Межправительственный комитет по интеллектуальной собственности, генетическим ресурсам, традиционным знаниям и фольклору - PDF

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R ОРИГИНАЛ: АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ДАТА: 10 ЯНВАРЯ 2011 Г. Межправительственный комитет по интеллектуальной собственности, генетическим ресурсам, традиционным знаниям и фольклору Третья межсессионная рабочая группа

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R ОРИГИНАЛ: АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ДАТА: 10 ЯНВАРЯ 2011 Г. Межправительственный комитет по интеллектуальной собственности, генетическим ресурсам, традиционным знаниям и фольклору Третья межсессионная рабочая группа Женева, 28 4 марта 2011 г. WIPO/GRTKF/IC/9/13: «ПАТЕНТНАЯ СИСТЕМА И ГЕНЕТИЧЕСКИЕ РЕСУРСЫ» Документ подготовлен Секретариатом 1. На семнадцатой сессии, проходившей 6-10 декабря 2010 г., Межправительственный комитет по интеллектуальной собственности, генетическим ресурсам, традиционным знаниям и фольклору («Комитет») «обратился к Секретариату с просьбой предоставить копии всех соответствующих документов третьей Межсессионной рабочей группе, которая состоится 28 февраля 4 марта 2011 г. (МРГ-3), включая: [ ] WIPO/GRTKF/IC/9/13 [ ]». 2. В соответствии с вышеупомянутым решением в Приложении к настоящему документу содержится документ WIPO/GRTKF/IC/9/13 («Патентная система и генетические ресурсы»). 3. Межсессионной Рабочей группе предлагается принять к сведению содержание этого документа и Приложения к нему. [Приложение следует] WIPO ПРИЛОЖЕНИЕ WIPO/GRTKF/IC/9/13 ORIGINAL: English DATE: April 20, 2006 WORLD I NTELLECTUAL P ROPERT Y O R GANI ZATION GENEVA E INTERGOVERNMENTAL COMMITTEE ON INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY AND GENETIC RESOURCES, TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE AND FOLKLORE Ninth Session Geneva, April 24 to 28, 2006 THE PATENT SYSTEM AND GENETIC RESOURCES Document submitted by Japan 1. By a note dated April 20, 2006, the Permanent Mission of Japan to the United Nations Office and Other International Organizations in Geneva request that a documentbe circulated as a working document for the Intergovernmental Committee on Intellectual Property and Genetic Resources, Traditional Knowledge and Folklore ( the Committee ) at its ninth session. 2. The text of the document as received is published in the Annex to this document. 3. The Intergovernmental Committee is invited to take note of the contents of the Annex. [Annex follows] Приложение, стр.2 [WIPO/GRTKF/IC/9/13, ПРИЛОЖЕНИЕ] The Patent System and Genetic Resources I. The Relationship between Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and the Patent System as for the Premise of Examination 1. The consistency of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) with the patent system has been one of the major points at issue in the recent discussions relating to intellectual property rights, and it is the premise for the examination of various issues concerning the relationship between genetic resources, associated traditional knowledge, and intellectual property rights. However, as a matter of legal rights and obligations, it is apparent that CBD and the patent system do not conflict with each other and that they are mutually supportive. A. The Relationship between the CBD and the Patent System 2. Article 22.1 stipulates the following: The provisions of this Convention shall not affect the rights and obligations of any Contracting Party deriving from any existing international agreement, except where the exercise of those rights and obligations would cause a serious damage or threat to biological diversity. 3. Article 16.5 stipulates the following: The Contracting Parties, recognizing that patents and other intellectual property rights may have an influence on the implementation of this Convention, shall cooperate in this regard subject to national legislation and international law in order to ensure that such rights are supportive of and do not run counter to its objectives. 4. First of all, based on Article 22.1 of the CBD, it is clear that the provisions of the CBD do not have the direct influence over the current patent system which has been established according to the existing international agreement. 1 Moreover, although Article 16.5 of the CBD provides the cooperation among countries in order for the intellectual property rights to promote and not to run counter to the objectives of the CBD, the Article also makes clear that such cooperation should take place within the framework of national legislation and international law, which means within the existing international and national patent system As for the proviso on serious damage or threat in this provision, it is difficult to judge in which cases a serious damage or threat to biological diversity is caused, but it could be considered to be extremely exceptional. In most national legislation and international law that provides protection of international property rights, the possibility of constraints that the intellectual property rights might get in some particular cases as for the sake of public interest has been taken into consideration. At the drafting stage, this provision was changed from recognizing that have an influence on to recognizing that may have an influence on [i.e., may was added], and this showed that a consensus on whether intellectual property rights has an influence on the CBD or [Footnote continued on next page] [WIPO/GRTKF/IC/9/13, Приложение, стр.2] Приложение, стр.3 Therefore, from the legal perspective, it is apparent that existing patent system would not be changed due to the provisions of the CBD and that it is not expected to have such changes. 5. Regarding the impact of the patent system on the CBD, it is necessary to keep in mind that the patent system grants patents that are only for inventions that meet certain requirements such as the requirements of novelty, inventive steps, and industrial applicability, but it does not grant rights for prior art. In other words, what has existed as public domain will remain as it is, and if countries providing/providers of genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge can utilize those in the same manner as usual, and they will not come under the influence of the patent system. 