MAŁOPOLSKA. UNESCO World Heritage Trail - PDF

MAŁOPOLSKA UNESCO World Heritage Trail Rejkiawik MAŁOPOLSKA UNESCO MALOPOLSKA WORLD HERITAGE TRAIL IS MAŁOPOLSKA Capital of the region: Kraków Major cities: Tarnów, Nowy Sącz, Oświęcim Surface area: 15,190

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MAŁOPOLSKA UNESCO World Heritage Trail Rejkiawik MAŁOPOLSKA UNESCO MALOPOLSKA WORLD HERITAGE TRAIL IS MAŁOPOLSKA Capital of the region: Kraków Major cities: Tarnów, Nowy Sącz, Oświęcim Surface area: 15,190 km2 (about 5% of the surface area of Poland) Population: 3.35 mil. (about 8% of the population of Poland) Landscape: the tallest peak Rysy: 2499 m asl mountains Tatras, Beskids, Pieniny, Gorce foothills Carpathian Foothills uplands Kraków-Częstochowa Upland lowlands Vistula valley main rivers Vistula, Dunajec, Poprad, Raba, Skawa, Biała water reservoirs Czorsztyński, Rożnowski, Czchowski, Dobczycki, Klimkówka the highest located, cleanest lakes Morskie Oko, Czarny Staw, the lakes of the Valley of Five Polish Lakes the largest and deepest cave Wielka Śnieżna Cave: over 22 km of corridors, 824 m deep UNESCO World Heritage Trail T Tallin Sztokholm RUS EST he UNESCO World Cultural and Natural Heritage List was created in As the name suggests, its aim has been to protect the world s historic sites and regions of outstanding value, significant not only from the historical, but also from the cultural and environmental point of view. It is not easy to be included on the prestigious UNESCO World Heritage List. Nominated sites must comply with a number of criteria, and the final decision on the inscription is made by a special committee. The necessary though not the only condition is the exceptional and universal value of the proposed site, as well as its authenticity. Apart from properties of natural and of cultural heritage, a combination of cultural and natural heritage, called cultural landscape, has been recognized since 1992 as a reflection of significant interactions between people and the natural environment. An example of such a site in Poland is the Architectural and Landscape Park Complex in Kalwaria Zebrzydowska. Ryga Dublin LV DK IRL LT Kopenhaga GB RUS Mińsk BY Amsterdam Bruksela Berlin Paryż Warszawa PL D B L Praga Luksemburg Wiedeń FL Berno Vaduz Monako San Marino MC V Kiszyniów H RO Zagrzeb HR RSM I Madryt MD Budapeszt Lublana SLO Andora UA Bratysława A CH AND Kijów KRAKÓW CZ SK F E Wilno NL Londyn P Fourth revised edition, 2015 Małopolska Organizacja Turystyczna Rynek Kleparski 4/13, Kraków Project coordination: Adelina Antoszewska FIN Helsinki S Oslo N Lizbona Publishers I, 2010 Departament Turystyki, Sportu i Promocji Urzędu Marszałkowskiego Województwa Małopolskiego, Zespół ds. Regionalnego Systemu Informacji Turystycznej ul. Basztowa 22, Kraków Publishing concept: Anna Niedźwieńska, project management MSIT Project coordination: Katarzyna Thor Małopolska Region SRB Sarajewo MNE Rzym Bukareszt Belgrad BIH Podgorica RKS Tirana Sofia Priština Skopje BG MK AL GR TR Ateny M More information on: Kraków Main Market Square, photo by R. Korzeniowski Text Iwona Baturo, Krzysztof Bzowski 79 Oświęcim Photos A. Brożonowicz, J. Gawron, S. Gacek, J. Gorlach, R. Korzeniowski, J. Mysiński, P. Witosławski, K. Syga, M. Zaręba, J. Gawron, UMWM archive Publishing of revision: Virtual 3D Publishing Amistad Sp. z o.o. Program ul. Stolarska 13/7, Kraków tel./faks: Production management: Agnieszka Błaszczak, Małgorzata Czopik, Ewelina Wolna Editor: Aurelia Hołubowska, Teresa Lachowska Proofreading: Agnieszka Szmuc Cover design, graphic design: PART SA Maps: Wydawnictwo Kartograficzne Daunpol sp. z o.o. Typesetting, preparation for print: Michał Tincel Translation and proofreading: EuroInterpret Dominik Moser Third revised edition translation and proofreading: Biuro tłumaczeń Alingua Sp. z o.o. Print: Alnus, Kraków Kraków 2015, ISBN The authors and publishers have made every effort to ensure the text is accurate, however, they cannot be responsible for any changes that took place after the materials have been prepared for publishing. Materials prepared as of 31 March A4 Kraków Wieliczka 44 Kalwaria Zebrzydowska Bochnia 4 E40 Lipnica Murowana 7 28 Dębno Ochotnica Górna Binarowa Sękowa Owczary Brunary Wyżne Kwiatoń Powroźnik Bukowina Tatrzańska 1 Presently, the UNESCO World Heritage List features 981 sites and properties from 160 countries, (759 listed as cultural heritage, 193 as natural heritage and 29 as cultural landscape). Twenty-eight sites in Poland have been included on the UNESCO World Heritage List. Fourteen of them are located in the Małopolska Region. The unique status of the Małopolska cultural heritage is manifest in the diversity of the sites inscribed on the UNOwczary ESCO World Heritage List and located in the region. They range from the Kraków historic Old Town, Nazi German Brunary Auschwitz-Birkenau extermination camp, the SaltWyżne Mine Kwiatoń in Wieliczka, the Wieliczka Saltworks Castle, the Salt Mine in Bochnia, Architectural