ก ตต กรรมประกาศ หากงานว จ ยน ม ข อบกพร องประการใด คณะผ ว จ ยขอน อมร บไว แต เพ ยงผ เด ยว คณะผ ว จ ย ม นาคม PDF

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ก ตต กรรมประกาศ งานว จ ยคร งน ส าเร จลงได ด วยความร วมม อเป นอย างด ย งจากหลายฝ าย ผ ว จ ยขอ กราบขอบพระค ณท านผ ตรวจการแผ นด น (ศาสตราจารย ดร.ศร ราชา เจร ญพาน ช) ศาสตราจารย ก ตต ค ณ ดร. อ ท มพร จามรมาน

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ก ตต กรรมประกาศ งานว จ ยคร งน ส าเร จลงได ด วยความร วมม อเป นอย างด ย งจากหลายฝ าย ผ ว จ ยขอ กราบขอบพระค ณท านผ ตรวจการแผ นด น (ศาสตราจารย ดร.ศร ราชา เจร ญพาน ช) ศาสตราจารย ก ตต ค ณ ดร. อ ท มพร จามรมาน และ ผอ. ประจ กษ เจร ญพ ฒนานนท ท ปร กษา โครงการว จ ยท ให ค าแนะน าท เฉ ยบคมในการด าเน นการว จ ย ตลอดจนอ านวยความสะดวกในการ เข าถ งแหล งข อม ลและกล มผ ให ข อม ล ท าให งานว จ ยคร งน ด าเน นการไปได ด วยอย างราบร น งานว จ ยคร งน จะไม สามารถส าเร จลงได หากขาดกล มผ ให ข อม ลเพ อประกอบการว จ ยท ง อด ตสมาช กสถาร างร ฐธรรมน ญ น กธ รก จ น กผ บร หารการศ กษาท งในอด ตและป จจ บ นท ม ส วน เก ยวข องก บการก าหนดนโยบายและงบประมาณนโยบายเร ยนด เร ยนฟร 15 ป อย างม ค ณภาพ ผ บร หารสถานศ กษาและคณะคร ผ สอน ผ ปกครองท เส ยสละเวลาในการให ข อม ลด วยการ ส มภาษณ และตอบแบบสอบถาม กล มบ คคลท กร ณาเข าร วมการประช มระดมสมอง รวมท งน กการ ศ กษา น กศ กษาปร ญญาโทและเจ าหน าท สถานท ตเยอรมน และผ ปกครองของน กเร ยนในประเทศ อ งกฤษและในประเทศเยอรมน ซ งคณะผ ว จ ยขอกราบขอบพระค ณไว ณ โอกาสน คณะผ ว จ ยขอขอบพระค ณส าน กงานผ ตรวจการแผ นด นท ให ท นเพ อการด าเน นการว จ ย ตลอดจนการอ านวยความสะดวกด านว สด อ ปกรณ อาคารสถานท และขอขอบพระค ณเจ าหน าท ของส าน กงานท กท าน โดยเฉพาะอย างย งนางสาวปภ สสรา พ พ ฒน พ นธ พ.จ.ต. ท ฆท ศน ท ฆทรรศนก ล และนายพ นว ชณ โรจนต นต ท ได ให ความร วมม ออย างด ย งจนท าให งานว จ ยคร งน ส าเร จล ล วงลงได ด ย ง หากงานว จ ยน ม ข อบกพร องประการใด คณะผ ว จ ยขอน อมร บไว แต เพ ยงผ เด ยว คณะผ ว จ ย ม นาคม 2555 ก ก ก ก ก 15 ก 1) ก ก ก ก 15 ก ก ก 2) ก ก ก ก 3) ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก 0.81 ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก 12,000 ก 9,145 7,241 ( 60.34) ก ก ก ก ก 5 ก ก / ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก 15 ก ก ก ก ก 20 ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก 1. ก ก ก ก 1) ก ก ก ก ก 2) ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก 1.2 ก ก ก 1) ก ก ก ก ก 2) ก ก 6 ก 1) ก ก ก ก ก ก 2) ก ก ก ก ก ก 3) ก 4) ก ก ก 5) ก ก 6) ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก 1.3 ก 1) ก / ก ก ก ก ก ก ( ก ). ก ก ก ก ก ( ก ). ก ก ก (Programme for International Student Assessment: PISA) ก ก ก ก ก (International Institute for Management Development : IMD) ก ก ก กก ก ก 2) ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก 2. ก ก ก 2.1 ก ก ก (Free Education) ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ( ) ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก 1) ก ก 6 11 ก 15 ก 2) ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก (school fees) ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ( ) ก ก ก ก ก 2.2 ก 4 ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก 2.3 ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก 2.4 ก ก PISA ก PISA ก 2.5 ก ก ก ก ก 1) ก ก ก ก 2) ก ก 3) ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก 1) ก ก ก 2) ก ก 3) ก ก ก 3. ก ก ก ก ก ก 2550 ก ก 3.1 ก 1) 5 ก ก ก ก ก 5 ก ก 2) ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก 9 ก ก ก ก ก 3) ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก 4) ก 4.1) ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ) ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก 5) ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก 3 ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก 6) ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก 3 ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก 7) ก ก ก ก ก 8) ก ก ก ก ก 9) ก ก ก ก ก ก ก 10) ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก 11) ก ก ก ก 3.2 ก ) ก ก ก ก ก ก ก 2) ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก 6 ก ก ก ก 2 ก ก ก 3) ก ก ก ก ก ก 4) ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก 5) ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก 1) ก ก ก (Basic National Qualification Framework) ก ก ก ก ก ก ก 2) ก ก ก ก ก กก ก ก ก ก 1) ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก กก ก ก ก 2) ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก กก ก ก ก ก ก 1) ก ก ก (strategy map) ก ก (strategy map) ก ก ก 2) ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก 3) ก O-NET ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก 4) ก ก ก.. PISA ก IMD ก ก 5) ก ก ก ก ก ก 1) ก ก ก ก ก ก ก 12 ก ก ก ก ก ก 12 ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก กก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก 2) ก 15 ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก 9 4. ก ก ก 4.1 ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก 4.2 ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก ก 4.3 ก 15 ก ก ก ก ก ก ก (Causal Time Series Analysis) ก ก ก (Impact analysis) กก Executive Summary The purposes of this research are 1) to find out the problems related to the deployment of the Free Education Policy, covering the policy formulation process, the policy implementation process, and the policy result, 2) to compare the free education policy with the 4 selected countries, and 3) to propose the recommendations that will benefit the education system in accordance to the 2007 Constitution of the Kingdom of Thailand. The researcher applied mixed-methodology - the quantitative method and the qualitative method. The quantitative method: using a questionnaire, with reliability 0.81 Alpha of Chronbach, for the parents of those that received the free education service at the basic education level. The samples drawn covered all stratums, sizes, jurisdictions and regions of Thailand. The 12,000 questionnaires sent had a 60.34% usable return rate. The quantitative method: the researcher interviewed 5 groups of people - 3 former Constitution Assembly members, 2 outstanding businessmen, parents, and 32 school administrators with 42 teachers from basic education schools that receive the free education service. One administrator team from a private school that refused to receive the free education service was interviewed, which allowed the researcher to understand the bigger picture of this policy. The preliminary results from the interviews and the questionnaires were used as the basic data for brainstorming discussions with the stakeholders mentioned above, including the students. The first brainstorming discussion was to confirm the problem situation of the policy, while the second brainstorming discussion was to develop a productive recommendation. The important results are as follows: 1. The problems related to the deployment of Free Education Policy 1.1 There are 2 important problematic issues in the policy formulation process. The poor correlation between the policy making and the feasibility of the policy, and the budget allocation was not suited to reality due to different sizes of schools requiring different amounts of budget. 1.2 There are 2 important problematic issues in the policy implementation process. The first one is ineffective public relations that resulted in misunderstanding amongst the policy makers and the stakeholders. There were 6 problems that occurred in the deployment process: 1) Insufficient budget lead to a non-free education service, contrary to the said policy. This occurred in the extralarge, large, and medium size schools, but not in small size schools in the rural areas. 2) Unclear disbursement regulations. 3) Difficulty in the budget disbursement procedure for both the parents and the school side. 4) The quality of the 5 free articles. 5) Applying this policy caused a paper-work burden for teachers. 6) A negative effect occurred in the teaching learning process for all sizes of schools except for small size schools in rural areas. 1.3 There are 2 important problematic issues regarding the policy result. 1) The student achievement measured by credible organizations, i.e. the office for National Education Standards and A Quality Assessment, the National Institute of Educational Testing Service, Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), and the International Institute for Management Development (IMD), have consequently shown that the scores of Thai students are falling in every subject every time for any test. 2) The parents and the schools were satisfied that this policy may relieve their expense burden, but they were annoyed with the difficulties regarding the budget disbursement regulations and the fact that insufficient budget meant that the education cannot be free as per the said policy. The teachers were also not pleased to receive a higher paper work burden. 