Managerial Time Management: A Czech Case Study. Daniela Humplíková - PDF

Managerial Time Management: A Czech Case Study Daniela Humplíková Bachelor Thesis ABSTRAKT Tato bakalářská práce se zabývá nalézáním rozdílů v manažerském time managementu u vrcholových manažerů

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Managerial Time Management: A Czech Case Study Daniela Humplíková Bachelor Thesis 2014 ABSTRAKT Tato bakalářská práce se zabývá nalézáním rozdílů v manažerském time managementu u vrcholových manažerů a manažerů střední a první linie. Práce je rozdělena na dvě části - teoretickou a praktickou. Teoretická část je zaměřena na zpracování teoretických poznatků o time managementu, technikách time managementu a zlodějích času. Praktická část se zabývá představením společnosti a následně analýzou rozdílů v manažerském time managementu, potvrzením či vyvrácením stanovených hypotéz, a na závěr návrhem na zlepšení manažerského time managementu. Klíčová slova: manažerský time management, čas, techniky time managementu, zloději času, manažer, generace time managementu ABSTRACT This bachelor thesis is focused on finding differences in the managerial time management of top-level, middle-level and first-level managers. This thesis is divided into two parts one theoretical and the other analytical. The theoretical part elaborates on theoretical findings from the field of time management, time management techniques and time traps. The analytical part is focused on introducing the company and then on analysing the differences in managerial time management, supporting or disproving stated hypotheses and finally on proposals for improving managerial time management. Keywords: managerial time management, time, time management techniques, time traps, manager, time management generations ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to take this opportunity and give special thanks to Ing. Janka Vydrová, Ph.D., my thesis supervisor, for her friendly attitude, guidance, supervision and help with improving this bachelor thesis. I would also like to thank to the managers at Stavební firma Navláčil, s.r.o. for allowing me to visit their offices and interview them. And finally, I wish to thank my family and boyfriend who supported me during the whole of this process. CONTENTS INTRODUCTION I THEORY TIME MANAGEMENT History of Time Management History of Time Management in the Czech republic Time Time Management Generations The First Generation The Second Generation The Third Generation The Fourth Generation TIME MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES The 80/20 Principle The Eisenhower Principle The ABC Analysis The View from the Helicopter The Elephant Technique S.O.R.U.Z. Method The Delegation TIME TRAPS External Factors Internal Factors MANAGEMENT Manager SUMMARY OF THE THEORETICAL PART II ANALYSIS COMPANY INTRODUCTION METHODOLOGY OF RESEARCH Objectives of Research Types of Research Quantitative Research Qualitative Research... 30 7.3 Respondents Hypotheses RESEARCH Introduction of Respondents Appraisal of the Research Awareness of the Term Time Management Experiences with a Lack of Time The Use of Time Management Tools and Techniques Participation on Time Management Trainings The Model of Planning Determination of Work Activities Division of Working Activities Delegation of Tasks Procrastination Time Traps Research Summary Hypotheses Verification Potential Improvement Proposals for Managers of Stavební firma Navláčil, s.r.o.54 CONCLUSION BIBLIOGRAPHY LIST OF GRAPHS LIST OF TABLES LIST OF PICTURES APPENDICES... 64 TBU in Zlín, Faculty of Humanities 10 INTRODUCTION I am definitely going to take a course on time management... just as soon as I can work it into my schedule. These days it seems that everything revolves around the term time management. Everything in this world is moving faster and faster and many people feel that 24 hours in a day is not enough, as a result of this people are in a hurry and want to complete as many work duties as possible within the same or shorter amount of time. Why? The reason is simple; we live in fast-moving times where time equals money. This is why managers should realize the importance of time so that they are able to complete their duties on time. Time is one of the most valuable things in the world. Everybody is born without the knowledge of how much time he or she has left and time cannot be bought, saved or managed. However, it can be measured and experienced. Managerial success is down to the ability to plan the use of time and therefore it is essential for every manager to know how to do that. Time management is a discipline which deals with planning the use of time. As is mentioned above time management is used in order to manage and achieve more in the same time and furthermore to prioritize and analyze how time is spent as well as completing everything faster while still enjoying life. This bachelor thesis is divided into two parts, one theoretical and the other analytical. The theoretical part is focused on the introduction of