Micro-organisms as plant protection agents. Peter Lüth - PDF

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Micro-organisms as plant protection agents Peter Lüth Agenda/ Content Introduction of the Speaker Biocontrol based on Viruses and Bacteria Biocontrol based on Fungi The Technology Strain Selection The

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Micro-organisms as plant protection agents Peter Lüth Agenda/ Content Introduction of the Speaker Biocontrol based on Viruses and Bacteria Biocontrol based on Fungi The Technology Strain Selection The Efficacy The Applicability The Economics Product Example Product Perception Where and how to apply the products? Introduction The Speaker Study at the University of Rostock PhD about ectoparasitic nematodes on cereals Scientist at a plant breeding institute in the former GDR 1992 foundation of Prophyta Biologischer Pflanzenschutz GmbH Development of the technological bases for the production of fungal BCA s International registration of the biological fungicide Contans WG International registration of the product BioAct Now working with Bayer CropScience, responsible for the development of new fungal BCA s Introduction The company Founded 1992 Develops, produces and distributes biological plant protection agents 32 employees 2013 acquired by Bayer CropScience market access Biocontrol based on Microorganisms Overvew Biocontrol based on Viruses Insecticides Baculoviruses First found in the 16 th century on silk caterpilars 1949 first biological insecticide Biocontrol based on Viruses Insecticides Biocontrol based on Viruses Insecticides Biocontrol based on Viruses Insecticides Baculovirus products Spod-X (Certis) Spodoptera exigua NPV GemStar (Certis) Helicoverpa zea NPV Elcar (Syngenta) Helicoverpa zea NPV Cyd-X (Certis) Cydia pomonella GV Madex (Andermatt Biocontrol) Cydia pomonella GV Granupom (Neudorf) Cydia pomonella GV Carpovirusin (NPP) Cydia pomonella GV Mamestrin (NPP) Mamestra brassicae Capex (Andermatt Biocontrol) Adoxophyes orana VPN (Agricola del Sol) Anticarsia gemmatalis NPV Gusano (Certis) Autographa californica NPV Spodopterin (Ajay Bio-Tech Ltd.) Spodoptera littoralis NPV Biocontrol based on Bacteria Insecticides Bt products In the alkaline environment of the susceptible insect's digestive system, the crystals are dissolved and converted into toxic protein molecules that destroy the walls of the insect's stomach. The insect usually stops feeding within hours and dies within days. Biocontrol based on Bacteria Insecticides Bt products Bacillus thuringiensis serovar israelensis (controls the larvae stages of certain pests belonging to the Diptera) Teknar (Certis) Vectobac (Valent) Biomükk (Biofa) Neudomück (Neudorff) Bacillus thuringiensis serovar kurstaki or aizawea (controls the larvae stages of certain pests belonging to the Lepidoptera) Dipel Thuricide Caterpillar Attack XenTari Biocontrol based on Bacteria Insecticides Bacillus thuringiensis serovar tenebrionis (controls the larvae stages of certain pests belonging to the Coleoptera) Novodor Jackpot Perizin Biocontrol based on Bacteria Fungicides SERENADE SONATA Taegro, Rhizoctrol EcoShot, Double Nickel, AmyloX, BacStar Integral, HiStick, Subtilex, Clarity Companion, Kodiak B. subtilis QST 713 B. pumilus QST 2808 B. amyloliquifaciens FZB24 B. amyloliquifaciens D747 B. subtilis MBI600 B. subtilis GB03 Biocontrol based on Bacteria Nematicide Pasteuria nishizawae (Econem, Clariva) Bacillus firmus (VOTiVO, Flocter, Nortica) Biocontrol based on Fungi Herbicides DeVine (Phytophthora palmivora) Controls stranglervine (Morrenia odorata ) Collego (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. aeschynomene) Controls northern jointvetch (Aeschynomene virginica) CASST (Alternaria cassiae) Sicklepod (Cassia obtusifolia ) Myco-Tech Paste, Chontrol Paste, Biochon (Chondrostereum purpureum) Controls black cherry (Prunus serotina) Smolder (Alternaria destruens) Controls dodder (Cuscuta pentagona) BioMal (C. gloeosporioides f. sp. malvae) Controls rounded-leaved mallow (Malva pusilla) Biocontrol based on Fungi Fungicides Trichoderma products Trichodex (company Makhteshim) Xedavir (company Xeda) SoilGard (company Certis USA) RootShield (company BioWorks) Esquive (company Agrauxine) Trianum (company