MB0038 – Management Process and Organization Behavior

Master of Business Administration-MBA Semester 1 MB0038 – Management Process and Organization Behavior Q.1 Write a note on the functions of management. Functions of management Management has been described as a social process involving responsibility for economical and effective planning & regulation of operation of an enterprise in the fulfillment of given purposes. It is a dynamic process consisting of various elements and activities. These activities are different from operative functions

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  Master of Business Administration-MBA Semester 1MB0038 – Management Process and Organization Behavior Q.1Write a note on the functions of management. Functions of managementManagement has been described as a social process involving responsibility for economicaland effective planning & regulation of operation of an enterprise in the fulfillment of givenpurposes. It is a dynamic process consisting of various elements and activities. Theseactivities are different from operative functions like marketing, finance, purchase etc. Rather these activities are common to each and every manger irrespective of his level or status.Different experts have classified functions of management. According to George & Jerry,“There are four fundamental functions of management i.e. planning, organizing, actuatingand controlling”. According to Henry Fayol, “To manage is to forecast and plan, to organize,to command, & to control”. Whereas Luther Gullick has given a keyword ’POSDCORB’where P stands for Planning, O for Organizing, S for Staffing, D for Directing, Co for Co-ordination, R for reporting & B for Budgeting. But the most widely accepted are functions of management given by KOONTZ and O’DONNEL i.e.ãPlanning,ãOrganizing,ãStaffing,ãDirectingãControlling.For theoretical purposes, it may be convenient to separate the function of management butpractically these functions are overlapping in nature i.e. they are highly inseparable. Eachfunction blends into the other & each affects the performance of others. 1.PlanningIt is the basic function of management. It deals with chalking out a future course of action &deciding in advance the most appropriate course of actions for achievement of pre-determined goals. According to KOONTZ, “Planning is deciding in advance – what to do,when to do & how to do. It bridges the gap from where we are & where we want to be”. Aplan is a future course of actions. It is an exercise in problem solving & decision making.Planning is determination of courses of action to achieve desired goals. Thus, planning is asystematic thinking about ways & means for accomplishment of pre-determined goals.Planning is necessary to ensure proper utilization of human & non-human resources. It is allpervasive, it is an intellectual activity and it also helps in avoiding confusion, uncertainties,risks, wastages etc.  2.OrganizingIt is the process of bringing together physical, financial and human resources anddeveloping productive relationship amongst them for achievement of organizational goals.According to Henry Fayol, “To organize a business is to provide it with everything useful or its functioning i.e. raw material, tools, capital and personnel’s”. To organize a businessinvolves determining & providing human and non-human resources to the organizationalstructure. Organizing as a process involves:ãIdentification of activities.ãClassification of grouping of activities.ãAssignment of duties.ãDelegation of authority and creation of responsibility.ãCoordinating authority and responsibility relationships.3.StaffingIt is the function of manning the organization structure and keeping it manned. Staffing hasassumed greater importance in the recent years due to advancement of technology,increase in size of business, complexity of human behavior etc. The main purpose o staffingis to put right man on right job i.e. square pegs in square holes and round pegs in roundholes. According to Kootz & O’Donell, “Managerial function of staffing involves manning theorganization structure through proper and effective selection, appraisal & development of personnel to fill the roles designed un the structure”. Staffing involves:ãManpower Planning (estimating man power in terms of searching, choose the personand giving the right place).ãRecruitment, selection & placement.ãTraining & development.ãRemuneration.ãPerformance appraisal.ãPromotions & transfer.4.DirectingIt is that part of managerial function which actuates the organizational methods to workefficiently for achievement of organizational purposes. It is considered life-spark of theenterprise which sets it in motion the action of people because planning, organizing andstaffing are the mere preparations for doing the work. Direction is that inert-personnel aspectof management which deals directly with influencing, guiding, supervising, motivating sub-ordinate for the achievement of organizational goals. Direction has following elements:ãSupervision  ãMotivationãLeadershipãCommunicationSupervision- implies overseeing the work of subordinates by their superiors. It is the act of watching & directing work & workers.Motivation- means inspiring, stimulating or encouraging the sub-ordinates with zeal to work.Positive, negative, monetary, non-monetary incentives may be used for this purpose.Leadership- may be defined as a process by which manager guides and influences the workof subordinates in desired direction.Communications- is the process of passing information, experience, opinion etc from oneperson to another. It is a bridge of understanding.5.ControllingIt implies measurement of accomplishment against the standards and correction of deviationif any to ensure achievement of organizational goals. The purpose of controlling is to ensurethat everything occurs in conformities with the standards. An efficient system of control helpsto predict deviations before they actually occur. According to Theo Haimann, “Controlling isthe process of checking whether or not proper progress is being made towards theobjectives and goals and acting if necessary, to correct any deviation”. According to Koontz& O’Donnell “Controlling is the measurement & correction of performance activities of subordinates in order to make sure that the enterprise objectives and plans desired to obtainthem as being accomplished”.  Q.2Discuss any two learning theories in detail. Learning Theories: The Three Representational ModesAll information that is perceived via the senses passes through three processors that encodeit as linguistic, non-linguistic, or affective representations (Marzano, 1998). This is how welearn.For example, if you go to a football game for the first time you encode informationlinguistically such as rules; retain mental images no linguistically, such as mental images of the players positioning themselves and then getting set (pose); and finally, you have varioussensations that are encoded affectively, such as the excitement during a touchdown. Eachrepresentation can be thought of as a record that is encoded and then filed away.The Linguistic ModeIn the educational and training world, knowledge is most commonly presented linguistically(the study of language), so perhaps this mode receives the most attention from a learningstandpoint (Chomsky, 1988). The linguistic mode includes verbal communication, reading,watching (e.g. learn the rule of chess through observation), etc. Discussions and theoriesaround the linguistic mode can get quite complex so I am keeping this fairly simple.Basically, the linguistic processor encodes our experiences as abstract propositions.Propositions are thought to perform a number of other functions in addition to being theprimary bearers of truth and falsity and the things expressed by collections of declarativesentences in virtue of which all members of the collection “say the same thing”. Propositionsrepresent the things we doubt and know. They are the bearers of modal properties, such asbeing necessary and possible. Some of them are the things that ought to be true.These propositions are organized into two networks:1. The declarative network contains information about specific events and the informationgeneralized from them. These are the “what” of human knowledge.2. The procedural network contains information about how to perform specific mental or physical processes. Often thought of as IF and THEN statements.These two networks are the main channels for interacting with each other (communication).Communication is the main functions of language. Language symbols are used to representthings in the world. Indeed, we can even represent things that do not even exist.Communication does not imply a language, for example using hand signals. But a languagedoes imply communication, that is, when we use language, we normally use it tocommunicate.DefinitionsThe forming of language is done by “syntax” – putting sounds together to form words, andthe words, in turn, form sentences. For example, English words require at least one vowelsound. However, in Czechoslovakia there are words that are all consonants with no vowels.These sounds we put together are morphemes – the smallest units of language that havemeaning. A word is morpheme, as is a prefix or suffix, also the “s” we add onto the end of a
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