6. The objective of treaties relating to the patent system, such as the TRIPS Agreement, is to protect intellectual property, namely inventions, while the objective of the CBD is to conserve biological diversity; therefore, the objectives, content, and subject matter of the CBD as a treaty differ from those of treaties relating to the patent system. B. Mutually Complementary Effect of the CBD and the Patent System 7. The objectives of the CBD to be pursued in accordance with its relevant provisions are 1) the conservation of biological diversity, 2) the sustainable use of its components and 3) the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising out of the utilization of genetic resources, which are accomplished, inter alia, by the appropriate transfer of relevant technology, taking into account all rights over those resources and to technologies as stipulated in the CBD. In this manner, as emphasis is placed on technological transfer as the means to accomplish the three objectives of the CBD, the patent system is expected to function as an important factor for the technological transfer. For instance, the publication system and the license system under the patent system facilitate the diffusion and transfer of technology. Also, it should be kept in mind that benefits (monetary and non-monetary benefits, including technologies subject to technology transfer), which are subject to benefit sharing, arise from the proper protection of intellectual property rights. To forbid granting of a patent to any living organism will deprive prospective applicants of opportunities to obtain benefits arising from inventions utilizing genetic resources and take away incentives for the technology development which might be subject to transfer, and, consequently, the opportunities for benefit sharing to the countries providing the genetic resources will also be lost. 8. In this way, it is presumable that the patent system may complement the CBD in facilitating the benefit sharing or technology transfer specified in the CBD. II. Efforts made based on the CBD A. Obligations under the CBD 9. The CBD aims at i) the conservation of biological diversity, ii) the sustainable use of its components, and iii) the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising out of the utilization of genetic resources. [Footnote continued from previous page] not and, if such rights does have an influence, whether the influence was positive or negative, was not obtained in the process of negotiation among the countries. [WIPO/GRTKF/IC/9/13, Приложение, стр.3] Приложение, стр Article 16 of the CBD, which is related to patents or intellectual property rights, does not require disclosing the source/country of origin of genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge. Therefore, the CBD does not oblige Contracting Parties to disclose the country of origin, etc., of genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge in patent applications. 11. The CBD leaves the decision to the Contracting Parties discretion regarding the measures to be taken to accomplish said objectives; therefore, it is permissible for Contracting Parties to implement the Convention by taking other measures than requiring disclosure of the source/country of the origin of genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge in patent applications. B. Activities in Japan 12. Japan has been a contracting party since the effective date of the CBD; therefore, we think it is very important to accomplish the objectives of the CBD and to realize the sustainable use of genetic resources. Genetic resources are the basic materials for various research activities, including biotechnology, and for industrial applications of the results of such research activities; consequently, such genetic resources are considered to be essential to the sound development of industries in Japan. 13. Therefore, Japan, in Biotechnological Strategies, aims at the realization of the collection, acquisition and offer of genetic resources in harmony and cooperation with the countries owning those resources based on the spirit of the Convention of Biological Diversity (the CBD) and has carried out various activities in accordance with the discretion given to the Parties by the CBD. In steadily advancing our activities, we have come to consider it possible to facilitate smooth access to genetic resources and the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising out of their utilization based on the CBD. 1. Preparation of Guidelines on Access to Genetic Resources for Users in Japan 14. Japan considers it possible for the Contracting Parties of the CBD to facilitate smooth access to genetic resources and fair and equitable benefit sharing arising out of their utilization, which is one of the objectives of the CBD, by fulfilling their obligations in accordance with the discretion given to the CBD Contracting Parties while considering the Bonn Guidelines. 15. Therefore, since the Bonn Guidelines were adopted in 2002, Japan has enlightened Japanese users of genetic resources and has disseminated the necessity to comply with the law of the countries providing said resources and to share benefits arising out of their utilization based on mutually agreed terms with concerned parties when Japanese users have access to genetic resources overseas. 16. Furthermore, The Guidelines on Access to Genetic Resources for Users in Japan was prepared in March 2005 based on the opinions of industry representatives and academicians in order to publicize the idea of access to genetic resources and benefit sharing as stipulated in the Bonn Guidelines. From April 2005, the Japanese Government has been disseminating the Guidelines throughout Japan. Japan was the first country to prepare the aforementioned Guidelines for the users of genetic resources in companies and research institutions in Japan. [WIPO/GRTKF/IC/9/13, Приложение, стр.4] Приложение, стр.5 By explaining the necessity of obtaining prior informed consent (PIC) from the governments of the providing countries or parties concerned regarding genetic resources and the necessity of obtaining mutually agreed terms (MAT) in contracts with the parties concerned, the Guidelines aims at the popularization of the CBD, etc., and serves as a practical guide which explains each step of the procedure involved in accessing genetic resources and benefit sharing. 17. The objective of the Guidelines is to assist both the countries providing genetic resources and the countries utilizing them to enjoy the benefits and to build a win-win relationship between themselves by realizing access to genetic resources and fair and equitable benefit sharing. 