Management of Intracerebral Hemorrhage. Steven Messé, MD Assistant Professor of Neurology University of Pennsylvania Medical Center - PDF

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Management of Intracerebral Hemorrhage Steven Messé, MD Assistant Professor of Neurology University of Pennsylvania Medical Center What To Do With the Patient Once They Are Stabilized? BP management ICP

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Management of Intracerebral Hemorrhage Steven Messé, MD Assistant Professor of Neurology University of Pennsylvania Medical Center What To Do With the Patient Once They Are Stabilized? BP management ICP management EVD placement and surgical evacuation Seizure prophylaxis and EEG monitoring Blood Pressure Management Blood Pressure In ICH Elevated BP is common in ICH Chicken or the egg problem Does BP increase result from ICH? Or Does BP increase cause ICH? Blood Pressure In ICH Theoretically: Lowering BP may decrease ongoing bleeding from ruptured small arteries (GOOD) Lowering BP may decrease cerebral perfusion pressure, potentially affecting perihematomal penumbral tissue or fixed atherstenoses(bad) No Penumbra in ICH Multiple studies in animal and humans have failed to demonstrate an ischemic penumbra surrounding ICH (Qureshi, Neurology 1999; Diringer, Neurology 1998) No evidence of decrease in CBF with blood pressure lowering Effect of pharmacologic blood pressure reduction in 14 patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (Powers, Neurology 2001) Parameter Baseline Treated p Value Mean arterial pressure, mm Hg, mean ± SD (range) 143 ± 10 ( ) 119 ± 11 (90 133) Global CBF, ml 100 g -1 min -1, mean ± SD 32.1 ± ± Periclot CBF, ml 100 g -1 min -1, mean ± SD 18.9 ± ± BP Lowering in ICH: INTERACT Trial RCT of intensive BP lowering (goal reduction to SBP 140 within 1 hour) vs standard practice (AHA guideline driven, SBP 180) 404 patients in China/Australia/Korea Patients had baseline SBP 150 and 220 Treatment started within 6 hours of onset CT at baseline and 24 hours Lancet Neurol May;7(5):391-9. BP Lowering in ICH: INTERACT Trial Baseline characteristics of two groups similar except mean baseline ICH volume was greater in the intensive therapy group (14.2 ±14.5mL vs 12.7±11.6mL) Time to randomization (median) 3.4 hours in both groups GCS (median) 14 in both groups SBP was an average of 13 mmhg lower in intensive group within the first hour (p 0.0001), 11 mmhg from 1-24 hours (p 0.0001) Lancet Neurol May;7(5):391-9. BP Lowering in ICH: INTERACT Trial Lancet Neurol May;7(5):391-9. BP Lowering in ICH: INTERACT Trial Mean proportional hematoma growth was lower in intensive group (14% vs 36%, p=0.06) after adjustment for baseline ICH volume and time to CT Frequency of major ICH growth ( 33% or 12.5 ml) was 36% lower in intensive group (15% vs. 23%, p=0.05) Average of about 2 cc less ICH growth in intensive group No difference in adverse events or clinical outcome (death, disability, neurological deterioration) Lancet Neurol May;7(5):391-9. AHA Guidelines 2010 Level of evidence C B Blood pressure management-ich If SBP is 200 mm Hg or MAP is 150 mm Hg, then consider aggressive reduction of BP with continuous intravenous infusion, with frequent BP monitoring every 5 min. If SBP is 180 mm Hg or MAP is 130 mm Hg and there is the possibility of elevated ICP, then consider monitoring ICP and reducing BP using intermittent or continuous intravenous medications while maintaining a cerebral perfusion pressure 60 mm Hg. If SBP is 180 mm Hg or MAP is 130 mm Hg and there is not evidence of elevated ICP, then consider a modest reduction of BP (eg, MAP of 110 mm Hg or target BP of 160/90 mm Hg) using intermittent or continuous intravenous medications to control BP and clinically reexamine the patient every 15 min. In patients