Olle – oval pots with a short everted rim from the cemeteries at Frattesina (IT) and Ljubljana (SI). The same shape yet different use within the funerary practices

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Olle – oval pots with a short everted rim from the cemeteries at Frattesina (IT) and Ljubljana (SI). The same shape yet different use within the funerary practices

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  Olle  – oval pots  with a short everted rim from the cemeteries at Frattesina (IT) and Ljubljana (SI). The same shape yet different use within the funerary practices ? Škvor Jernejčič   Brina University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology  The following research has been undertaken as a part of a Post-Doctoral Research Project Beyond Materiality: Prehistoric Communities And Their Burial Customs In The Light Of New Scientific Analyses , , funded by the Slovenian Research Agency.  http://www.ff.uni-lj.si/an/research/project_websites/z6_8252ang Introduction The cemeteries at Frattesina (IT) and Ljubljana (SI) are one of the most outstanding necropolises with several hundred burials   (Fig. 1). Different cemeter  y areas  ( in the case of Frattesina Narde I and II, Fondo Zanott o   and in the case of Ljubljana see Fig. 2: 2, 5, 6, 8, 11 ) are located on the left and on the right banks of the rivers Po and Ljubljanica in the vicinity of the contempor  ary  settlements (Fig. 2). Since the cemeteries at Frattesina are well known to a wider archaeological public, we would like to focus our research and presentation on the cemetery at Ljubljana - Dvorišče SAZU (the courtyard of building of the Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts) (Fig. 2: 5).Systematic excavations o f   the cemetery in  Ljubljana were conducted at intervals from 1948 onwards (Stare 1954; Puš 1971; Puš 1982). This cemetery is a typical Urnfield period necropolis with more than 300 cremation graves in which a uniform mode of burial, that is, cremation, persisted throughout several generations. The re-analysis of the complete cemetery records together with new radiocarbon dates showed that the th oldest graves should be placed as early as the 13 century BC or in the Br D period (Škvor Jernejčič 2014; Škvor Jernejčič in  press ), whereas the interments continued without a noticeable interruption throughout the Early and Late Urnfield periods (from Ha A to Ha B1–B2) and all the way to the Early Iron Age (Ha thth B3–C1). In  the end of the 8 and the beginning of the 7 century BC the number of the graves drastically diminishes. Moreover, i t seems  that a temporary cessation of burials on the cemetery grounds can be observed (Škvor Jernejčič 2014, 237–238; Škvor Jernejčič 2017, 153), which is coincident with the more long-term break of settlement records in the habitation area of Tribuna (Vojaković 2014; Škvor Jernejčič, Vojaković in press ). Frattesina v  ersus  Ljubljana Besides the manner of burial itself - cremation, there are many similarities among  archaeological objects  from both cemeteries of Frattesina and Ljubljana taking into account  bronze, glass items, grave-goods as well as funerary attires. These similarities in the presence of this  particular types of metal or glass objects can indicate similar “fashion”, funerary attires, customs or even “dress codes” of the Late Bronze Age communities living in  both areas.  Since we are dealing here with olle , we would like to mention just a few examples.   S emilunate-shaped razors of Oblekovice type and razors of Fontanella type are distributed from the hoard of Limone (LI) as  the most western site , towards north-east  accross  th e  Po plain, Veneto, Istr  i a and all the way to the south-eastern Al p ine region  and up to Morava region in Czech Republic . It is interesting that only in Frattesina both types of razors are attested (Blečić Kavur 2014, fig. 76). Olle  in the  context of funeral practices Interestingly, there are also many  similarities concerning  the shape and decorations of particular   type s  of vessels between both sites. One of those are olle  – smaller or rarely bigger oval pots  with a short everted rim ( F ig s . 