Koppert) Remedier (company Isagro) Many more, also without registration Biocontrol based on Fungi Fungicides Other fungicides AQ10 based on Ampelomyces quiqualis (company CBC) WG formulation (5 x 10 9 conidia per gram) Prestop based on Clonostachys rosea (company Verdera) WP formulation (2 x 10 8 conidia per gram) BOTRY-Zen based on Ulocladium audemansii (company Botry-Zen Ltd.) WG formulation (2.5 x 10 8 conidia per gram) Tough Block based on Talaromyces flavus (company Idemitsu) WP formulation (1 x 10 8 conidia per gram) Contans WG (Coniothyrium minitans) WG formulation (1 x 10 9 conidia per gram) Biocontrol based on Fungi Insecticides Fungi used to produce biological insecticides Beauveria bassiana (Mycontrol, Botanigard, Naturalis) Metarhizium anisopliae (Met52, Green Muscle, BioGreen) Lecanicillium longisporum (Vertalec) Isaria fumosorosea (Preferal, NoFly, PFR 97) Biocontrol based on Fungi Nematicides Fungi used to produce biological nematicides Paecilomyces lilacinus (MeloCon WG and WP, Biostat/Rootgard, PLGold) Pochonia chlamydosporia (KlamiC, PcMR-1) Myrothecium verrucaria (DiTera) Other fungi like Arthrobotrys spp, Dactylella spp., and Duddingtonia flagrans are known as highly efficient, but are currently not commercially used. Biocontrol based on Fungi Paecilomyces lilacinus Biocontrol based on Fungi Paecilomyces lilacinus Product features Biostat WP PL Gold WP MeloCon WG Spore concentration per g/ml 2 x x x ai per Kilogram 10 % no info 4 % recommended rate 0.25 Kg/ha 2 Kg/ha 4 Kg/ha Biocontrol based on Fungi Pochonia chlamydosporia Former Verticillium chlamydosporium First reported as a parasite of nematodes by Wilcox & Tribe (1974) Since then several patents have been filed (Kerry BR, 1990; Franco Carlos Manuel Antunes, 2004; Qiau M, 2011) Only 2 products are available KlamiC (Cuba) PcMR-1 (Portugal) Biocontrol based on Fungi Myrothecium verrucaria Product: DiTera (Valent) To be used on a wide range of plants But at a fairly high rate The Technology Solid-state fermentation Fermenter to be autoclaved The Technology Solid-state fermentation Incubation The Technology Solid-state fermentation Fermenter after incubation The Technology Solid-state fermentation Fermentation in spawn bags The Technology Solid-state fermentation Fermentation in spawn bags The Technology Spore separion Conidia of Paecilomyces lilacinus and Coniothyrium minitans The Technology Formulation Lyophilization The Technology Formulation Fluidized bed drying The Technology BCS Biologics - Product Contans WG: Active ingredient: Coniothyrium minitans Water dispersible granule (WG) Carrier: Inert, soluble 1 x 10 9 viable conidia per gram Rate: kg pro hectare shelf life: 24 months at +4 C and even 5 years 18 C Applicable to control Sclerotinia sclerotiorum Sclerotinia minor Sclerotinia trifoliorum Sclerotium cepivorum Produced on a pure biological basis Strain Selection The Efficacy In regards to the screening of effective fungi the industry works closely together with universities and other scientific institutes or companies. Good disease or pest control in comparison to the UTC and the chemical standard Good yield response in comparison to the UTC and the chemical standard Both at a reasonable low rate Confirmation of the results in own field trials. Strain Selection The Applicability Product Application Suitability of the product to be drenched into the soil Small conidia No aglomerations of the conidia in the formulation No impurities from the culture substrate Mixing with a surfactant possible Or: Application as a seed treatment Good rhizosphere competitiveness Compatibility with chemicals used to treat the seed Or: The used fungus can be applied as an endophyte. Strain Selection The Applicability Low rate Maximum 4 kg/l per hectare To be applied with common equipment Shelf life Optimum More than 2 years at ambient temperatures More than 6 months at 30 C Just acceptable 1 Year at ambient temperature 3 Months at 30 C Difficult Refrigerated transport and storage Strain Selection Economics Influence of the spore size Strain Selection Economics Influence of the spore size Strain Selection Economics Influence of the spore size Maximum spore yield maximum content in 1 ml maximum content in a 1000 l fermenter Conidia diameter 20 µm 1.25 x x Conidia diameter 