MOTUS IN VERBO : vedecký časopis mladej generácie Motus in verbo : Young Scientist Journal - PDF

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MOTUS IN VERBO : vedecký časopis mladej generácie Motus in verbo : Young Scientist Journal Recenzovaný časopis Filozofickej fakulty Univerzity Mateja Bela v Banskej Bystrici Predseda vedeckej rady: doc.

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MOTUS IN VERBO : vedecký časopis mladej generácie Motus in verbo : Young Scientist Journal Recenzovaný časopis Filozofickej fakulty Univerzity Mateja Bela v Banskej Bystrici Predseda vedeckej rady: doc. PhDr. Michal ŠMIGEĽ, PhD. (Katedra histórie FF UMB v Banskej Bystrici) Vedecká rada: prof. PhDr. František ALABÁN, CSc. (Katedra hungaristiky FF UMB v Banskej Bystrici) doc. PhDr. Zuzana BOHUŠOVÁ, PhD. (Katedra germanistiky FF UMB v Banskej Bystrici) prof. PaedDr. Ivan ČILLÍK, CSc. (Katedra telesnej výchovy a športu FF UMB v Banskej Bystrici) doc. PhDr. Vladimír ĎURČÍK, PhD. (Katedra etiky a aplikovanej etiky FF UMB v Banskej Bystrici) prof. PaedDr. Karol GÖRNER, PhD. (Katedra telesnej výchovy a športu FF UMB v Banskej Bystrici) doc. PhDr. Eva HOMOLOVÁ, PhD. (Katedra anglistiky a amerikanistiky FF UMB v Banskej Bystrici) doc. PhDr. Katarína CHOVANCOVÁ, PhD. (Katedra romanistiky FF UMB v Banskej Bystrici) doc. Ivan JANČOVIČ, PhD. (Katedra slovenskej literatúry a literárnej vedy FF UMB v Banskej Bystrici) doc. PaedDr. Miroslav KMEŤ, PhD. (Katedra histórie FF UMB v Banskej Bystrici) PhDr. Katarína KOŠTIALOVÁ, PhD. (Inštitút sociálnych a kultúrnych štúdií FF UMB v Banskej Bystrici) doc. PhDr. Marta KOVÁČOVÁ, PhD. (Katedra slovanských jazykov FF UMB v Banskej Bystrici) prof. PaedDr. Vladimír PATRÁŠ, CSc. (Katedra slovenského jazyka a komunikácie FF UMB v Banskej Bystrici) prof. Gilles ROUET, CSc. (Katedra medzinárodných vzťahov a diplomacie FPVMV UMB v Banskej Bystrici) doc. Mgr. Ulrich WOLLNER, PhD. (Katedra filozofie FF UMB v Banskej Bystrici) Mgr. Jakub CHROBÁK, Ph.D. (Ústav bohemistiky a knihovnictví FPF SLU v Opave) Ing. Mgr. Zdeňka JASTRZEMBSKÁ, Ph.D. (Katedra filozofie FF MU v Brne) prof. PaedDr. Tomáš KAMPMILLER, PhD. (Katedra atletiky FTVŠ UK v Bratislave) doc. PhDr. Jan RADIMSKÝ, Ph.D. (Ústav romanistiky FF JU v Českých Budějoviciach) doc. PhDr. Pavol TIŠLIAR, PhD. (Katedra etnológie a muzeológie FF UK v Bratislave) Šéfredaktorka: Mgr. Martina KUBEALAKOVÁ, PhD. (Katedra slovenskej literatúry a literárnej vedy FF UMB v Banskej Bystrici) Redakčná rada: PaedDr. Zuzana BARIAKOVÁ, PhD. (Katedra slovenskej literatúry a literárnej vedy FF UMB v Banskej Bystrici) doc. PhDr. Katarína CHOVANCOVÁ, PhD. (Katedra romanistiky FF UMB v Banskej Bystrici) Mgr. Lujza URBANCOVÁ, Ph.D. (Katedra slovenského jazyka a komunikácie FF UMB v Banskej Bystrici) PhDr. Ingrid BALÁŽOVÁ (referentka pre medzinárodné vzťahy a edičnú činnosť FF UMB v Banskej Bystrici) Mgr. Ľubomír GÁBOR (člen ad hoc, študent doktorandského štúdia) Adresa redakcie: Tajovského 40, Banská Bystrica E-adresa redakcie: Návrh obálky: Igor Duda Zuzana Bariaková Martina Kubealaková Grafická a technická redakcia: Mgr. Martina Kubealaková, PhD. Jazyková korektúra: Mgr. Ľubomír Gábor Mgr. Igor Lalík PaedDr. Zuzana Bariaková, PhD. doc. PhDr. Katarína Chovancová, PhD. Mgr. Lujza Urbancová, Ph.D. Mgr. Martina Kubealaková, PhD. MOTUS IN VERBO : vedecký časopis mladej generácie Motus in verbo : Young Scientist Journal Recenzovaný časopis Filozofickej fakulty Univerzity Mateja Bela v Banskej Bystrici OBSAH Filozofia TRANSCENDENTALISM AS A MULTIFACETED MOVEMENT AND PHILANTHROPIC PHILOSOPHY TRANSCENDENTALIZMUS AKO VIACROZMERNÝ SMER A FILANTROPICKÁ FILOZOFIA Shahzad Latif Chaudhary 7 Lingvistika K PROBLEMATIKE ANGLIČTINY AKO LINGUA FRANCA (ELF) Diana Krajňáková 16 VIZUÁLNE FIGURATÍVNE PROSTRIEDKY V TELEVÍZNEJ REKLAME NA FARMACEUTICKÉ PRODUKTY Igor Lalík 26 THE INFLUENCE OF CULTURALLY-DEFINED BELIEFS ON EFFECTIVE INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION WITHIN FOREIGN