2. The comparative result in free education policy with the 4 selected countries. The 6 comparative issues are 2.1 The unclear definition of the Free Education Policy caused different perceptions amongst the government and the stakeholders, and this occurred in all selected countries. 1) The time frame of free education are varies - the free education in Singapore is 6 years, in Malaysia and England it is 11 years and 15 years respectively while Germany it is free until Ph.D. level. 2) Each selected country uses a different number of free articles. 2.2 The mutual objectives of free education are to expand educational opportunity, to increase the literacy rate, and to elevate the level of human quality. 2.3 The policy deployment in Germany, England, and Singapore focused on stakeholder s participation and quality of student follow up, while Malaysia focused on the regulations announced by the Ministry of Education. 2.4 The result of policy implementation: Germany, England, and Singapore always have higher PISA scores than the average score, whilst Malaysia always has a score lower than average. 2.5 The successful factors in Germany, England and Singapore are the continuous focus on Educational policy with sufficient budget and monitoring via a strong school board and parent association. Moreover, Singapore stated clearly that breaking down the differences and diversity of the nation has been achieved. The problem in these countries is that a big budget leads to a higher tax rate. Whilst the problems in Malaysia are in using free education policy as a populist policy, which leads to inadequate budget, indigent preparation to launch a new policy and also lack of a systematic policy evaluation. 3. The recommendations to benefit the education system in accordance to the 2007 Constitution of the Kingdom of Thailand. 3.1 The policy implementation 1) To maintain the policy name, but it must be clarified that there are only 5 free articles or change to another name such as the supporting policy or the 5 free articles policy or another similar meaning name. 2) In case the government would like to use the same policy name and would like to make it free, as the said name, but the budget is not enough, then the government should consider reducing the number of years for free educational provision. This could be done by studying the optimistic cost to produce students with acceptable standards, resulting in, for example, at least 9 years of free education. B The government should also review the taxation system to suit the needs of the national budget. 3) In case of the government can provide the same amount of the previous budget, any school that disclaims the free education service should be cut off. This will help achieve adequate resourcing as the current budget will be relatively close to the actual needs that vary depending on the school size, school area, school jurisdiction, the real socio-economic situation and the inflation rate. 4) In case of the government can provide an adequate budget 4.1) Allocate budget to all kinds of school appropriately to meet the said 2007 Constitution of the Kingdom of Thailand. 4.2) Increase the proportion of the teaching learning budget to promote the quality of the teaching learning process. 5) The schools should be grouped and be managed in the form of 3 different groups. The first group: Any strong school should be transformed to be an autonomous school. The government should allow the market mechanism to support the competitive system. The second group: Any school that can provide only a moderate level of quality should be provided with government budget support and close monitoring, with government assistance to teachers in order to be able to provide a better teaching learning competence. The last group: Any weak school with lack of opportunities and lack of funding, such as a small school in the rural, requires full budget support from the government, and government provided measures to enrich the teacher capability. 6) The parents and the students should be grouped and be managed in the form of 3 different groups. The first group: Any rich family should share their responsibility in education by paying for their child s education and pay a high rate of tax. The second group: Any family with moderate wealth should receive partial budget support from the government and the parents should share some responsibility for their child s education. The last group: Any poor family should receive full budget support from the government and may require additional budget for the special allowances provided to encourage the children to go to school instead of being a breadwinner. 