The Portuguese NHS establishes the right of all citizens to health protection, a guaranteed universal right to health care through the NHS (mostly free at the point of use) and access to the NHS for all citizens regardless of economic and social background (according to the Portuguese Constitution, Article 64). The NHS is managed by the Ministry of Health. Overlapping with the NHS are certain special public and private insurance schemes for certain professions (termed health subsystems ), which are compulsory for groups of employees, and private voluntary health insurance. The Portuguese health care system is a mix of public and private financing: the NHS is predominantly funded through general taxation; the health subsystems are funded mainly through employee and employer contributions (including state contributions as an employer); a large proportion of funding is private, mainly in the form of both co-payments and direct payments by the patient and, to a lesser extent, in the form of premiums to private insurance schemes and mutual institutions. Many measures have been adopted to improve the performance of the health system, mostly since Level of education years old who have completed secondary schooling 2007: 53.4% years old who have completed secondary schooling 2007: 27.5% Immigration rate 2007: 46,300 immigrants (0.437%) Growth rate 2007: 0.174% Births: 102,492 Deaths: 103,512 Employment rate (Eurostat, 2007) years old (total - male - female) 2007: 67.8% % % years old (total - male - female) 2007: 50.9% % % Unemployment rate years old (total - male - female) 2007: 8.5% - 7.0% % 139 P A R T N E R C E N T R E National Council for the Promotion of Volunteering [CONTACT] Conselho Nacional para a Promoção do Voluntariado National Council for the Promotion of Volunteering Av. Marquês de Tomar, 21, 7. Andar Lisboa - Portugal tel /20 fax Created in 1999, the National Council for the Promotion of Volunteering, Conselho Nacional para a Promoção do Voluntariado (CNPV), is a Portuguese public entity, composed by representatives of public organisations (from several ministries) and private ones (from NGOs), with a broad range of activities concerning volunteering issues and domains. The CNPV competences (established by law) and objectives are Promoting volunteering. Coordinating volunteering. Enhancing volunteers skills. These competences and objectives are supported by CNPV information resources (CNPV website, publications, newsletter), that give visibility to CNPV and volunteering organisations activities. CNPV is a consultative board, compulsorily consulted by law whenever policy measures concern volunteering, which issues statements and advises about Parliament s draft laws. CNPV meets once a month, in plenary. The analysis of strategies and the approval of policy measures drafts are done in the monthly meeting with all the Counsellors. Inside CNPV, two specialised commissions were created: the Commission for Volunteering in Health and the Commission for Volunteering in Justice, since these domains needed a particular approach. CNPV has a permanent technical team. CNPV also organises and provides vocational training of trainers concerning specific aspects of volunteering activities, all over the country, having published the Trainer s Handbook. The local approach: Volunteering Banks In 2001, a new project was launched: the creation of Local Volunteering Banks that aim to enhance the efficacy of volunteering at a local level. These local and decentralised structures seek to facilitate the promotion of volunteering and to be a meeting point for individuals that are willing to volunteer and institutions that need volunteer contributions in order to support the exercise of their activities. These banks are implemented by local municipalities or NGOs, with the technical support of the CNPV. 140 index - P o r t u g a l Glossary p Definitions Volunteer Volunteering activity Volunteering promoting organisation Volunteer support centre Volunteers on volunteering (interviews) 144 Historical overview Background, evolution and distinctive traits Roots: before The brief century: Where we stand: Volunteering now (interviews) 152 Legal framework Overview of laws and regulations Historical overview of the legal framework Norms supporting volunteering Participation in public policy making Fiscal policies Rolls and registers List of laws and regulations 160 Volunteers involving organisations Organisational forms Types Rules and functioning Relationship with public sector Overview From our point of view (interviews and questionnaires) 166 Data overview Research and statistics highlights Economic and statistical indicators Human resources, areas of activity Funding Of volunteers and organisations (interviews) Motivations and barriers Needs and challenges Representation and coordination bodies Public entities National Council for the Promotion of Volunteering Confederations Portuguese Confederation of Volunteering National Confederation of Solidarity Institutions Portuguese Confederation of the Culture, Sport and Recreation Collectivities Portuguese Firemen League Union of the Portuguese Mutualities Union of the Portuguese Holy Houses of Mercy Portuguese Centre of Foundations Portuguese Platform of Development NGOs Networking (interviews) 179 Support bodies Volunteer support centres The local