LANGUAGE ACQUISITION VPLYV KULTÚROU DEFINOVANÝCH KONCEPTOV NA INTERKULTÚRNU KOMUNIKÁCIU V RÁMCI OSVOJENIA SI CUDZIEHO JAZYKA Ingrid Madárová 34 LITERARISCHE EMOTIONEN: DAS MOTIV DER KINDERLOSEN EHE UND SEINE EMOTIONALEN AUSWIRKUNGEN LITERÁRNE EMÓCIE: MOTÍV BEZDETNÉHO MANŽELSTVA A JEHO EMOCIÁLNE KONSEKVENCIE Josef Mišun 40 ON NON-NATIVE SPEAKER COMMUNICATION FROM A REGISTER PERSPECTIVE (REDUCED VS FULL FORMS) REGISTROVÁ ANALÝZA OVÉ KOMUNICE NERODILÝCH MLUVČÍCH ANGLIČTINY (ZKRÁCENÉ A PLNÉ TVARY) Jan Pikhart 54 Literárna veda ŠOTOLOVO KUŘE NA ROŽNI JAKO FILOSOFICKÁ PARODIE Jakub Klein 64 VARIA FOLKLÓRNY FESTIVAL V RUSKEJ PORUBE KULTÚRNE DEDIČSTVO RUSÍNOV Viktória Bíziková 77 NANOETIKA: ETICKÉ A SPOLOČENSKÉ DÔSLEDKY NANOTECHNOLÓGIÍ Bibiána Marková 81 IV/1 Banská Bystrica 2015 ISSN MOTUS IN VERBO : vedecký časopis mladej generácie Motus in verbo : Young Scientist Journal Recenzovaný časopis Filozofickej fakulty Univerzity Mateja Bela v Banskej Bystrici CONTENT Philosophy TRANSCENDENTALISM AS A MULTIFACETED MOVEMENT AND PHILANTHROPIC PHILOSOPHY Shahzad Latif Chaudhary 7 Linguistics ON THE CONCEPT OF ENGLISH AS A LINGUA FRANCA (ELF) Diana Krajňáková 16 MEANS OF VISUAL IMAGERY IN THE TELEVISION ADVERTISING OF PHARMACEUTICAL PRODUCTS Igor Lalík 26 THE INFLUENCE OF CULTURALLY-DEFINED BELIEFS ON EFFECTIVE INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION WITHIN FOREIGN LANGUAGE ACQUISITION Ingrid Madárová 34 LITERARY EMOTIONS: THE PREDOMINANT THEME OF A CHILDLESS MARRIAGE AND ITS EMOTIONAL IMPLICATIONS Josef Mišun 40 ON NON-NATIVE SPEAKER COMMUNICATION FROM A REGISTER PERSPECTIVE (REDUCED VS FULL FORMS) Jan Pikhart 54 Literary Science ŠOTOLA S KUŘE NA ROŽNI AS A PHILOSOPHICAL PARODY Jakub Klein 64 VARIA FOLKLORE FESTIVAL IN RUSKÁ PORUBA RUTHENIANS CULTURAL HERITAGE Viktória Bíziková 77 NANOETHICS: THE ETHICAL AND SOCIAL IMPLICATIONS OF NANOTECHNOLOGY Bibiána Marková 81 Banská Bystrica IV/1 ISSN Milé čitateľky a čitatelia, aj prvé číslo štvrtého ročníka časopisu Motus in verbo ponúka zaujímavé odborné články z rôznych oblastí kultúrnoantropologických vedných disciplín, zoradených do sekcií filozofia, lingvistika a literárna veda. Význam uvedených príspevkov spočíva predovšetkým v ich interdisciplinárnom potenciáli a v reakcii na aktuálne a neraz i neuralgické problémy súčasnej spoločnosti. Filozofickú sekciu reprezentuje štúdia S. Latifa Chaudharyho, analyzujúca duchovný a spoločenský význam severoamerického hnutia transcendentalizmu, ktoré sa gnozeologicky inšpirovalo viacerými svetovými filozofickými a náboženskými systémami a pokúsilo sa o duchovnú zmenu americkej spoločnosti 19. storočia. Jeho odkaz by sme však mohli považovať za nadčasový a uplatniteľný aj dnes. Jazykovednú sekciu reprezentuje päť príspevkov. Problematiku angličtiny ako lingua franca (ELF) v súčasnom svete si vo svojom článku všíma D. Krajňáková, smerujúca k stanoveniu teoretického základu pre budúce empirické výskumy v tejto oblasti. Noetika príspevku spočíva najmä v snahe autorky o presvedčivé zodpovedanie troch zásadných otázok v súvislosti s angličtinou ako jazykom všeobecnej komunikácie, t. j. čo je to ELF, prečo existuje a ako sa prejavuje. Figuratívne prostriedky jazyka reklamy ako špecifického persuazívneho útvaru na konkrétnych príkladoch reklamných ukážok (najmä liečiv) v slovenských médiách analyzuje I. Lalík, pričom zaujímavým spôsobom upozorňuje práve na funkcie obrazov v reklamných komunikátoch a ich význam vo vzťahu k vedomiu recipientov. Štúdia I. Madárovej, pohybujúca sa v oblasti interkultúrnej komunikácie, interkultúrnej senzibilizácie a multikultúrnej tolerancie v európskych multietnických podmienkach, má pre súčasnú spoločnosť nepochybne veľký význam. Akceptovanie kultúrnych rozdielov medzi ľuďmi je v súčasnosti jednou z najnutnejších podmienok ich pokojného spolunažívania. Autorka sa v tejto súvislosti sústreďuje hlavne na aspekty a formy interkultúrnej komunikácie ako dôležitej súčasti osvojovania si kompetencií v cudzích