5 µm 8.0 x x (about 60x more) Strain Selection Economics Economics Dependence of the profitability from spore yield and rate per hectare Conidia per gram culture substrate 5.0 x x x x x x x x x x x Number of cfu needed per sq m The producer knows how much he must earn manufacturing the product from one fermenter. So, he knows whether or not the whole process can be profitable for him or not. Product Example The Product MeloCon WG MeloCon WG: Contains the spores of the fungus Paecilomyces lilacinus Water dispersible granule (WG) Carrier: Inert, soluble 1 x living conidia per gram product Rate: 0.2 gram per plant, but not more than 4 kg per hectare per season Shelf life: 6 months at +4 C and 24 months at 10 C Applicable to control: Root-knot nematodes, lesion nematodes, burrowing nematodes, reniform nematodes, citrus nematodes, sting nematodes and others The product is manufactured on a pure biological basis. Product Example The biological Nematicide MeloCon WG Product Example The biological Nematicide MeloCon WG Different strategies to use MeloCon WG Prerequisite: The spores of P. lilacinus have to get in contact with the nematodes. Application by drip irrigation Application by mechanical incorporation Application by spraying followed by sprinkler irrigation or rain Product Example The biological Nematicide MeloCon WG Application by drip irrigation Product Example The biological Nematicide MeloCon WG Application by drip irrigation Product Example The biological Nematicide MeloCon WG (Nemout) Application by mechanical incorporation Product Example The biological Nematicide MeloCon WG Spray application and drench by rain in banana production Efficacy of BIOACT WG in the control of Nematodes in bananas (ECA, 2002) [First application] ECA-S-C1-001/ a Untreated ab ab 30 g/pl chem. Std bc bc bc 30 g/pl chem. Std g/pl chem. Std. 1. u 30 g/pl chem. Std Radopholus similis Population 4 g/pl BIOACT WG. 150ml/pl 6 g/pl BIOACT WG. 300ml/pl Development of Radopholus similis at different treatments Average 102 days after 1st appication August 2002 Product Example The biological Nematicide MeloCon WG Spray application and drench by rain in banana production Efficacy of BIOACT WG in the control of Nematodes in bananas (ECA, 2002) [First application] ECA-S-C1-001/ a Untreated g/pl chem. Std g/pl chem. Std b b b b b b Helicotylenchus spp Population Average 102 days after 1st appication b 30 g/pl chem. Std. 1. u 30 g/pl chem. Std. 2 4 g/pl BIOACT WG. 150ml/pl 6 g/pl BIOACT WG. 300ml/pl August 2002 Development of Helicotylenchus spp. at different treatments Product Example The biological Nematicide MeloCon WG Spray application and drench by rain in banana production Efficacy of BIOACT WG in the control of Nematodes in bananas (ECA, 2002) [Two applications] ECA-S-C1-001/ P F = r 2 = 0.70 C.V. = 9.29 a a a a a a a Untreated 30 g/pl chem. Std g/pl chem. Std b 30 g/pl chem. Std. 1. u 30 g/pl chem. Std g/pl BIOACT WG. 150ml/pl 6 g/pl BIOACT WG. 300ml/pl Banana yield after dfferent treatments Product Perception The problem All requirements for an economic performance are fulfilled An interesting market, e.g. aphids in cereals A good effectiveness, e.g. as good as the best chemical insecticide A good formulation, e.g. a WG with 1 x conidia per gram A good price ensuring a good profit and acceptable for the grower Nevertheless the product does not enter the market as expected. Advantages of biocontrol agents vis-a-vis certain chemical products are not immediately visible to the grower. Product Perception The reason insufficient technical support wrong expectation of the users special care is needed to keep the active ingredient alive unauthorised products (snake oils) in the market Where and how to apply the products? In conventional agriculture and horticulture as a resistance management tool as a tool in product life cycle management at the end of the crop season to prevent residue level above MRL as a tool complementary to synthetic solutions where no other solutions are available in the rainy season at danger of leaching of synthetic a.i. where the product works better or more sustainable than the synthetic a.i. Page 52 Introduction to Biologicals at Bayer CropScience January 2014 Thank you!
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