approach: Volunteering Banks 181 Focus on support bodies (questionnaires) Legal status, organisational structure and financial resources Territorial range and human resources Activities carried out by the organisations 185 Volunteering Bank of Figueira da Foz 186 Volunteering Bank of Lisbon 188 Diocesan Caritas of Beja (Volunteering Bank of Beja) 190 Holy House of Mercy of Santo Tirso 193 Eugenio de Almeida Foundation 196 Entrajuda - Support to Not for Profit Welfare Institutions 200 Development policies Public incentives Strategic goals European perspective (interviews) 205 List of persons interviewed 207 Bibliography 209 Internet resources Introduction 184 Country fact sheet sources 211 Glossary 1 Definitions V O L U N T E E R I N G A C R O S S E U R O P E 1.1 Volunteer According to the Portuguese law (Law no.71/98, article 3), a volunteer is an individual who commits himself/herself, in a free and responsible way, to perform voluntary activities within an organisation, according to his/her skills and time available, without the expectation of payment. The condition of being a volunteer cannot derive from an existing relation of subordinated or autonomous labour or of patrimonial contents with the promoting organisation, but it is compatible with that of an associated partner, member and beneficiary of the same volunteer organisation. 1.2 Volunteering activity The Portuguese law (Law no.71/98, article 2) defines volunteering as a set of community or social interest activities carried out in an uninterested way by individuals, within the framework of projects, programmes or other intervention forms developed with not for profits purpose by public entities or private organisations for the benefit of needy individuals, families or communities. The law expressly excludes from its scope of application those activities carried out, though without economic interest, in an isolated or sporadic way or on the basis of familiar, amicable or similar relations. 1.3 Volunteering promoting organisation Under the Portuguese law (Law no.71/98, article 4), the organisations legally allowed to recruit and coordinate volunteers are public entities of central, regional or local administration or other legal persons governed by public or private law, as well as socially recognised organisations, that gather the conditions to integrate volunteers and coordinate their activities. The law also refers that these activities must have social and community interest and can be developed in the following domains: civic, social action, health, education, science and culture, patrimony and environment s defence, consumers defence, cooperation for development, employment and vocational training, social reinsertion, civil protec- 143 p o r t u g a l tion, development of associative life and social economy, promotion of volunteering and social solidarity or others with similar nature. This list is not exhaustive, it contains a certain degree of overlap and disputable grouping and it is an open list to other domains which already exists or new ones that might be created (Catarino A., 2003). 1.4 Volunteer support centre There is no official definition of volunteer support centre. Although, since 2001, local banks of volunteering have been created to fulfil the lack of a local level structure which could promote volunteering in a flexible and decentralised way. They are places where people who wish to volunteer and organisations interested in receiving volunteers get information and support. The general objectives of these volunteering support centres are to manage the supply and demand side of volunteering, to encourage people to volunteering activities showing them its importance for the society, to publicise volunteering projects and opportunities and also to contribute to the research in volunteering. 2 Volunteers on volunteering (interviews) The interviewees underline that, in Portugal, volunteering is an ancestral activity, spread all over the country in a variety of sectors, namely, social, health, cultural, religious and environmental. The voluntarism tradition of the Portuguese people is inherent to its nature and its history, especially from the 19 th century onwards (though it goes far behind too), where some important charismatic historic personalities encouraged its development. In the 19 th century, there was a growing number of volunteering involving institutions, some of which emerged due to the state inefficiency in the resolution of certain social issues. Two hundred years later, in a certain way, volunteering is still considered as a way to solve some social problems, resulting from the own social evolution. 