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MEĐIMURSKO VELEUČILIŠTE U ČAKOVCU STRUČNI STUDIJ MENADŽMENT TURIZMA I SPORTA JELENA KREBER SLAVERY THROUGH HISTORY ZAVRŠNI RAD ČAKOVEC, 2015. MEĐIMURSKO VELEUČILIŠTE U ČAKOVCU STRUČNI STUDIJ MENADŽMENT TURIZMA I SPORTA JELENA KREBER SLAVERY THROUGH HISTORY ZAVRŠNI RAD Mentor: Marija Miščančuk, prof. Komentor: Damira Miroslav ČAKOVEC, 2015 CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION... Error! Bookmark not defined. 2. SLAVERY TYPES OF SLAVERY Forced labour Bonded labour or debt labour Sex slavery Child slavery Domestic servitude Forced marriage HISTORY OF SLAVERY Ancient slavery... Error! Bookmark not defined. 4.2 Middle Ages... Error! Bookmark not defined. 5. TRANSATLANTIC SLAVE TRADE... Error! Bookmark not defined. 6. UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Slavery in the United States Foundations of slavery The treatment of slaves Cotton gin Abolition movement American Civil War Slavery and racism Slavery builds economy Impact of slavery MODERN DAY SLAVERY Human trafficking Money and modern slavery CONCLUSION... Error! Bookmark not defined. 9. REFERENCES LIST OF PICTURES... 43 ABSTRACT This final paper is about slavery and its development through history. It describes slavery and types of slavery in the major periods of history. It starts with the ancient times and it describes slavery in the ancient cultures as well as in the Middle Ages. Then it continues with transatlantic slave trade which is an introduction to slavery in the United States of America. It describes the beginnings of the slavery in America, treatment of the slaves, importance of the cotton gin and the Civil War, all relating to racism and the impact it has on the economy. The last part of the work is devoted to a newer form of slavery. It touches upon the topic of today's human trafficking and modern slavery. The aim of this paper is to present slavery from the ancient times to modern forms of slavery, referring to the position of slaves through history. Keywords: slave, slavery, slavery in the United States, human trafficking, modern slavery MEĐIMURSKO VELEUČILIŠTE U ČAKOVCU 4 1. INTRODUCTION This final paper talks about slavery through history from the ancient times to newer forms of slavery as we know it today. Slavery was accepted in almost all historic cultures and communities. It has had many forms and this paper describes its six major types. Although slavery is globally rejected nowadays, it is interesting that today the number of slaves exceeds the number of slaves in any other historical period. This may also be the result of the global population growth; there are about seven billion people in the world today, while only 200 years ago this figure was much lower - one billion. The fact remains that the modern world has more slaves than ever before in history. The most known form of slavery is the chattel slavery or slavery in America. A major part of this work is devoted to that period in America and it describes procedures and injustice the enslaved people went through. In today's modern world, such stories and findings seem unbelievable, but the facts prove different. In many parts of the world, poverty and deprivation instigate further capturing of slaves but in a more sophisticated and perfidious manner. Trade in human organs grows, as well as selling of children, subsumed girls, women, children and men. This represents a reality in undeveloped parts of the world. People who live in more developed parts of the world live in the belief that slavery has nothing to do with them. This work also refers to modern slavery and the problems a modern man is faced with, as well as the problem of human trafficking. Many talk about the creation of a new, modern slavery, but is it not possible to talk about the formation of slavery if it has never been eradicated. The vast majority of people still live in a kind of slavery. MEĐIMURSKO VELEUČILIŠTE U ČAKOVCU 5 2. SLAVERY The English word slave comes from the Old French word sclave, from the Medieval Latin sclavus, and from the ethnonym Slav, because in some early medieval wars many Slavs were captured and enslaved. ( Slavery is a system in which people are treated as property that can be bought and sold and forced to do labour. People are becoming slaves by capturing, exchange market or birth. After that they have no longer the right for compensation, refusal to work, and, of course, leaving their owners. Modern slavery is present throughout the world. In some parts of the world it is more alike the old forms of slavery, where people work 15 hours a day for bread and water. In most cases, especially in the western world, the slave owners have changed their countenance, hiding under the mask of the sleek capitalists. MEĐIMURSKO VELEUČILIŠTE U ČAKOVCU 6 