and park landscape complex in Kalwaria Zebrzydowska, four wooden churches: Wysowa-Zdrój in Dębno, Sękowa, Binarowa and Lipnica Murowana, to four wooden Orthodox churches (Tserkvas): in Brunary Wyżne, Kwiatoń, Owczary and Powroźnik. Powroźnik KRAKÓW OLD TOWN AND KAZIMIERZ Old Town in Kraków The Old Town is a magical place. For many centuries kings and their important guests used to come to Kraków through St. Florian s Gate, passed through the Main Market Square and continued along Grodzka and Kanonicza streets to the Wawel Castle. Today the Royal Route is vibrant with life and crowded with tourists even though a lot has changed, the place has retained its splendour typical of a royal residence. In 1978 the perfectly preserved medieval architectural arrangement, one of the most magnificent in this part of Europe, as well as the unique complex of historic sites from different periods, became the basis for the inscription of the former capital of Poland on the UNESCO World Heritage List. Tenements in various styles, beautiful residences, centuries-old churches, majestic university buildings, as well as the unforgettable Wawel, make you forget about the modernity. The Old Town, which comprises the town from the time when Kraków received town charter (1257), was encircled with a ring of defensive walls as early as in the 14 th century. At the beginning of the 19 th century, the walls had 47 towers and 7 main gates. The fragment of the preserved fortifications with the aforementioned St. Flo rian s Gate and the three adjoining towers manifest to how mighty the fortifications were. In the late 15 th century, another impressive defensive structure was built: the Barbican (once called the Saucepan by the Cracovians). It used to be indestructible, and it even resisted the 19 th century city cleaning campaign, during which the city fortifications were torn down. The Planty City Park, a green ribbon now encircling the historic town centre, was created on the site of the city walls. Barbican and the defensive walls, ul. Basztowa, Kraków, \ , ,, see website for prices. The Barbican, photo by A. Brożonowicz Church of SS. Peter and Paul, photo by K. Syga View from the Basilica tower, photo by M. Zaręba The Main Market Square, photo by R. Korzeniowski The Old Town is also famous for a large (considering its size) number of historic churches (nearly 30). On the Main Market Square stands the Romanesque Church of St. Adalbert. It is one of the oldest churches in Kraków and dates back to the turn of the 11 th and 12 th centuries and was erected on the foundations of an older structure. Even though it was rebuilt in the 17 th century in the Baroque style, it retained traces of the Romanesque style both inside and outside. Other magnificent examples of sacred architecture include the Church of St. Andrew (Grodzka 56) and the Baroque Church of SS. Peter and Paul (Grodzka 54) dating from the 17 th century, with characteristic figures of 12 apostles that decorate the church s front fence. Gothic and Renaissance mansions also add charm to Grodzka Street. 2 3 KRAKÓW OLD TOWN AND KAZIMIERZ One of the Old Town quarters is occupied by the Jagiellonian University, the inheritor of the Kraków Academy founded in 1364 by King Casimir the Great. The university library, which boasts the largest book collection in Poland, is the university s treasure. Originally, it was located in Collegium Maius, one of Europe s few preserved medieval university buildings. Today, the building houses a museum with interesting collections of high historical value, featuring e.g. one of the world s oldest globes with the name America on it. Jagiellonian University Museum, ul. Jagiellońska 15, Kraków, \ , same day ticket reservation ; advanced ticket reservation ,, see website for prices. The Main Market Square was marked out in the middle of the 13 th century. It was one of the largest squares in Europe and functioned as the commercial, administrative and judicial centre. The enormous square (200 x 200 m) was designed in such a way that it would meet the needs of merchants travelling along trade routes. The taverns and inns, once surrounding the square, are now replaced by restaurants and coffee shops. Colourful umbrellas, cabs awaiting guests, as well as pigeons, which perch on the historic buildings, lend the place a unique artistic and ludic atmosphere. The Sukiennice Cloth Hall, dominating in the middle of the square, serves as the reminder of the commercial function of the Main Market Square. The market stalls stood here as early as in the 13 th century, but the elegant building we can admire now dates back to the 16 th century (the earlier Gothic building burnt down, and what remains, among other things, are the pointed-arch arcades). The Sukiennice Cloth Hall, the Pearl of the Polish Renaissance, still fulfils its original function: it features stalls with various souvenirs, works of art and jewellery. The first floor houses the Gallery of 19 th -Century Polish Art, a branch of the