OPEN GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC MANAGEMENT MODERNIZATION: A NEW PARADIGM? ÁLVARO V. RAMÍREZ-ALUJAS * Founder and Principal Researcher Group of Investigation in Government, Administration and Public Policy (GIGAPP)

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OPEN GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC MANAGEMENT MODERNIZATION: A NEW PARADIGM? ÁLVARO V. RAMÍREZ-ALUJAS * Founder and Principal Researcher Group of Investigation in Government, Administration and Public Policy (GIGAPP) Ortega y Gasset University Research Institute (IUIOG) Paper prepared for presentation at the 2012 International Congress of IIAS Mérida Yucatán (México), June 2012 WORK IN PROGRESS PLEASE DO NOT CITE * Address: C/ Fortuny, 53, Madrid, Spain. Web Site: & E- Mail: Alvaro V. Ramirez-Alujas IIAS Open Government and Public Management Modernization: A new paradigm? Abstract The concept of Open Government is not a new one. It was used for the first time in British politics in the late 1970 s and at its conception it was related with a number of issues about government secrecy and efforts to open windows for the public sector to be under public scrutiny in order to reduce bureaucratic opacity. In present politics, it has emerged as a new linchpin in efforts to improve government capacity and modernize public administration based on the principles of transparency and openness, participation and collaboration. Therefore, and given the relative scarcity of research and applied studies on the subject, this article presents a summary and a historical analysis of the evolution of the concept in its political and technological dimensions, and then contextualizes their links to the components that have served as a platform to become a new paradigm (or model) that promises to strengthen democratic systems and improve governance. Keywords: Open government, public management, network state, transparency, participation, collaboration. Alvaro V. Ramirez-Alujas IIAS Foreword. The Open Government term is nothing new. In the late 70s of the XX century, first appeared in the British political space and its original conception was related with various issues about the government secret and efforts to open windows to the public sector scrutiny in order to reduce bureaucratic opacity (Chapman and Hunt, 1987). Today, it has emerged as a new linchpin of efforts to improve government capacity and modernize public administrations (OECD, 2011) under the principles of transparency and openness, participation and collaboration, and the support in use the information and communication technologies (ICT). Therefore, and given the relative scarcity of research and applied studies on issue, the chapter presents a synthesis and a historical analysis of the evolution of the concept, from a political and technological view, and then contextualize its relationship to the ICT (as a service platform), on the way to become the new paradigm of open and collaborative governance to help strengthen public sector: the phenomenon of Web 2.0, Network State and the intensive use of technologies, networks and social capital. Table of Contents. I. Introduction... 4 II. Open Government: Concept, scope and implications III. Open Government in OECD Countries: The evolution of the concept, the current debate and recent evidence...11 IV. Open Government: The transition towards a new paradigm of governance and public administration...14 V. The Wiki concept - from the closed logic, autocratic and self-referential to the participation and collaboration within and beyond the Government and Public Administration (Open And Collaborative Governance)...18 VI. Conclusions and some thoughts...21 VII. References Alvaro V. Ramirez-Alujas IIAS I. Introduction. Ladies and gentlemen, new technologies are the answer... What was the question? John Daniel, Open University President. The emergence and gradual consolidation of the concept of Open Government represents a radical change with profound consequences in political systems, governments and government agencies worldwide (OGP, 2011, OECD, 2011). In an era marked by important mutations, crises of various kinds and relentless search to find new perspectives or approaches to respond adequately to the challenges of dealing with complexity and uncertainty in our societies, and other moments in recent history, the focus aims to rethink the way (and background) of how governments and their administrative apparatus adapt and adopt emerging trends related to the age of information and communication, the network society and the various opportunities offered by technological innovations to boost contribute to institutional transformation in space links and relations between state, civil society and other stakeholders. Recent developments related to social movements in various parts of the world are a clear indication of changes ahead. Thus, various governments worldwide have initiated an ongoing process to promote and implement strategies related to the concept of Open Government, whose common denominator is bound to improve levels of transparency by opening up public data (to exercise social control and accountability) and reuse of public sector information (RPSI), facilitating citizen participation in the design and implementation of public policies (and influence decision-making), and facilitate the creation of opportunities for Alvaro V. Ramirez-Alujas IIAS collaboration among various stakeholders, particularly between public administrations and between them and civil society and the private sector. These efforts are part of the purpose of strengthening democratic systems, increasing levels of public confidence in political institutions, increasing the participation and civic engagement, and improve the quality, effectiveness and efficiency of governments and their administrative infraestructure 1. All this through the creation of new spaces for institutional innovation, development of mechanisms related to the co-creation in the provision of public services and collaborative work, and the implementation of new organizational framework and management systems oriented to promote openness and a new form of government in the context of the network society (Castells, 2009). II. Open Government: Concept, scope and implications. Open government is a buzzword whose overall intention is clear enough, but whose practical meaning waiting to be cleared. Ronald Wraith, Open Government, the British Interpretation, Royal Institute of Public Administration, The term Open Government is nothing new. In the late 70s of last century, first appeared officially in British political space. As stated by Chapman and Hunt (1987), in its original plan refers to various issues related to