3. TYPES OF SLAVERY Chattel slavery is the most common form of slavery known to Americans. It is the traditional slavery. In this system people are treated as personal property of an owner and can be bought, sold and owned forever. Today, there are six major forms of slavery occurring in the world. Each form represents the basics of enslavement: the victims are forced to work involuntarily or are unable to leave once they have started. The enslaved people face the threat of physical, mental and emotional punishments and are deceived and abused daily. If a person s labour is exploited by such means, any previous consent to work for the enslaver becomes irrelevant as they are now being held against their will. ( 3.1 Forced labour Forced labour shown in Picture 1 describes all types of forced work that an individual must provide against his or her will. Contemporary forced labourers are treated as property to be exploited commercially, the same way African Americans were during the antebellum 1 period in American history. ( Forced labour affects millions of men, women and children around the world and is most frequently found in labour intensive industries, such as: Agriculture and fishing Domestic work Construction, mining, quarrying and brick kilns Manufacturing, processing and packaging Prostitution and sexual exploitation Market trading and illegal activities 1 The antebellum period in American history is generally considered to be the period before the Civil War. MEĐIMURSKO VELEUČILIŠTE U ČAKOVCU 7 Forced labour is a global problem, although some regions have larger numbers of people affected than others. The regional distribution of forced labour is: Asia and Pacific: 11.7 million (56%) Africa: 3.7 million (18%) Latin America and the Caribbean: 1.8 million (9%) The Developed Economies (US, Canada, Australia, European Union, Japan, Australia, New Zealand, Japan): 1.5 million (7%) Central, Southeast and Eastern Europe (non EU) and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CSEE): 1.6 million (7%) Middle East: 600,000 (3%) Picture 1 Forced labour Source: The International Labour Organization (ILO) estimates that there are at least 20.9 million people in forced labour worldwide. That means that around three out of every 1,000 persons worldwide are suffering in forced labour. ( /english/slavery_today/forced_labour/default.aspx) MEĐIMURSKO VELEUČILIŠTE U ČAKOVCU 8 3.2 Bonded labour or debt labour Bonded labour is a slavery in which an individual is compelled to work in order to repay a debt. It is different from other forms; oftentimes the labourer and the employer initially enter a mutual agreement. However, contract conditions may be illegal and more beneficial to the employer than the labourer. These workers become slaves when they continue working, but cannot pay off their initial debt because of exploitative contract terms and so they cannot leave. ( /default.aspx) Bonded labour is the most widespread form of slavery in the world. A person becomes a bonded labourer when their labour is demanded as a mean of repayment for a loan. The person is then tricked or trapped into working for very little or no pay. Many bonded labourers are forced to work to repay debts their employers say they owe, and are not allowed to work for anyone else. Violence and threats can be used to force them to stay, and in some cases they are kept under surveillance; sometimes even under lock and key. Bonded labour was used to trap indentured 2 labourers into working on plantations in Africa, the Caribbean and South-East Asia, following the abolition of the Transatlantic Slave Trade. Today the International Labour Organization estimates that a minimum 11.7 million people are in forced labour in the Asia-Pacific region, the majority of these being in debt bondage. ( 3.3 Sex slavery Sex slavery refers to women, men or children used for the purposes of forced sex work within national or across international borders. They are exploited in the commercial sex industry, which may include: pornography, prostitution, erotic entertainment, strip clubs, online escort services, residential brothels, hostess clubs, fake massage rooms or any 2 Indentured servitude was a labour system wherein young people paid for their passage to the New World by working for an employer for a certain number of years MEĐIMURSKO VELEUČILIŠTE U ČAKOVCU 9 exchange of sexual acts for something of value. Money may or may not be exchanged; other things that may be traded for sex acts are drugs, shelter, food or clothes. A person s initial consent to participate is irrelevant if that person is held in service through psychological manipulation or physical force. ( Each year, approximately 800,000 women and children are trafficked across international borders, while an additional numbers of women and girls