the term time management and its development. Furthermore it states the basic time management generations and techniques and time traps. The analytical part focuses on the main research question and the main aim of this bachelor thesis which is to find possible differences between managerial time management at the different levels of management in Navláčil stavební firma s.r.o.. The research focused on analysing differences in how first-level, middle-level and top-level managers plan their use of time as well as analysing time management tools and techniques that were employed, determining the most important activities, the most time consuming activities and the activities they have not got enough time for. Furthermore the research focused on procrastination, delegation and managerial time traps. The secondary aim of this bachelor thesis is supporting or disproving stated hypotheses. The analytical part is subsequently followed by possible proposals for improving the time management approaches of first-level, middle-level and top-level managers and also proposals regarding workplace environment. TBU in Zlín, Faculty of Humanities 11 I. THEORY TBU in Zlín, Faculty of Humanities 12 1 TIME MANAGEMENT Time management can be defined and approached by many ways. The definition according to Business & Management dictionary (2007, 7466) is that Time management involves analyzing how time is spent and then prioritizing different work tasks...time management is an important tool in avoiding information overload . John Caunt (2010, 22) holds a view that the basic principle of time management is the reduction of working hours or the ability to manage more work within the same time. Covey, Merril and Merril (1994, 12-14) claim that time management is not just about time but also about setting priorities to our lives and finding the right path. The main approach is considered to be the replacement of urgent work with the one that is more important and valuable. Clegg's (1999, 3) view is that time management can be used not only to get everything done faster but it also helps with getting more done and still enjoy life. Time management also helps in order to choose the most important tasks that go along with one's long term goals even if it is necessary to sometimes say no to other tasks. As Clegg (1999, 3) also claims: One of the big time management messages is not to try to do everything at once, but to take tasks in bite-sized chunks. Porvazník, Ladová and Rajošová (2008, ) add that the main reason why attention is devoted to Time management is because the success of a company is greatly dependent on time management of its managers. Managers can be trained on time management but the successful results are mainly dependent on self-management and will of every manager. According to Porvazník, Ladová and Rajošová (2008, ) the time itself cannot be managed and therefore time management is connected mainly with planning of the use of time. 1.1 History of Time Management First traces of time management appeared in the United States in 1859 by the book Self Help . The necessity for saving time then continued to Victorian age when the so called dead time , for example travelling, was used to self-improvement. At the beginning of 20th century more time management books were published and these books provided advices such as how to improve oneself and also looked into the beginnings of procrastination. At the same time the stop watch was invented and Frederic Winslow Taylor wrote an academic works on time management. In reference to Taylor's work a TBU in Zlín, Faculty of Humanities 13 family named Gilberts was so impressed by his time saving results that they had decided to apply his suggestions to their everyday life. Their obsession was turned into a film which was afterwards noticed by Dutch company that changed time management into a business and started to provide time management systems. It was also claimed, by the personnel manager of TMI Claus Moller, that he was the founder of the phrase time management (Kennedy 2004, 60-64). 1.2 History of Time Management in the Czech republic As David Gruber (2009, 17-25) claims the history of Time Management in the Czech Republic have arisen particularly after a year 1945 by Czech authors Dr. Jiří Toman, who was one of the first authors who dealt with the matters of mental work including keeping a diary, and David Gruber himself. As it was mentioned above the term mental or psychical work was used instead of the term time management which was not introduced to Czech Republic until 1990' when it first appeared due to Duch company called Time Management International. From the contemporary authors Gruber (2009, 17) mentions the works of RNDr. Jiří Plamínek, CSc. and Ing. Petr Pacovský. 