government secrecy and efforts to 1 For some authors the concept brings with it a major break and a radical change of paradigm of what it means to govern complex societies: Many people think the idea of open government is all about freedom of information, but its impact goes much deeper. In fact, it s part of the biggest change in the past century to the structure and architecture of the public sector [ ] There s an enormous amount of data inside government, such as data about climate change, the success of entrepreneurs, radon gas, bicycle accidents and so on. With governments starting to make this raw data available to citizens, people will self-organize to use the data to create value. This is not about outsourcing or privatization. This is about a new division of labour in society about how we create public value. The result is better government services and a government that costs less (Tapscott, 2011). Alvaro V. Ramirez-Alujas IIAS open Windows of the public sector to the public scrutiny in order to reduce bureaucratic opacity. However, over the years this first approach was used to define the ability that citizens have in a democracy to demand a government fully responsible for their actions and to assess the validity of the measures it takes. This also refers to the rights of citizens from information that they have public organizations and their proper management. For almost two decades without much prominence in the headlines, talk of open government meant to discuss access and freedom of information, data protection, reform of official secrecy laws and the need in a healthy democracy, able to obtain information about government activities and their availability to the public and ordinary citizens (Chapman and Hunt, 1987). II.1. From the laws on access to public information to transparency through public information and data: The Foundation of Open Government. On the other hand, the promotion of legislation on the right of access to public information 2 and implementation of various institutional arrangements to enhance the levels of transparency, probity and citizen participation in public affairs has been gaining space on the political agenda throughout the world from a wave of laws that aim to regulate their application. To date, there are more than 90 countries that have pragmatic content access to information (Ramirez-Alujas, 2010). This has been fundamental in efforts to create a new culture of openness and adjust the mentality (and 2 Open government is widely seen as a key feature of contemporary democratic practice has often been linked to the adoption of legal frameworks on freedom of information, the press, among others. Considering the above, in its original meaning is directly related to the concept FOI (Freedom Of Information): Standards that ensure access to data held by the state. They establish a legal process to exercise the right to know which may make inquiries with the Government, to be received for free or at minimal cost, standard exceptions. Since the U.S. passed the Freedom of Information Act (Free Of Information Act - FOIA) in 1966, efforts have multiplied rapidly in other parts of the world. Denmark and Norway passed laws equivalent in 1970, France and the Netherlands in 1978, Australia, Canada and New Zealand in 1982, Hungary in 1992, Ireland and Thailand in 1997, South Korea in 1998, the United Kingdom in 2000, Japan and Mexico in 2002, India and Germany in 2005 (Ramirez-Alujas, 2010). Alvaro V. Ramirez-Alujas IIAS paradigms) that public affairs were alien to citizens, allowing new and generous space for accountability, transparency and corruption control, that on the other hand, insistently push for a new attitude, new practices and a willingness to a distant disposition perceived in public services and the governments that run them. So today we are witnessing a debate with similar characteristics - in its core (and slightly beyond) - but amplified significantly different context variables, including the changing patterns of communication and means of generating knowledge on a global level (especially by the Internet phenomenon and its derivatives), the development of the global network society and Network State (Castells, 2009), the intensive use of information and communication technologies (ICT) and the growing impact that brings the use of so-called social networking and Web 2.0 that, progressively, have shown signs of being a powerful tool for collaborative work and networking, among other dimensions. This has been setting up a space for the emergence of new paradigms that better known in his vision appeal to the concept of Government 2.0. It is introduced into the world of politics, government and public management and the principles that support Web 2.0, namely: transparency, openness and collaboration. Briefly, this suppose some implications that are no less certain such as: the elimination of intermediaries between politicians and citizens (the media), the possibility that they are the same citizens who are organized outside parties or other institutions or to collaborate openly with public organizations, to design and have the tools to control the power set and the activity of their representatives (active surveillance), the cohesion of efforts to facilitate and mobilize massive resources and people to achieve certain objectives by exponentially Alvaro V. Ramirez-Alujas IIAS reducing costs of transaction, information and coordination, to promote the construction of a sort of collective intelligence and social capital building, on the basis of use of the network, facilitating access to information and different means of verification and the transition to the spontaneous, free and in real time, etc. II.2. From and beyond of e-government: More participation and collaboration. On the other hand, the concept of open government far exceeds the debate that has been developed since the coining and implement of initiatives under the set of instruments linked to the concept of e-government. They refer to the application of ICT and its tools to the existing administrative procedures and processes, meaning, we are not talking about changes in values, but of pure application of technology. However, it helps to make citizens life easier. In this context, there is a commitment to rethink the administration is under no compulsion to generate radical changes in their management models and organizational culture, processes only introduce technology, bureaucracy and is digitized, and in the best scenario, spaces open to better ways of communication between the interactive apparatus and society (Ramirez-Alujas, 2010). Open Government flows from the conviction of governments and administrations to rethink, to transform society and help