jazykoch, čo prispieva k zvyšovaniu povedomia o potrebe tolerancie medzi kultúrami. J. Mišun vo svojom sympatickom článku zasa smeruje k prekonaniu hraníc medzi vednými odbormi analýzou výrazovej stránky emócií na ploche konkrétneho umeleckého diela. Ako sám tvrdí, literárne texty majú podstatnú úlohu v kultúrnom porozumení emóciám, pričom otázka výrazu citov v beletristickom texte zohráva čoraz väčšiu úlohu aj v lingvistických výskumoch. V príspevku J. Pikharta sa prezentujú výsledky pozorovania korpusu neformálnych, anglicky písaných ových komunikátov, vytvorených českými hovoriacimi. Práve vďaka podrobnému preskúmaniu týchto zdrojov oscilujúcich na hranici ústnosti a písomnosti dokazoval autor platnosť hypotézy o tom, že problematika štýlu a žánru tvorí konštantný kameň úrazu v komunikácii ľudí prebiehajúcej po anglicky, pre ktorých angličtina nie je materinským jazykom. Sekciu literárnej vedy zastupuje článok J. Kleina. Interpretačné prieniky tohto autora do novely Kuře na rožni zdôrazňujú, že dielo nesie významné prvky umeleckej karnevalizácie a zároveň je možné vnímať ho ako beletrizovanú filozofickú paródiu niektorých odpovedí na otázky existenčného, sociálneho alebo etického charakteru, ktorá navyše zahŕňa prístupy viacerých filozofických koncepcií 19. a 20. storočia. V závere tohto čísla môžete nájsť príspevok V. Bizíkovej o rusínskych folklórnych slávnostiach organizovaných v obci Ruská Poruba, v ktorom sa mapuje genéza a význam tohto kultúrneho podujatia pre obyvateľstvo rusínskeho pôvodu, pritom však autorka nezabúda zdôrazniť aj jeho multikultúrny charakter a medzinárodnú rozšírenosť. Do štvrtého čísla časopisu bola zaradená aj recenzia B. Markovej na publikáciu Nanoethics: The Ethical and Social Implications of Nanotechnology, ktorej aktuálnosť spočíva v stále otvorenej a odborne pomerne málo preskúmanej otázke etických aspektov využívania nanotechnológií v súčasnej spoločnosti. Veríme, že aj toto číslo časopisu bude pre čitateľov a čitateľky zaujímavé a inšpiratívne. Ľubomír Gábor IV/1 Banská Bystrica 2015 ISSN TRANSCENDENTALISM AS A MULTIFACETED MOVEMENT AND PHILANTHROPIC PHILOSOPHY TRANSCENDENTALIZMUS AKO VIACROZMERNÝ SMER A FILANTROPICKÁ FILOZOFIA Shahzad Latif Chaudhary Department of English and American Studies Constantine Philosopher University in Nitra American Literature, 2 nd Year, Doctorate Supervisor: prof. PhDr. Anton Pokrivčák, PhD. Key words movement, transcendentalism, philosophy, James Marsh, Emerson, Thoreau, Carlyle, Kant Kľúčové slová smer, transcendetalizmus, filozofia, James Marsh, Emerson, Thoreau, Carlyle, Kant 1. Introduction Before inaugurating the discussion, let us determine the definition of a movement. Generally, a group of people working together to advance their shared political, social, religious or artistic ideas is considered as a movement. While judging on the touchstone of this definition, Transcendentalism can be taken as a literary, political, and philosophical movement of the early nineteenth century American, which centred mainly around Ralph Waldo Emerson, whereas, the other main transcendentalists of that era were Henry David Thoreau, Margaret Fuller, Frederic Henry Hedge, and Theodore Parker. Transcendentalism was in many aspects the first notable American intellectual movement and certainly the first to inspire succeeding generations of American intellectuals, as well as a number of literary movements. These transcendentalists launched the movement with the sense that a new era was at hand. They were critics of their contemporary society for its unthinking conformity, and urged that each person find, in Emerson s words, an original relation to the universe. Emerson and Thoreau sought this relation in solitude among nature, and in their writing. By the 1840s, they, along with other transcendentalists, were engaged in the social experiments of Fruitlands, and Walden; however, by the 1850s they turned into vehement critique of American slavery. The pioneers of