National Museum. The building of highest historic and artistic value on the Main Market Square is undoubtedly the Gothic St. Mary s Basilica, which boasts a unique historic monument: the 15 th -century wooden polyptych altar made by famous sculptor Veit Stoss. Apart from visiting the church, you can also climb one of its towers, where you can delight in the beautiful view of the city and see the trumpeter play the bugle call every hour. Droshky driver, photo by M. Zaręba St. Mary s Basilica, photo K. Syga Collegium Maius, photo by K. Syga Paintings in St. Mary s Basilica, photo by photo M. Zaręba St. Mary s Basilica, Rynek Główny, Kraków, \ ext. 21, 4 5 KRAKÓW OLD TOWN AND KAZIMIERZ Wawel It is best to reach Wawel Hill from Kanonicza Street, one of the most picturesque streets in Kraków. Here you can admire buildings from various periods: Gothic, Renaissance, Baroque and Neoclassical. From the 14 th century on, this street was the residence of cathedral canons, who built their representative houses here. The hill itself, dominated by the cathedral and the castle, is one the most frequently visited hills in Poland. Like no other place in Poland, the site has witnessed the development of the Polish state and culture. Nearly all Polish kings were crowned and buried here (alongside many eminent Poles). Wawel also houses an extremely extensive museum collection. The majestic Cathedral dates back to the 11 th century. Today, it features traces of various styles and is surrounded by 18 chapels. The most magnificent is Sigismund s Chapel, covered with a gilded dome, which became the mausoleum of the last kings of the Jagiellon dynasty. It is considered to be the most remarkable example of the Italian Renaissance in Poland. The Sigismund Bell, rung only during the most important state ceremonies or events significant to the Polish nation, is also worth seeing. The Castle that has been preserved until today as a magnificent Renaissance residence, houses extremely valuable museum collections, featuring e.g. a collection of militaria, as well as some priceless items, such as the 13 th -century coronation sword (Szczerbiec) or the famous 16 th -century Flemish tapestries. The chambers and the arcaded courtyard with three-storey galleries make an unforgettable impression. While on Wawel, you must visit the Dragon s Den, that is, a cave under the castle hill. Even though the dragon lives there no more, the charm of the famous legend remains. Wawel Royal Castle, Wawel 5, Kraków, information: \ ext. 219,, see website for prices. Cathedral, \ ,, see website for prices. The Sigismund Bell,photo by K. Syga The Wawel Cathedral, photo by R. Korzeniowski Wawel Royal Chambers, photo by M. Zaręba Wawel Hill, photo by M. Zaręba 6 7 KRAKÓW OLD TOWN AND KAZIMIERZ Kazimierz in Kraków The alluring town of Kazimierz was founded in Its founder, King Casimir the Great (hence the name of the former town) dreamt about setting up a alternative centre that would be a competition to Kraków. Today Kazimierz is inseparably associated with the Kraków Jewry, who settled here in the late 15 th century and created an extraordinarily thriving community. Until the Second World War, it had been one of the largest Jewish cultural centres in Poland. In 1978, Kazimierz (the medieval part of Kazimierz and the Stradom suburb), together with Wawel and the Old Town, were inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List, in order to commemorate the centuries-long tolerant coexistence of Jews and Christians. The heart of Kazimierz is Szeroka Street, which is actually a huge square, on which four synagogues used to stand. It also featured several prayer houses, the office of kahal (the community administration), the mikveh, the ritual baths and two cemeteries. Some of the buildings date back to the 16 th and 17 th centuries. The Old Synagogue, Poland s oldest preserved synagogue and the first to be built in Kazimierz, is of highest historic value. It dates back to the early 15 th century, as manifest by the inscription on the preserved moneybox with the date Today, after remodelling in the years , the building has a Neo-Renaissance style. It houses a branch of the Historical Museum of the City of Kraków and the exhibition is devoted to the traditions and history of the Kraków Jewry. Tyniec and its famous Benedictine Abbey dating from the 11 th century Ojców National Park well-known for its limestone outliers of fanciful shapes. The Trail of Eagles Nest linking castles erected on rocky peaks, called Eagles Nest due to their location. Golf Course in Paczółtowice, a mecca of Małopolska fans of this aristocratic game. Romanesque churches in Wysocice and Dziekanowice manifesting Małopolska s rich history and delighting with the beauty of old architecture. Szeroka Street, photo by K. Syga Old Synagogue on Szeroka Street, photo M. Zaręba Old Synagogue, ul. Szeroka 24, Kraków, \ ,, see website for prices. The Remuh Synagogue is located at 40 Szeroka Street. It was founded in the 16 th century, but