are trafficked within countries. Some sex trafficking is highly visible, such as street prostitution. But many trafficking victims remain unseen, operating out of unmarked brothels in unsuspecting and sometimes suburban neighbourhoods. Adult women make up the largest group of sex trafficking victims, followed by female children, although a small percentage of men and boys are also trafficked into the sex industry. ( 3.4 Child slavery Child slavery denotes all child labour from individuals under the age of 18 by means of force or deception. Children can be enslaved in debt bondage, forced labour, prostitution, armies, domestic work and other forms of hazardous work. Today, forced child labour exists in nearly every industry around the globe. ( Despite the fact that many people believe that slavery no longer exists, the International Labour Organization (ILO) estimated that there are 8.4 million children in slavery or practices similar to slavery. This group of children includes: Children who are used by others who profit from them, often through violence, abuse and threats, in prostitution or pornography: forced begging, petty theft, and the drug trade; Forced child labour, for example in agriculture, factories, construction, brick kilns, mines, bars, restaurants or tourists environment; MEĐIMURSKO VELEUČILIŠTE U ČAKOVCU 10 Children who are forced to take part in armed conflicts. They do not only include child soldiers but also porters or girls taken as wives for the soldiers and militia members. There are about 300,000 child soldiers involved in over 30 areas of conflict worldwide, some even younger than 10 years old. Children involved in conflict are severely affected by their experiences and can suffer from long-term traumas; Child domestic workers, many of whom are forced to work long hours in hazardous and often abusive environments, for little or no pay, and often far from home. There are 215 million child labourers aged between 5 and 17 years old. Around 115 million children work in the worst forms of child labour (ILO 2010). Worldwide, 8.4 million children are in slavery, trafficking, debt bondage and other forms of forced labour, forced recruitment for armed conflict, prostitution, pornography and other illicit activities (ILO 2002). ( 3.5 Domestic servitude In this type of slavery, slaves are forced to work in extremely hidden workplaces, like private homes. Domestic workers become slaves when their employer uses fraud or force to control or convince an employee that they have no choice but to continue working for them. Isolating environments, unfamiliar languages, hidden travel documents and restricted mobility are often connected to this form of slavery. ( Domestic work is a sector which is particularly vulnerable to forms of exploitation such as forced labour, trafficking, and bonded labour due to the unique circumstances of working inside a private household combined with a lack of legal protection. Domestic workers perform a range of tasks in private homes including: cooking, cleaning, laundry, taking care of children and the elderly, and running errands. Some domestic workers also live in their employers homes and are often considered on call to undertake work for their employer 24 hours per day. MEĐIMURSKO VELEUČILIŠTE U ČAKOVCU 11 For some domestic workers, the circumstances and conditions of their work amount to forced labour: where employers have forbidden them from leaving the home; withheld or not paid wages; used violence or threats of violence; withheld their passports or identity documents; limited their ability to have contact with family; or deceived them about their rights in order to compel them to work. The pay is often very low, with wage payments being frequently delayed. Some domestic workers may not be paid at all or only receive 'payment' such as food or accommodation. The International Labour Organization (ILO) estimates that at least 52.6 million men and women work as domestic workers across the world, as well as 7.4 million children below the age of 15. Women and girls make up the overwhelming majority of domestic workers worldwide, although in some countries a significant number of men and boys are also domestic workers. ILO estimates that more girls under the age of 16 work in domestic service than in any other category of child labour. In many countries, domestic workers are not considered as 'workers' but as informal 'help' and are excluded from the national labour regulations. Often they do not enjoy the same protections as other members of the workforce, such as minimum pay, social security, and maternity benefits. In countries where domestic workers are covered by the national labour laws, enforcement is poor and these protective measures have not been translated into practice. ( aspx) 3.6 Forced marriage