144 Historical overview 1 Background, evolution and distinctive traits V O L U N T E E R I N G A C R O S S E U R O P E There was a period of interruption to volunteering development before the revolution of 25 th April In this period, there was an ideological volunteering directed to the sustainability of the New Order but, after the revolution, a tempestuous reaction to this kind of volunteering occurred, which shifted to certain democratic dynamism, as for example the active participation of citizens in order to value participative democracy. As a matter of fact, volunteering was marked by the ideologies that existed in Portugal at the time. Some very useful volunteering structures, created at that time, do not exist anymore or only a few remain, as for example the neighbourhood or residents associations, which were a new idea and, in the actual context, would be a very important factor of proximity for the solution of certain population problems. In fact, there is a great need of volunteering work in the social area and many social problems are not followed because they are not even known precisely due to the lack of social volunteering of proximity. In other domains, such as cultural or environmental, volunteering work is also needed, but in those areas the match between needs and volunteering capacity to provide answer or solutions is greater. In order to stimulate volunteering activities, it would be necessary that some volunteer involving organisations, at least the representative ones, develop some work by establishing contacts and providing training to the base volunteering groups. Only then, volunteering could cover all the territory and correspond to the different problems and it could even be inserted in wider politics of the social domain or other domains. Volunteering started diversifying in various domains. Formerly, it was mainly in social assistance and health care, the first domain very much associated to churches and religion and the second with the Holy Houses of Mercy. The New Order limited or repressed the emergence of other volunteering forms, even if they did not have a politic ideology or nature. After then, a diversification of motivations and options emerged, going from the traditional domain of assistance to the idea of development, namely associated to environment, culture and social economy. It is a valorisation in diversification, since it qualifies volunteering, gives it recognition by bringing new perspectives of intervention and attracts more volunteers. Notwithstanding being secular and spread all over the country, volunteering is not assumed enough since it has not been organised autonomously but instead it has been structured in organisations which also have non volunteer workers. There are some volunteering dynamisms, but a culture of volunteering is not yet there, at least in terms of collective awareness, leading to consider volunteering as a collective interest for the wellbeing of everyone. There are some challenges at the cultural and mentality level, but it takes time to influence them. On the organisations side vol- 145 p o r t u g a l 146 unteering is more organised, whereas on the volunteers side, they have to organise themselves in order to have a representative voice. Even at the level of organisations created to support and organise volunteers, sometimes there isn t a close cooperation between them, at least clearly notable. So, a great challenge is to get organised and to speak in one voice. Besides, a representative organ had never been created, until 2007, when the Portuguese Volunteering Confederation (Confederação Portuguesa do Voluntariado - CPV) was formed. Some interviewees consider that the CPV is needed to articulate actions, to develop activities in areas uncovered, to grant a basilar training in volunteering, to create a registration platform of volunteers and to represent effectively volunteers in the adequate entities. In this context, they believe that it is a very important structure for the autonomy and the construction of volunteering identity. Being a volunteer requires a sense of responsibility, assumption of commitments, training and motivation. Sometimes, as a way of taking a position in the market, some institutions might call volunteer some people who do not have these characteristics or spirit in their genes. There might be some volunteers who search for some personal publicity or protagonism. In health care volunteering, there might be some individuals who are looking for the establishment of a contact network, which can be useful at some point in the future. There are also some organisations, who call themselves volunteers organisations but are in reality cooperating organisations, mainly with third countries institutions, in which some people volunteer to develop an activity in a third country in exchange of an amount of compensation. The existence of compensation subverts the spirit of volunteering, which is gratuity, and in reality instead of volunteer work there is some kind of camouflaged paid work. This situation is prejudicial for volunteering because it generates some suspicions. Volunteering is free but that doesn t mean that there are no expenses, namely with the integration of new volunteers which requires a close follow-up in the beginning until they can be by themselves. Sometimes the work a volunteer is doing does not correspond to its expectations and after a while he or she wants to do something different, which is understandable. Organisations are interested in making the volunteer feel totally integrated and as part of the organisation; otherwise the project will fail to succeed. In volunteering there is also the problem of adjustment between the offer and the demand. The number of people who wants to help is increasing, but sometimes people that accompany them in organisations are not so well prepared to guide them into the type of volunteering work more adequate for them. Frequently, it isn t easy to match nee
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