1.3 Time If no one asks me what time is then I am sure I know, but as soon as they ask the question I find I do not know what time is at all. (St. Augustine, n.d.). As John Adair (2003, 5) states even great philosophers including St. Augustine lost in their attempt to define the term time. The term time is according to Adair (2003, 5) known to everybody because it can be measured and experienced but as Carol Saunders (2007, 4) claims each person has a different perspective on time and moreover each person is influenced by the time differently. For example the flow of time is faster while surfing on the internet and slower during long meetings. Consistent with Sanders' opinion John Adair (2003, 5-6) argues that time equals money and that is why its use should be wisely planned. 1.4 Time Management Generations As reported by Covey, Merrill and Merrill (1994, 21-29) and Pacovský (2006, 29-45) four generations of time management were developed in the past few decades. The main features, strengths and weaknesses of each one are described below. TBU in Zlín, Faculty of Humanities The First Generation The first generation of time management is focused mainly on the fulfilment of given tasks. This fulfilment is accomplished by tools such as notes, check lists and others which remind manager what to. Due to the first generation tools minimum scheduling is used and managers are more focused on given assignments. Managers are considered to be flexible and adaptable to new situations and requirements. Their time schedule contains the most urgent and needed tasks which are fulfilled at a time that is by managers considered as essential. The most important tasks are considered to be the tasks ahead of them. (Covey, Merrill and Merrill, 1994, 21-29) The main strengths of this generation are recognized as: the ability to adapt improvement of response towards other people time saving by less planning smaller amount stress tells what to do . (Covey, Merrill and Merrill 1994, 24) As far as weaknesses are concerned Covey, Merrill and Merrill (1994, 24) state these: certain tasks are not fulfilled no structure of time and activities small amount of work is accomplished commitments towards others are not completed, therefore relationships are hurt The Second Generation The second generation is recognized by using tools such as diaries, calendars and schedules which help managers with planning and preparation. This generation is focused mainly on the effectiveness, planning of future activities and the identification of aims. Managers are in comparison with the first generation more organised, able to reach their goals, able to keep the deadlines and are more responsible for their results. They use calendars and schedules mainly to remind them future duties and because of that they are better prepared and therefore more effective. Time schedule is the most important tool and although these managers like other people, while fulfilling this schedule visitors, colleagues and people in general are seen as obstacles and intruders of their effort. The TBU in Zlín, Faculty of Humanities 15 most important thing in this generation is unfolded from managers' goals and from the tasks in their schedules. (Covey, Merrill and Merrill 1994, 21-25) Advantages of this generation are: setting of goals accompanied by planning meetings' and duties' overview more effective meetings due to preparation As disadvantages are considered: schedules are prioritized over people people are portrayed as devices or obstacles in accomplishing goals managers are oriented on the requested tasks (Covey, Merrill and Merrill 1994, 24-25) The Third Generation The third generation of time management is according to Covey, Merrill and Merrill (1994, 22-23) characterized by control over the time by using electronic and other devices which help with organization, planning, checking and setting priorities. Therefore managers who use this generation are considered to be more organized and productive and for them the most important thing is derived from their goals and values. Because of asking question What do I want? managers are able to set short-term, medium-term and long-term objectives which furthermore help them with realization of these goals and priorities. The third generation is sometimes considered as a best way of organizing and planning the use of time but as Covey, Merrill and Merrill (1994, 25-26) claim some imperfections are present, for example overly control, efficiency which is sometimes mistaken for effectiveness, overestimation of values, different approach to time. The difference between leading and managing is sometimes not distinguished and competency does not guarantee change in a quality of life. As the main advantages of this generation are considered to be: responsibility for achieved results values are taken into consideration planning and setting priorities in order to increase personal productivity development and reinforcement of time management and personal skills boost of effectiveness arranges life into structure TBU in Zlín, Faculty of Humanities 16 Weaknesses of this generation are: the conviction that the manager is the one who takes the lead in life the planning of tomorrow is more important than urgent tasks today overly programming and unbalance of roles people are treated as objects where