develop healthier democracies, to move from hierarchies to networks, and generate transversal commitments in conjunction with other social and economic partners to create public value (Harrison et al, 2011). Alvaro V. Ramirez-Alujas IIAS II.3. Concept and development of Open Government. Rehearsing some definitions, we can say that open government is one that engages in a constant conversation with citizens to hear what they say and ask, who makes decisions based on their needs and preferences, which facilitates collaboration of citizens and officials in developing the services it provides and communicates all that decides and it makes it in an open and transparent way (Lathrop and Ruma, 2010). On the other hand, it is claimed to be a political doctrine that sustains that issues of governance and public administration should be open to all possible levels for transparency, to ensure greater citizen participation and better regulation (Irekia 2010). Finally, and bonded to the link between the concept of Open Government and Policy 2.0 (which supports progressive activism, spontaneous, organized, and that reinforces the power of words, the construction of stories and new ideas in the polis), it states that it is a political philosophy that promotes a new model of relationships between administrations, governments and society, transparent, multidirectional, collaborative and focused on the participation of citizens in both monitoring and in public decision making. From the OECD perspective, the term has evolved from a focus based on three relevant dimensions that appeal to: a) transparency - that its actions, and the individuals responsible for those actions, will be exposed to public scrutiny and challenge, b) accessibility - that its services and information on its activities will be readily accesible to citizens, anytime, anywhere, and c) responsiveness - that it will be responsive to new ideas, demands and citizen needs (OECD, 2005), to an approach where it is considered as a platform to address how government can work with society and individuals to cocreating public value (OECD, 2010). Alvaro V. Ramirez-Alujas IIAS In any case, there is an agreement between the multiple views and meanings available, expressly agree that the pillars that form it are: a) Transparency and openness; b) Participation, and c) Collaboration. In short, we mean the commitment to ensuring that all aspects of how the government and public services are managed and operated, are open to public scrutiny and effective supervision of the society (transparency). This should be accompanied by the progressive expansion of opportunities for dialogue, participation and deliberation in conjunction with the public, and openness to the necessary collaboration that is required to find better solutions to public problems increasingly complex, using the available potential energy in vast sectors of society, why not also in the market, voluntary and non-profit organizations (Ramirez-Alujas, 2010). Seen in this way and supported from the angle that is based on the relevance of the tools that make Web 2.0, we are witnessing the transition from one way of managing only reading/contents to manage conversations/read-write pass from the creation and maintenance (passive) government websites generating services through the Web and beyond the government, in collaboration with other dynamic and permanent actors, cocreating, co-producing... This is understood as a technological infrastructure that makes information available to citizens and public data to create, collectively and jointly value. In this context, one of the main merits of this emerging new look lies in being able to drive processes of deepening democracy through large-scale conversations with, across Alvaro V. Ramirez-Alujas IIAS and between citizens, administrations and politicians, wich potentially defines ample possibilities for action to radically reinvent the old paradigms of power, the public bureaucracy and increasingly obsolete institutional, organizational and management inherited from the twentieth century, that are inadequate to meet the new crossroads of present and future challenges. III. Open Government in OECD Countries: The evolution of the concept, the current debate and recent evidence. In its 2003 report Open government: fostering dialogue with civil society, the OECD headed a preliminary notion about the concept of Open Government, conceived as a platform base to establish solid, legal, institutional and policy governing access to information, consultation and public participation in the matter that helps improve public policy, combat corruption and increase confidence in the administration of society. In its original design and purpose, they alluded to the need for government and public administration to connect more smoothly with civil society in the context of greater citizen involvement in public policy development and promote good governance, to inform, consult and involve citizens are the pillars of good government, the proper means of promoting openness and a good investment to improve public policy making (OECD, 2003). Later, it would be argued that open government refers to the transparency of government actions, accessibility of public services and information, and government responsiveness to new ideas, demands and needs (OECD, 2005). Alvaro V. Ramirez-Alujas IIAS More recently, this concept has taken up a leading role in the agendas of various governments and government agencies in the world, a process that has gone hand in hand with technological advances, the use of social networking and Web 2.0, and a fresh global debate about the fundamentals that support the current model democratic state in the context of the new millennium. The available evidence indicates that during the last ten years, OECD countries have focused on building the institutions and mechanisms for open government (including not stated explicitly) to create a solid foundation that supports the application and implementation of public policies properly and according to the new realities expressed in the transition to a democratic model more open, inclusive, guaranteed and effective. Currently, there are legal frameworks relating to the idea of Open Government in much of the OECD countries, and in them are considered: (1) The law on access to information and freedom of the press, (2) The legislation on privacy and data protection, (3) The laws on administrative procedures, (4) The legislation on the Ombudsman (Ombudsman) and (5) Laws on Supreme Audit Institutions. However, limited attention has been to analyze the effectiveness of these frameworks in its application and what results have been achieved
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