the building s present appearance is a result of the 19 th - century remodelling. Currently, it is one of the three synagogues in Kraków that are used for services. The Renaissance aron ha-kodesh, the stone Torah ark placed in the eastern wall, has remained from the original furnishing, among others. Through a gate in the wall you can enter the Remuh Cemetery. It is the oldest preserved Jewish necropolis in Kraków and one of the oldest in Poland. Apart from sarcophagus tombstones, there are numerous free standing matzevot dating from 16 th to 18 th century. Remuh Synagogue and Cemetery, ul. Szeroka 40, Kraków, \ , The Jewish district also includes Nowy Square, commonly known as the Jewish Square. The middle of the square features the distinctive round building of a former poultry slaughterhouse, the so-called okrąglak, which was erected in The tenements surrounding the square house numerous eateries, pubs and cafés. In the evenings the place is vibrant with life and this centuries-old district reveals its new character one of an artistic and social mecca. Kazimierz also boasts splendid Christian monuments, primarily beautiful churches. The impressive Corpus Christi Church in the corner of Wolnica Square, part of the former Kazimierz Market Sqaure, was founded in the 14 th century, but the construction work was not completed until the second half of the following century. The soaring tower with the unique Mannerist dome dates from the 17 th century. The majestic interior is an extraordinarily successful combination of Gothic and Baroque styles. One of the most magnificent Gothic churches in Kraków, the Church of SS. Catherine and Margaret, founded by King Casimir the Great, is located at 7 Augustiańska Street. Adjacent to it is the Monastery of the Augustinians, also built in the 14 th century, with beautiful Gothic cloisters decorated with polychromes. Skałeczna Street, running just next to the church, leads to the famous Na Skałce Pauline Church. It was erected in the 18 th century on the site of the former church and sumptuously furnished. The church crypt serves as the National Pantheon. Distinguished personalities buried here include playwright Stanisław Wyspiański, painter Jacek Malczewski, as well as the Nobel Prize winner, Czesław Miłosz. 8 9 WIELICZKA SALT MINE The wooden church of St. Sebastian, the oldest church in Wieliczka. Wooden Folk Architecture Heritage Park and fragments of the medieval Castle in the nearby Dobczyce. Wieliczka Salt Mine Thanks to its Salt Mine, Wieliczka is known all over the world. The salt from the surface mines was manufactured here 3,500 years BCE, whereas the beginnings of the excavation of rock salt date back to the 13 th century, as the oldest shaft discovered on the courtyard of the Saltworks Castle dates back to this period. Initially, the salt mine was the property of princes and kings. Money obtained from the sales of salt was used for remuneration to the professors of the Kraków Academy, for construction and renovation of Kraków churches and tenements, as well as for the expansion of the Renaissance Wawel Castle. A few centuries later, in 1978, the Salt Mine was inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List in appreciation of its uniqueness on the world scale. It is the only mining facility functioning continually from the 13 th century in the world. The original excavation sites reflect all stages of the development of mining techniques. Across centuries, 26 shafts were dug. On nine levels, at the depths between 57 and 327 m, over 2,000 chambers and almost 300 km of galleries were bored. Thanks to the high stability of the excavations, even the chambers mined towards the end of the Middle Ages have been preserved. The historic zone includes levels 1 5 (218 chambers and 190 galleries), and visitors can expect real marvels made of salt: chapels decorated with salt sculptures, salty lakes, old excavations with original wooden elements, and old mining tools The two-kilometre tourist route (levels 1-3) enables you to visit 22 chambers. There are 16 more waiting for tourists in the underground branch of the Kraków Saltworks Museum (level 3). The most famous stops on the route include the Baroque Chapel of St. Anthony (17 th century, the oldest chapel in the mine) and St. Kinga s Chapel (bored in the 18 th century, has functioned as an underground sanctuary since the 19 th century). The credit for the delightful décor of St. Kinga s Chapel goes to the miners, especially to self-taught sculptors: Józef and Tomasz Markowski, and Antoni Wyrodek. The picturesque underground lakes are located in the Weimar, Erazm Baracz and Józef Piłsudski Chambers. In the latter, ceremonial ferry crossings to the sounds of the orchestra were held. During the war the Germans attempted to adapt the Staszic Chamber, the highest (36 m) on the route, for an aircraft parts assembly room. The Warszawa, Wisła, and Budryka Chambers currently house an ente
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