the time plan is the most important thing low flexibility (Covey, Merrill and Merrill (1994, 25) The Fourth Generation As it is stated by Covey, Merrill and Merrill (1994, 31) after the third generation of time management was developed a certain need for fourth generation followed. This generation was characterized by keeping the advantages of all three generations before and erasing their imperfections. Pacovský (2006, 36-48) agrees and states the main imperfections that were eliminated in the fourth generation, namely overly difficult planning, inhumanity, the tear of visions and goals from a real life. In comparison with the third generation which is established only on fulfilling the goals, the fourth generation is based mainly on the fulfilment of manager's needs, relationships and positive experiences that lead to positive results and achieving objectives. In other words a journey to achieve an objective is more important than the objective itself. The basic principal of this generation is manager's satisfaction that furthermore results in long-term effectiveness while company's performance and manager's satisfaction are equal and closely connected with each other. As Pacovský (2006, 37) also mentions that the fourth generation is not connected only with achieving goals and planning, but is characterized as a certain life style whose tools are self-knowledge, leadership and management. TBU in Zlín, Faculty of Humanities 17 2 TIME MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES As it is stated by Porvazník and Ladová (2008, 162) during the planning of the use of time more time management techniques should be combined together. The basic and wellknown techniques are described below. 2.1 The 80/20 Principle The 80/20 Principle is sometimes referred to as The Pareto Principle. It is a principle of an Italian economists Vilfred Pareto (Porvazník, Ladová and Rajošová 2008, 148). It was discovered in 1897 by watching, comparing and analysing incomes of population in 19th century Great Britain. Pareto had discovered that the majority of incomes had belonged to the minority of population. To be precise 80% of wealth had belonged to 20% of population. Later on he had discovered that although this pattern was not 100% precise and balanced it was repeated in different countries and times with almost the same result - 80/20 (Koch 2008, 17-21). According to Koch (2008, 17) the 80/20 principle might be described as some kind of an imbalance between causes and results, inputs and outputs. Since the 80/20 principle was first described it was used in a variety of fields. One of them is time management. When the principle is applied as a time management technique every manager should realize that 80% of success is gained in 20% of invested time. Therefore 80% of invested time leads to only 20% of results (Koch 2008, 139). According to Koch (2008, ) a key to successful time management is to identify those 20% of activities that carry out 80% of successful results. That means that 20% of the time spent at our desk brings 80% of working results. (Uhlig 2008, 62-63) 2.2 The Eisenhower Principle The Eisenhower Principle is a technique that was used by the American president Dwight David Eisenhower. Although this principle was used mainly as a strategic tool in wars and politics it has found its place in many sectors. (Greenstein 1999, 52-54) The Eisenhower Principle is based on distinguishing activities that are significant and urgent. (Knoblauch and Wöltje 2003, 26) In other words It is based on the affirmation that importance takes precedence over urgency (Porvazník, Ladová and Rajošová 2008, 149). According to Porvazník, Ladová and Rajošová (2008, 149) and Uhlig (2008, 66) the tasks are divided into four main categories: TBU in Zlín, Faculty of Humanities 18 Urgent and important - this category contains of tasks that must be finished during the same day. They cannot be postponed and are usually accompanied by deadline. Urgent and less important - tasks in this category are not as important and complicated as the ones in urgent and important therefore they may be delegated to subordinates. By solving them himself/herself, the manager could lose great amount of time. Less urgent and important - these tasks are usually postponed because they are not that urgent. Nevertheless as they became more urgent in a short time they might be partly delegated to subordinates. This delegation is a nice opportunity for further development of subordinates' personal skills. Less urgent and less important - these tasks are usually found on every managers' desk. Managers view them as waste of time and moreover they might be a waste of time for subordinates as well. 2.3 The ABC Analysis The ABC Analysis is focused mainly on the prioritization of tasks. The goals should be set and further actions should lead to their fulfilment (Coleman and Neri 1983, 38-41). Oldřich Šuleř (2008, 47) suggests that the analysis of time consuming tasks should be divided into t
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