Obectivos do Seminário - PDF

1 TENDÊNCIAS EM COMPUTAÇÃO UBÍQUA E MÓVEL Rui Silva Moreira Obectivos do Seminário 2 Sistemas Ubíquos e Móveis Definição e evolução histórica Características e objectivos Exemplos UbiCom Comunicações sem

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1 TENDÊNCIAS EM COMPUTAÇÃO UBÍQUA E MÓVEL Rui Silva Moreira Obectivos do Seminário 2 Sistemas Ubíquos e Móveis Definição e evolução histórica Características e objectivos Exemplos UbiCom Comunicações sem Fios Codificação e Tx de sinais Multiplexagem & Canais de uma célula Normas Wi-Fi a/b/g/n Bluetooth ZigBee Protocolos e Redes Móveis Pilha protocolos Redes ad hoc IP & Integração de Serviços (IMS) Localização e Contextualização Métodos & tecnologias localização Modelização do contexto Adaptação dinâmica local/contexto Requisitos de Sistema Modos/perfis de funcionamento (e.g., poupança de energia) Segurança e privacidade em ambientes móveis 3 Sistemas Ubíquos e Móveis Definição e evolução histórica Características e objectivos Exemplos Mark Weiser - Visioner(1991) 4 Xerox PARC CTO ahead of its time and available hardware and software (e.g., voice recognition was not available; today, envisioned hardware and software is available, etc.) articulated vision for ubiquitous mobile computing: environment saturated with computing and communication capabilities, with humans gracefully integrated invisible hardware & software for assisting humans Applications 5 Vertical vehicle dispatching (trucks) package tracking (UPS), points of sale Horizontal collaborative computing, universal data & Internet access, messaging systems, streaming multimedia & video conferencing, mobile games, interactive maps, etc. Enablers 6 Mobile devices: PDAs, laptops, cell phones, watches, etc. Wireless communications: b/g, Bluetooth, IR, ZigBee, cellular networks (GSM, GPRS), satellite (VSAT) Desirable attributes: convenience, flexibility, portability Trends: more powerful devices, faster digital networks (voice, data, multimedia) Related Areas 7 http://www.csd.cs.cmu.edu/research/areas/mopercomp/ Evolution of R&D (I&D) 8 Distributed Systems Mobile and Nomadic Systems Pervasive/Ubiquitous Systems Remote communication (protocols, RPC, etc.) Fault tolerance (transactions - ACID, 2PC, etc.) High availability (replication, mirrors, rollback recovery, etc.) Remote information access (distributed file systems & BD, caching, etc.) Distributed security (encryption symmetric & asymmetric, authentication, etc.) Mobile networking(mobile IP, wireless nets, ad hoc and mesh nets, etc.) Mobile information access (disconnected operation prefetching and caching, weak consistency models, etc.) Adaptive applications (reflection, adapt proxies, transcoding, etc.) Energy-aware systems (goaldirected adaptation, hw control screen, CPU and HD speed, wireless cards, etc.) Location sensitivity (LBS, GPS, WaveLan triangulation, contextawareness, etc.) Smart spaces (embedded computation, sensing and controlling, etc.) Invisibility(technology that disappears n the background) Localized scalability (focus on local interactions, reduce distant distractions, etc.) Mask uneven conditioning (spaces with different levels of tech, adapt to dumb environment, etc.) Distributed computing 9 users move around but infrastructure/network and services are fixed: e.g., user logging in a web service in different physical places; nodes of the system are geographically distributed; users access the system via networks; Portable & Mobile computing 10 Portable/Nomadic, e.g., users move with portable laptops but network is fixed: users have stable periods of continuous access; automatic reconnection when moved to another point of attachment; Mobile computing, e.g., users move with PDA but using GPRS to access the web: user intermittently change point of attachment; possible network disruption or no connectivity; Ubiquitous/Pervasive computing 11 Environment embedded with: Communication infrastructures usually wireless but also wired or line of sight Computation and sensing infrastructures: computing facilities (micro-controllers with IO ports). cameras and sensors (e.g., temperature, light, pressure, humidity, 2D/3D acceleration, O2, PH, etc.); integrated active elements/actuators (e.g., servo-motors) Software intelligence OS and Middleware; Applications. Key Capabilities for UbiComp 12 User intent: track user intent capture and explore knowledge about user, e.g., reduce VoD quality, find alternative link, advise users; Cyber Foraging: living from the land explore computation and net infrastructures available localy; Adaptation Strategies: turn-over requirements mismatching adapt between existing and demanded resources; High-level Energy Management: sw