presenting with a systolic BP of 150 to 220 mm Hg, acute lowering of systolic BP to 140 mm Hg is probably safe Morgenstern et al. Stroke Sep;41(9): Blood Pressure Lowering: The Bottom Line Experimental data suggests BP lowering does not cause peri-hematomal ischemia Prospective RCT data demonstrated that an aggressive BP goal is safe and associated with less ICH expansion (but not improved outcomes) Enroll patients in ongoing trials (ATACH II, INTERACT II) Sensible to lower BP to a goal SBP ~ depending on starting pressure Monitor and maintain CPP if ICP is elevated ICP Management Possible Interventions for High ICP Treat edema/mass effect Hyperventilation, steroids, glycerol, mannitol, hypertonic saline? Reduce ICH size directly Surgery? Edema and Mass Effect Hyperventilation provides a short lived effect and is generally only helpful as a bridging measure to definitive therapy Steroids and glycerol have been shown to be ineffective (with increased adverse events) Mannitol and hypertonic saline have limited evidence that they can reduce edema and temporarily reverse herniation They are both reasonable to use but invasive ICP monitoring should be considered to guide therapy Poungvarin, NEJM 1987 AHA Guidelines 2010 ICP Management Reduce ICH Size Directly: Surgical Evacuation Meta-Analysis of Surgical Rx Meta-analysis of 7 RCTs for surgical treatment of ICH shows no benefit Comparison: surgery v control Outcome: death or disability OR OR Study (95%Cl Fixed) (95%Cl Fixed) McKissock (1961) 2.00 [1.04,3.85] Auer (1989) 0.46 [0.20,1.04] Juveis (1989) 4.39 [0.81,23.65] Batjer (1990) 0.55 [0.06,4.93] Chen (1992) 1.66 [0.82,3.34] Morgenstern (1998) 0.53 [0.13,2.21] Zuccarello (1999) 0.48 [0.09,2.69] Total (95%Cl) 1.20 [0.83,1.74] Chi-square (df=6) Z= Favors Surgery Favors Control Ultra-Early Surgery ( 4 hours) Surgical evacuation vs medical therapy Treatment 4 hours from onset Study stopped after 11 patients treated surgically: High rate of rebleeding (40%) in surgically treated patients High mortality in those who rebled (75%) Morgenstern, Neurology 2001 Surgical Evacuation for Cerebellar Hemorrhage Comprises ~10% of ICH Non-randomized prospective study of 75 patients with cerebellar hemorrhage 40mm and GCS 13 Good outcome occurred in 58% with surgery and in 18% with conservative medical therapy Subsequent studies consistent EVD alone is not recommended Kobayaski, Stroke 1990 I-STICH International-Surgical Treatment for Intracerebral Hemorrhage 1033 patients enrolled from 20 countries Nearly double the total # pts enrolled (561) in all prior trials combined Early surgical evacuation vs. medical therapy 25% of medical group declined and had late surgery Enrollment based on surgeon being uncertain about the benefits of either treatment Treatment 72 hours from onset median 30 hours, IQR hours Patients with GCS 5 Surgery via craniotomy 75%, stereotactic 25% Mendelow AD, Lancet 2005 I-STICH: ICH Size/Location International-Surgical Treatment for Intracerebral Hemorrhage Mendelow AD, Lancet 2005 I-STICH: Results International-Surgical Treatment for Intracerebral Hemorrhage (Mendelow AD, Lancet 2005) Surgery Medical Favorable 26.1% 23.8 % OR 0.89 ( ) Mortality 36.3 % 37.1 % Outcome determined by prognosis based GOS (taking into account age, admission GCS, and ICH volume) Analysis using Rankin and Barthel similar Mendelow AD, Lancet 2005 Prespecified subgroup analysis (Mendelow AD, Lancet 2005) Prespecified subgroup analysis cc I-STICH Remaining Questions Were patients least likely to benefit the ones most likely to be enrolled? Is surgery at 30 hours after symptom onset early or is it too late? Subgroup analysis based on time to surgery? Should we believe subgroup analysis of bleed location? AHA Guidelines 2010 Level of evidence B For most patients with ICH, the