7) Improve the budget disbursement regulations system to be more flexible to allow the school to optimize their administrative system while the government conducts an effective monitoring and investigation system. 8) Conduct a money transfer directly to the schools before the semester starts. 9) Increase the proportion of student development-activities budget to overcome the poor quality of teaching learning. The budget to promote the teaching learning capacity of the teachers should be added too. 10) Strengthen and make use of the school board and the parent association to mobilize the resource and be a school monitoring tool. 11) Conduct a policy evaluation regularly to receive feedback information for improvement and solving of problems properly. C 3.2 Quality student improvement issue Teacher issue 1) Increase the teacher capacity especially in using media to benefit in a better teaching process. 2) Modify the teacher production curriculum using a basic standard of professional teacher competency. The 3 mains field should be produced with highest priority are: Mathematics, Science, and English. Importantly, the right number of teacher students should be cultivated to love the profession and the spirit of the teacher as a national mold that is worthwhile and to be honored in society. The government should reconsider how to recruit potential decent and smart teachers. The 6 year curriculum, equivalent to master degree level, might be an option. This could be applied by recruiting a 4 year curriculum graduate to train another 2 years of the teaching training course. 3) Establish positive and negative re-enforcement regulations for a good teacher production institute and for a bad teacher production institute respectively. 4) Take proactive measures for human resources management. The retirement position is restored by giving back the money to the school instead. The school then can recruit new teachers as needed. 5) Create a merit system for teacher transfer. Eliminate bribery systems in any matter by enforcing the severe sanctions against the violator Curriculum issue 1) Establish a Basic National Qualification Framework then the curriculum must be reformed to allow production to meet the said qualification. 2) Learning technique should be reformed focusing on understanding, analysis, creativity, application of knowledge and skills for real life rather than memorizing just to pass the test Teaching learning issue 1) Be serious about the policy of giving back the teacher to the student, decrease the paper work burden to allow the teacher back into the class, give schools options and budget to employ some administrative staff rather than relying on administrative staff from the central sector. 2) Establish a mechanism to empower teachers to be able to teach via the student centered approach in reality, together with merit cultivation, rather than merely speaking of its necessity Measurement issue 1) Set the student achievement indicator as a school goal. The school must develop a strategy map to raise the student quality within the budget and time frame agreement. The result of this strategic goal will be used to evaluate the school director. 2) Make serious use of the student achievement results as a measure of teacher performance, and use it as a part of the teacher evaluation indicator instead of using the teacher academic performance. Moreover, the student achievement results should be used to evaluate the mother organization, local government agency, and school district. To be fair, the student achievement results should be defined covering both criterion based and individual based results. 3) Make serious use of the O-NET score to enhance the teaching learning process, to grade, to judge if the student can graduate in the compulsory level, and utilize as a part of further education entry. D 4) Make serious use of the result from the Office of National Education Standards and Quality Assessment, from the National Institute of Educational Service Testing, from the Programme for International Student Assessment, and from the Institute for Management Development, as a part of the annual budget allocation consideration for the school.
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