4, 6, 7 ). According to the typology of C. Colonna this vessels are  classified as olle  types 1, 2 and 3, that are characteristic for the phases I-III / Bronzo Finale  (1?), 2 and 3 (Colonna 2006, 163-164, 171, 180, 469-470, tav. 245-246). This dating corresponds well with the appearance of this pots  in Ljubljana, w h ere they are dated in the period of Ha  A2/B1 and also Ha B1-B2 (Škvor Jernejčič 2014, 43-47, F igs. 4.35-4.37). It is interesting ,  that  in the Grave 11 from  Ljubljana beside of   the razor of Oblekovice type also a trapezoidal bone bead has been found (Fig. 3: 1-2 ). Th e  bead is namely similar in shape to  amber beads of the  Allumiere ( type 7 )   according to Negroni Catacchio et al  . (Fig. 3: 3-4) , which have been discovered also in Fr  a ttesina itself   (Negroni Catacchio et al. 2000). Further similarities can be traced also as regards the circular glass beads “with eyes” that were discovered both in Frattesina as well as Ljubljana (Blečić Kavur 2014, fig. 29).The analysis of olle  from Frattesina and Ljubljana  showed remarkable differences as regards the use of those vessels in the funeral practices on both sites. In Ljubljana, the pots  with a short everted rim – in some cases featuring a rib   decorated with impressions (Fig. 6)  – never served as urns. All are fragmented and most are made of coarse-grained clay  and resemble cooking pots . Some she a rds even show secondary firing. They appeared almost exclusively in the S-E  and E  parts of the cemetery, most of all in cremations without an urn ( F ig. 5 ).   These particular fragments of the vessels were found – according to the anthropologocal analysis results  – not only in children graves, but also in the graves of young and adult persons ( F ig. 5 ). The only exception is a   vessel from the Grave 42 ( F ig. 7C ) , which was deposited  int act and served as an urn . In the view   of   bronze grave-goods the Grave 11   most  probably represents a double grave of potentially two female persons , as it contains two double-cross belt buckles, a fragment of a ring and a button (Stare 1954).In Narde, however, the same types of pots  served always as urns. Particularly interesting is the fact that only children were buried in those vessels ( F ig s . 7A, 7B )   (Il villaggio di Frattesina 2009, 69, 72), revealing a function and practice different to that in Ljubljana. They can be decorated with a cordon with impressions and are made of coarse-grained clay. However, they were deposited in   grave s  in one piece  and  never in fragments. In most cases ,  this pots  appeared in graves w h ere only ceramic was found  (Fig. 7A) . Exceptional are for example the Graves 41, 52 at Fondo Zanotto or Graves 281, 506 and 518 at Narde with extremely rich female attire (De Min 198 2 ; Salzani 1990/91). In the Grave 518 at Narde ,  a vessel ( urn ) , different glass beads and a fragment of bronze bracelet with rhomboid cross-section were found ( F ig. 7B ). The same type of bracelets are known also for Ljubljana and other sites in NE Slovenia, as well as from Istria (Puš 1971; Stare 1975; Müller-Karpe 1959; Mihovilić 1972). This is another indication of vivid int e rcultural contacts between communities living on the territories from the Po plain up to the fringes of the south-eastern Alps in the Late Bronze Age.We can conclude that in Ljubljana this type of vessels served in special funerary practices either before, during or after the burial. However, such  specific implementation in the context of funeral social practice was not recorded in Fr  a ttesina, where olle  served as urns .   Thus  their function to carry or to  protect the cremated bones of the deceased was very different than  in  the case of the  Ljubljana  cemetery . The ritual of breaking the vessels on the pyre or above the grave itself either during or after the burial ,  can be understood as a part of particular funeral rituals (possibly offerings, libation s , feasting etc.) that were practiced after death (chaos) to ensure a renewed order in the society ( F ig. 8 ). FrattesinaLjubljanaFig. 1 Location of the sites Frattesina and Ljubljana. Fig. 2: Late Bronze and Early Iron Age locations at Ljubljana. Settlements: 1–Slovenska and Čopova ulica; 2–Kongresni trg and Park Zvezda; 3–Kopitarjeva and Streliška ulica; 4– G rajski hrib; 7–Gornji and Stari trg; 9– T ribuna; 10–Prule area; 12–Golovec. Cemet erie s: 2–Kongresni trg and Park Zvezda; 5–Dvorišče SAZ U ; 6–National and University Library II ;   8–St. Florian church; 11–area near Karlovški most  (after Škvor Jernejčič, Vojaković in press ). Fig. 3 1-2 Bone bead from the Grave 11 at Ljubljana; 3-4 Amber beads Allumiere type 7 (after Škvor Jernejčič 2014; Negroni Catacchio et al. 2000). Fig. 4 Olle  from the cemetery at Ljubljana - Dvorišče SAZU (Graves 8, 28,316, 317, 322, 311 and 318) (after Škvor Jernejčič 2014). Fig. 5 Ground plan of the cemetery at Ljubljana. The presence of olle  areindicated according the age of deceased.Fig. 6 Olle  from the cemetery at Ljubljana - Dvorišče SAZU (Graves 309,54, 52, 34, 58, 27 and 40) (after Škvor Jernejčič 2014). Fig. 8 Shematic presentation of the sequences before the death and after the burial (modified after Nebelsick 2016, Fig. 1/1, 1A).  