usefulness of surgery is uncertain with the follow exceptions: Patients with cerebellar hemorrhage who are deteriorating or have hydrocephalus should undergo evacuation as soon as possible. EVD alone is not recommended in these patients For patients with lobar clots 30 ml and within 1 cm of the surface, evacuation might be considered Minimally invasive clot evacuation is considered investigational Very early craniotomy may be harmful due to increased risk of recurrent bleeding Broderick J, et al. AHA Guidelines for the management of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage in adults. Circulation Oct 16;116(16):e Intraventricular Hemorrhage IVH may occur in isolation ICH is associated with IVH in ~ 45% of cases May result in hydrocephalus and increased ICP IVH portends a worse outcome Ventriculostomy Drainage and IVH Never studied prospectively Generally associated with poor outcome Main risks are hemorrhage and infection Infection risk related to duration of EVD Preliminary data suggests EVD + tpa improves clearance of IVH CLEAR IVH: A randomized controlled trial of intraventricular tpa to expedite clearance of IVH and improve outcome Prelim data: 1mg Q8h resulted in fewer VPS (22% vs 50%) and shorter LOS in ICU (7.5 vs 12) Broderick J, et al. AHA Guidelines for the management of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage in adults. Circulation Oct 16;116(16):e Seizures in ICH Seizures in ICH Seizures are more frequent in ICH than in ischemic stroke Seizure risk ~8% in first few days after ICH Most seizures at onset or 24 h of ICH More commonly associated with lobar than deep ICH Potential for worse outcomes Neuronal injury and destabilization of critically ill patient Nonconvulsive seizures may contribute to coma Seizures associated with deterioration of NIHSS and increased midline shift However, no association with worse long term outcome after adjusting for other predictors Vespa PM, et al. Neurology. 2003;60: ; Mayer SA, Rincon F. Lancet Neurol. 2005;4: ; Passero S, et al. Epilepsia. 2002;43: ; Qureshi AI, et al. NEJM. 2001;344: ; Broderick JP, et al. Stroke. 1999;30: Prophylactic AEDs in ICH Cerebral Hemorrhage and NXY-059 Trial (CHANT) RCT of a putative neuroprotectant 303 patients received placebo 23 placebo patients (8%) were initiated on AEDs without documented seizure Initiation of AEDs was robustly associated with poor outcome (OR 6.8; 95%CI: , p=0.001) after adjustment for other known predictors of outcome after ICH (age, initial hematoma volume, presence of intraventricular blood, initial Glasgow Coma Score, and prior warfarin use) Messe et al. Neurocrit Care. 2009;11(1):38-44 Prophylactic AEDs in ICH Messe et al. Neurocrit Care. 2009;11(1):38-44 Prophylactic AEDs in ICH A second prospective cohort of 98 ICH patients 7% had a seizure Phenytoin was associated with more fever and worse modified Rankin Scale at 3 months Levetiracetam use was not associated with any difference in outcome Naidech et al. Stroke, 2009. Level of evidence A B C B AHA Guidelines 2010 Seizures in ICH Clinical seizures should be treated with antiepileptic drugs Continuous EEG monitoring is probably indicated in ICH patients with depressed mental status out of proportion to the degree of brain injury Patients with a change in mental status who are found to have electrographic seizures on EEG should be treated with antiepileptic drugs Prophylactic anticonvulsant medication should not be used Conclusions ICH remains a devastating disease No specific intervention has been demonstrated to improve outcomes Aggressive supportive care is key Multiple promising treatment paradigms under investigation Aggressive BP lowering EVD +tpa for IVH Factor VIIa in select patients Neuroprotection? Questions?
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