2. Activities of the Japan Bioindustry Association (JBA) 18. There are developing countries where rain forests rich in biological diversity have been diminished as a result of development and environmental degradation due to the increase of population or industrial growth, and consequently, many biological species have disappeared, impairing the ecosystem. Under these circumstances, the necessity to establish and maintain programs for scientific and technical education and training in measures for...the conservation of biological diversity and its components and provide support for such education and training for the specific needs of developing countries was provided in Article 12(a) of the CBD in consideration of the needs of developing countries. 19. Against this backdrop, Japan has been providing various research assistance programs and training programs to developing nations in the area of the conservation of biological diversity with an eye to faithfully complying with the CBD and enhancing the CBD s international presence. As regards the research assistance programs, Japan accepted a total of 591 researchers from Thailand, Indonesia, and Malaysia under the research partnership program to conserve biological diversity and to use biological resources during the period from 1993 to Japan has also dispatched experts to these countries and supported them with the installation of machines and equipment. As for training programs, the JBA has conducted programs for participants from developing countries from all over the world, centering on Asia-Pacific nations. By the end of fiscal 2004, Japan had accepted 159 biotechnology researchers and government officials as trainees from 25 countries. The trainees learned Japan's biotechnology-related policies and an outline of the CBD as well as how genetic resources should be evaluated and applied. They also acquired knowledge and learned to use technology relating to biotechnology through hands-on training. 3. Activities of the National Institute of Technology and Evaluation (NITE) 20. Since the CBD clearly stipulates that the countries providing genetic resources possess sovereign rights over the genetic resources, it became significant to secure the stable and smooth acquisition of genetic resources which is the key to the development of new bio-related technology. 21. Due to this situation, NITE, which is the biological resource center in Japan, deemed it important to comply with the CBD and to secure genetic resources by obtaining consent from the countries producing such resources, and therefore, NITE came to consider it very important, as a national strategy, to forge cooperative relationships relating to access to genetic resources with Asian countries, which have had historically and economically intimate relations with Japan. [WIPO/GRTKF/IC/9/13, Приложение, стр.5] Приложение, стр Thus, NITE has signed memorandums of understanding (MOU) with the relevant government organs in such Asian countries as Indonesia, Vietnam, Thailand and China. Under these MOUs, NITE has been promoting joint projects with these countries to acquire microbiological resources in these countries and taxonomically analyze and utilize such resources. In the joint projects, non-monetary benefits have been shared such as the dispatch of experts and the acceptance of trainees. NITE has also been working to establish an environment which can produce benefits for both parties of a project in accordance with the stage of progress in areas such as basic research and application. 23. Through those activities, NITE has promoted mutual understanding with partner countries and worked to fairly secure genetic resources by introducing the fair and equitable sharing of benefits under the CBD. III. So-called erroneously granted patents 24. Several countries see it as a problem that there are some inventions using genetic resources and related traditional knowledge that have been granted patents erroneously, as the applications have not had novelty and inventive steps and not meet the requirements of patentability. First of all, we would like to point out that, under the present patent system, there is a mechanism in which inventions that have been granted patents may be revoked if they do not meet the requirements for novelty and inventive steps. Nevertheless, we understand that it imposes a burden on third parties if an erroneous patent exists even temporarily. In order to deal with and solve these problems, we think it useful to develop a database related to genetic resources and to traditional knowledge accessible by examiners worldwide. A. Examples of so-called erroneously granted patents 25. The cases of Turmeric and Neem are taken up by those who support disclosure obligations as model cases of inventions that utilize genetic resources and related traditional knowledge and have been granted patents erroneously although they do not have novelty and inventive steps and do not meet the requirements of patentability. 26. In the case of Turmeric (United States Patent No ), the patent which had been granted once was later rejected in a reexamination procedure. The opponents insisted while presenting several documents as evidence that the said invention which was granted a patent was an art which had been used for centuries in a certain country. The documents included no-patent documents, literature which had been written more than 100 years ago and literature in local languages. The said invention was finally rejected based on the presented documents for the reason that there was no novelty in it. 27. In the case of Neem (European Patent No ), the patent was once granted but later revoked. First, opposition to the granting of the patent was made after the granting of the patent. The opponent to the granting of the patent insisted, while presenting several documents as evidence, that there was neither novelty nor inventive steps. In the opposition procedure, it was judged that there was neither novelty nor inventive steps in the invention. The applicant of the invention, who had an objection to the decision, demanded a trial, but in the trial, the invention was finally revoked for the reason that there was no inventive step, based on the literature other than the patent documents presented at the time of the opposition phase. [WIPO/GRTKF/IC/9/13, Приложение, стр.6] Приложение, стр.7 B. The cause for erroneously granted patents 28. It is possible to surmise that examiners granted the patents because the examiners could not access the evidence which verified that these inventions had a lac
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