ABCFig. 7 A Grave 94 at Narde II; B Grave 518 at Narde I; C The  olla  from the Grave 42 at Ljubljana (after Salzani, Colonna 2010; Salzani 1990/91; Škvor Jernejčič 2014). Blečić Kavur M. 2014Colonna C. 2006, Na razmeđu svjetova za prijelaza milenija. Kasno brončano doba na Kvarneru   /  At the crossroads of worlds at the turn of the millennium. The late Bronze Age in the Kvarner Region . – Musei Archaeologici Zagrabiensis catalogi et monographiae 11, Zagreb. , Necropoli dell'ultima età del bronzo nell'area padana: per una loro cronologia relativa . Fonti archeologiche per la protostoria italiana 1, Lucca. , La necropoli protovillanoviana di Frattesina di Fratta Polesine (Rovigo): notizie preliminari ,   Padusa  18, p. 3-28. =  Il villaggio di Frattesina e le sue necropoli (XII-X secolo a.C.),  Guida del Museo Nazionale di Fratta Polesine, Padova De Min M. 1982Il villaggio di Frattesina2009. , Nekropola Gradine iznad Limskog kanala. Histria Archaeologica  III/2, Pula. , Beiträge zur Chronologie der Urnenfelderzeit nördlich und südlich der Alpen . Römisch-Germanische Forschungen 22. , Drinking against death . Studies on the materiality   and Iconography of ritual, sacrifice and Mihovilić K. 1972Müller-Karpe H. 1959Nebelsick L. D. 2016transcendence in later prehistoric Europe. Varšava, Wydawnictwo Naukowe UKSW. , L'Etruria e le vie dell'ambra nel bronzo finale. In: Negroni-Catacchio N., L'Etruria tra Italia, Europa e Mondo mediterraneo ricerche e scavi  . Tati del qatri Incontro di Studi. Manciano – Montalto di Castro – Valentano Negroni Catacchio N., B. Raposso, A. Massari 200012/14 Settembre 1997. Milano, p. 97-111. , Žarnogrobiščna nekropola na dvorišču SAZU v Ljubljani. Izkopavanja v letih 1964-1965 / Nekropole der Urnenfelderkultur im Hof der Slowenischen Akademie der Wissenschaften und Künste in Ljubljana. Ausgrabungen in den Jahren 1964-1965  . Razprave 1. razreda SAZU 7/1. , Puš I. 1971Puš I. 1982 Prazgodovinsko žarno grobišče v Ljubljani /  Das vorgeschichtliche Urnengräberfeld in Ljubljana . Razprave 1. razreda SAZU 13/2. , Necropoli dell'Età del Bronzo Finale alle Narde di Fratta Polesine. Seconda nota, Padusa  26-27, p. 125-260. , La fragilita dell'urna. I recenti scavi a Narde necropoli di Salzani L. 1990/1991Salzani L., C. Colonna 2010Frattesina (XII-IX sec. a.C.). Mostra archeologica, Museo dei grandi fiumi, Rovigo 5 ottobre 2007-30 marzo 2008, Rovigo. , Ilirske najdbe železne dobe v Ljubljani /  Illyrische Funde aus der Eisenzeit in Ljubljana . – Dela 1. razreda SAZU 9/7. , Dobova . Posavski muzej Brežice, knjiga 2, Brežice. ,  Žarna Stare F. 1954Stare F. 1975Škvor Jernejčič B. 2014 nekropola v Ljubljani in preobrazba ljubljanske skupine na prehodu iz bronaste v železno dobo . Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana. , Grobovi iz starejšega halštatskega obdobja na Molniku / Graves from the Early Hallstatt period at Molnik. In: S. Tecco Hvala (Ed.), Molnik pri Ljubljani v železni dobi   / The Iron Škvor Jernejčič B. 2017  Age site Molnik near Ljubljana . Opera Instituti Archaeologici Sloveniae 36, p. 89-108. , Il rituale e il costume funerario nella  tarda età del Bronzo e nella prima età del Ferro nella Slovenia centrale e nel nord-est dell'Italia. In: Preistoria e protostoria del Caput Adriae,  Atti della XLIX riunione scientifica IIPP, Firenze. Škvor Jernejčič B. in press Škvor Jernejčič B., P. Vojaković in press Vojaković P. 2014, Understanding the social relations through settlement vs cemetery records. Late Bronze Age social (in)equalities in the case of Ljubljana (Slovenia). Quaternary International  .  , Predrimska Emona v luči novih arheoloških odkritij / Pre-Roman Emona in the Light of New Archaeological Discoveries. In: E mona: mesto v imperiju /    Emona: a City of the Empire , p. 65-78.  Adultus Adultus?JuvenisInfans?No anthrop-ological data
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