control over hw and app proactivity and self tunning sw, e.g., energy-aware managment of RAM, CPU, HD, screen, NIC, media quality, etc. Client/Nodes Thickeness: CPU, PW, RAM, Disk, Screen needs minimal acceptable tickeness depends on app & environment conditions Key Capabilities for UbiComp 13 Content Awareness: minimal interruption of user model user profile/behavior, model environment; predict user intentions for diminishing intrusion. Balancing Pro-activity/Transparency: users should trust the system; confidence on what is being done underneath and outcome; Privacy Trust: data and location privacy authentication, confidentiality and authorization Impact on Layering: Separation of concerns and standardization 14 Main Challanges Resource poverty dated-static components weight, power, size constraints Communication issues bandwidth & latency variation intermittent connectivity Finite and scarce energy source adaptation strategies slow down or defer actions, transfer computation, etc. energy management - communication costs, control hw consumption, etc. Multi-modal interaction hands and eyes occupied Speech & gesture recognition augmented reality Scarce user attention focus of attention elsewhere lower human performance higher error rate Less security & robustness more exposure (big brother) more exposure to theft, tampering and destruction less power computation and feasible encryption mechanisms Aura helps Airport 15 Jane edited many large documents and wants to them but, unfortunately, bandwidth is low (many passengers surfing the Web); Aura (Pervasive System): calculates that current BW not enough to finish sending documents before flight departure; uses airport s network weather and flight schedule services to discover WiFiBD at Gate 15 should be excellent since there are no departing or arriving flights at nearby gates for half an hour; suggests Jane (dialog box on screen) to go Gate 15, which is only 3 minutes away; asks Jane to prioritize her , so that the most critical messages are transmitted first; informs Jane that it is close to being done with her messages and that she can start walking back; the last message is transmitted during her walk and she is back at Gate 23 in time for her boarding call. Aura helps University 16 Fred is in his office, frantically preparing a presentation & software demonstration. The meeting room is a 10-minute walk across campus. Fred grabs his PalmXXII wireless handheld computer and walks out of the door for the meeting. Aura : transfers the state of his work from his desktop to his handheld; allows him to make his final editing using voice commands during his walk; uses Fred calendar and campus location tracking service to infer where he is going; downloads the presentation and demo software to the projection computer and warms up the projector; Fred finishes editing before entering meeting room: Aura: transfers final changes to the projection computer; uses room s face detection and recognition facilities to detect unfamiliar persons/faces and warns Fred to skip a slide with highly sensitive budget information. Commercial Systems 17 Body Trainer ($60) Sega Toys body trainer headphones: little voice in your head motivates to exercise harder; Ear clip: measures heart rate and adjusts pace of music; Offers helpful tips and commands: please pick up the pace Commercial Systems 18 Instant WiFi ($100) EyeFi introduces storage and WiFi SD card; Ability to upload photos (photo-sharing web sites, iphfi slot; WiFiSD card makes media creation and display devices completely wireless; Commercial Systems 19 Keeping track of kids Smart Target: launches Kidkeeper an electronic leash; Parents can continuously monitor proximity up to 4 children; when children wander more than 4-8 m away from parent the parent s device sounds an alarm and indicates direction of children; Project 20 Cross-platform for creating multiuser mixed reality applications: Free & open source toolkit (Java) Build 3D virtual worlds Supports audio conferencing, desktop app sharing and integration with external data sources Modular and highly extensible architecture projectwonderland.com Project 21 Clear Interactive whiteboard (similar to ClearBoard): Support teams of members geographically spread Collaboration between remote colleagues represented by Avatars Project 22 Generic framework ubiquitous augmented reality applications: Unveiling the Sixth Sense 23 Pattie Maes& Pranav Mistry: 24 Comunicações sem Fios Codificação e Transmissão de sinais Acesso aos canais de uma célula Tecnologias Wi-Fi b/g/n Bluetooth ZigBee 25 Protocolos e Redes ad hoc Pilha protocolos IP & Integração de Serviços (IMS) Redes ad hoc
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