A forced marriage can be regarded as a form of slavery if one of the parties, usually the female, is subject to violence, threats, intimidation and required to engage in sexual activity and perform domestic duties and other work without any personal control. The customs of bride price and dowry that exist in many parts of the world, can lead to buying and selling people into marriage. Forced marriages continue to be practiced in parts of the world such as South Asia, East Asia and Africa. Forced marriages may also occur in immigrant MEĐIMURSKO VELEUČILIŠTE U ČAKOVCU 12 communities in Europe, United States, Canada and Australia. Marriage by abduction occurs in many places in the world today, with a national average of 69% of marriages in Ethiopia being through abduction. Slavery is no longer legally protected anywhere in the world, but the control and exploitation of one human being by another still remains. ( /english/slavery_today/descent_based_slavery_2/default.aspx) MEĐIMURSKO VELEUČILIŠTE U ČAKOVCU 13 4. HISTORY OF SLAVERY Rome was once the largest and most beautiful city of the ancient world but its magnificence could not hide the seeds of collapse: an unhealthy dependence on slave-ownership economy, the differences between rich and poor. Behind rich forums there were the poorest districts from which there was no way out because of the lack of jobs. To keep the citizens obedient games and spectacles were maintained. At the beginning just racing chariots; later on began the cruel gladiator combats to death. Earlier in Roman history, the power was held in the hands of only the elected representatives, which made up for some combination of oligarchy and democracy. However, soon all the functions of the government were taken over by the emperor, who was then above the law and the government decree. It is amazing that a civilized nation like the Romans, with the most human legal system ever devised, could tolerate violence against other human beings. This imbalance and the irresponsible behaviour of the public officials will become the main reason for the final fall of Rome. Five thousand years ago, the Sumerians in Mesopotamia forced their prisoners to cultivate the land as slaves. This meant that the workers had no rights or salary, and that their masters held them as their personal property. In the ancient times slavery culminated in the Ancient Greece and the Roman Empire. The slaves produced most goods and worked as servants in households. Slave freedom varied from country to country. While somewhere slaves had the right to marry and start a family, they were deprived of such freedom elsewhere. With the appearance of feudalism in the Middle Ages, a new form of slavery emerged. Those new slaves were called serfs and their position was in many ways different from the classical slaves. They were farmers, who worked for their owners, and since at that time the agriculture was the most important branch of the economy, many states were dependent upon their work. They were not treated as slaves but as wage workers which manufactured MEĐIMURSKO VELEUČILIŠTE U ČAKOVCU 14 goods, in this case for their master, but also retained a part for themselves, while their master gave them a portion of his property on which they could operate. The discovery of America and the beginning of the new century opened a whole new market, the country of new opportunities for all, including slave masters and slave traders, who saw an enormous potential in the new continent and started the practice that would result in centuries of slave exploitation and mark the United States as a country with a dark past, based on racism and slave labour. During the 16 th century, European nations began colonizing the Americas and bringing in thousands of Africans to work as slaves on plantations and in silver mines. Between 1500s and 1800s, the Europeans transported about 12 million slaves from their countries into the new colonies. (Ball, 2000) In the 19 th century in the United States and Britain appeared various movements against slavery. Finally, in the 1850s, slavery in the British Empire and the United States (1865) was abolished or cancelled. (McDougall, 2010) 4.1 Ancient slavery Slavery was the foundation of the economy and the development of some ancient cultures. It is believed that the first signs of slavery appeared in Mesopotamia, with the development of agriculture, about 10,000 years BC. Agriculture requested the labour force, the ideal for which were war prisoners and civilians kidnapped during the war. Other sources of slaves were criminals and people who were not able to pay off their debts. After Mesopotamia, slavery was beginning to spread more, especially in the ancient Greece and Rome, where it performed in full powe
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