this movement seem to have distinctive innovation in their ideas as they were reacting against a live phenomenon where human values were at stake because of the irrational preference of machine over man and material over morality. Religion had become confined to the walls of church, and the church was very indifferently ignoring its pivotal role in society. Thus a spasm was created which evoked the transcendentalists to rise and act. The steady growth of transcendentalism and its gradual penetration into religious, social and political arenas of life gave it such a multifaceted dimension and attracted scholars so widely that made a splendid mark on face of the history in the years to come. Transcendentalism did not grow and prosper in solitude; rather it got inspiration from other ideologies or the spiritual movements such as Hinduism in India and the Sufism in Islam. While dealing with the topic of transcendentalism, the comprehensive picture of it can be framed only when assessed through its multiple angles. All these aspects of Transcendentalism as a movement are discussed in the pages that follow. 7 Motus in verbo 1/2015 Chaudhary, Latif Shahzad Transcendentalism as a Multifaceted Movement and Philanthropic Philosophy 2. Shaping of the Transcendental Movement 2a. Initial stage The transcendentalism, as known, first took its shape, among the liberal New England Congregationalists, who being discontented with the orthodox Calvinism departed from it in two respects: i. They believed in the importance and efficacy of human nisus, as opposed to the bleaker Puritan picture of complete and inescapable human depravity; ii. They emphasized the unity rather than the Trinity of God therefore they came to adopt the term Unitarians. 2b. Second Phase Mostly, the Unitarians were of the faith that Jesus was in some way inferior to God the Father but still greater than human beings; a few followed the English Unitarian Joseph Priestley ( ) in holding that Jesus was thoroughly human, although endowed with special authority. The Unitarians' leading preacher, William Ellery Channing ( ), portrayed orthodox Congregationalism as a religion of fear, and maintained that Jesus saved human beings from sin, not just from punishment. 2c. Rift with Unitarians The Unitarians were modern. They attempted to reconcile Locke s empiricism with Christianity by maintaining that the accounts of miracles in the Bible provide overwhelming evidence for the truth of religion. It was precisely on this ground, however, that the transcendentalists found fault with Unitarianism. Transcendentalists were strong believers in the power of the individual and divine messages. Their beliefs are closely linked with those of the romantics. 2d. A New Twist Around the middle of 1820 s the Unitarian leaders got the first glimmering realization that they were including such items that dragged Unitarianism towards obsolete. Despite what they had heard about French revolution and Napoleon, they were utterly unaware Europe which was undergoing an intellectual revolution more profound than the political. In the expectation of furnishing New England libraries with Pope and Addison, they managed to give their pupils the barbarities of Wordsworth, Coleridge, and Cousin. 2e. Advanced Approach In the 19 th century, under the influence of Ralph Waldo Emerson (who had been a Unitarian minister) and some other transcendentalists, Unitarianism began its long journey from liberal protestantism to its present more pluralist form. The transcendentalists wished to ground their religion and philosophy in transcendental principles: principles not based on, physical experience, but deriving from the inner spiritual or mental essence of the human. Transcendentalists believed that society and its institutions, particularly organized religion and political parties, ultimately corrupted the purity of the individual. They had faith that people are at their best when truly self-reliant and independent. It is only from such real individuals that true community could be formed. 3. Transcendentalism as a Philosophy Prior to get deeper into the discussion on the subject of Transcendentalism as a Philosophy let term Philosophy be defined: Philosophy is considered as a theory or attitude held by a person or organization that acts as a guiding principle for behaviour. When assessed on this touchstone Transcendentalism verily provides a driving force for the behaviour. It describes very simply that people, men and women equally, have knowledge about Motus in verbo 1/2015 8 Chaudhary, Latif Shahzad Transcendentalism as a Multifaceted Movement and Philanthropic Philosophy themselves and the world around them that transcends or goes beyond what they can see, hear, taste, touch or feel. The thinkers most closely associated with this new approach were connected through a group known as The Transcendental Club, which met in the Boston home of George Ripley. Their chief publication was a periodical called The Dial, edited by Margaret Fuller, a political radical and feminist whose book Women of the Nineteenth Century was among the most famous of its time. The club despite having many distinguished thinkers accorded the leadership position to Ralph Waldo Emerson. Emerson was a Harvard-educated essayist and lecturer and is recognized as the first truly American thinker. In his most famous essay, The American Scholar, he urged Americans to stop looking to Europe for inspiration and imitation and be themselves. He inspired his colleagues to look into themselves, into nature, into art, and through work for answers to life s most perplexing questions. His intellectual contributions to the philosophy of transcendentalism inspired a uniquely American idealism and spirit of reform. Transcendentalism was such a multidimensional philosophy that was at the heart of the flowering of national thought in all the arts literature, poetry, painting, sculpture, architecture, and music. In The American Scholar the speech given by Ralph Waldo Emerson on August 31, 1837, above fact has been described very artistically: The theory of books is noble The scholar of the first age received into him the world around; brooded thereon; gave it the new arrangement of his own mind, and uttered it again. It came into him, life; it went out from him, truth. It came to him, short-lived actions; it went out from him, immortal thoughts. It came to him, business; it went from him, poetry. It was dead fact; now, it is quick thought. It can stand, and it can go. It now endures, it now flies, it now inspires precisely in proportion to the depth of mind from which it issued, so high does it soar, so long does it sing. Emerson also wrote about the simplicity and unity of all things in nature, his faith in humanity, and his sturdy individualism, whereas, Thoreau reminded everyone that life is wasted pursuing wealth and following social customs. Nature can show that all good things are wild and free. I went to the woods because I wished to live deliberately, to front only the essential facts of life, and see if I could not learn what it had to teach, and not, when I came to die, discover that I had not lived. I did not wish to live what was not life, living is so dear; nor did I wish to practice resignation, unless it was quite necessary. I wanted to live deep and suck out all the marrow of life, to live so sturdily and Spartan-like as to put to rout all that was not life, to cut a broad swath and shave close, to drive life into a corner, and reduce it to its lowest terms, and, if it proved to be mean, why then to get the whole and genuine meanness of it, and publish its meanness to the world; or if it were sublime, to know it by experience, and be able to give a true account of it in my next excursion. For most men, it appears to me, are in a strange uncertainty about it, whether it is of the devil or of God, a
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