Lesson Nine: The Command [ الا م ر] - PDF

Description
Lesson Nine: The Command [ الا مر] The command ( الا مر) is used to demand an act. For example, ل ا فع means, do! and ل فع لي means, he must do! All conjugations of the command are derived from the present

Please download to get full document.

View again

of 6
All materials on our website are shared by users. If you have any questions about copyright issues, please report us to resolve them. We are always happy to assist you.
Information
Category:

Science & Technology

Publish on:

Views: 26 | Pages: 6

Extension: PDF | Download: 0

Share
Transcript
Lesson Nine: The Command [ الا مر] The command ( الا مر) is used to demand an act. For example, ل ا فع means, do! and ل فع لي means, he must do! All conjugations of the command are derived from the present tense verb in the state of jazm.(جزم) Active voice conjugations of the command reflect the person, gender, and plurality of the individual commanded. For example, فع لوا لي means, they must do! Passive voice conjugations of the command reflect the person, لي فع لوا example, gender, and plurality of the object of the command. For means, they (e.g., those tasks) must be done! PRINCIPLE ONE The command is formed from the present tense verb in two distinct ways. In the case of the active voice of the first and third person, the command is made by placing the particle ل before the present tense verb (table 9.1). This particle is called the lām of command لام الا مر) ) and it is one of five particles that cause present tense verbs to enter the state of jazm (جزم) [lesson seven, principle one]. For example, فعل ي (he does) becomes ل فع لي (he must do!). PRINCIPLE TWO Active voice conjugations of the second person command are created by (1) placing the second person present tense verb in the state of jazm, (2) replacing the initial tā of the second person with a hamzah (seated on an alif), and (3) voweling this hamzah with a kasrah 26 (table 9.2). For example, فعل ت (you do) becomes ل ا فع (do!). 26 In some cases, the hamzah is voweled with a dammah. This occurs when the letter at the ain position of the present tense verb is also voweled with a dammah. Such patterns are covered in Lesson Sixteen. For example, ينصر (he helps), becomes انصر (help!). See table 16.3, verb form I, types A and E. 44 FUNDAMENTALS OF CLASSICAL ARABIC PRINCIPLE THREE All passive voice conjugations of the command, including the second person, are formed by placing the lām of command ( ل ) before passive voice conjugations of the present tense verb. For example, فعل ت (you are being done) becomes ل فع لت (be done!) [table 9.3]. THE EMPHATIC COMMAND The emphatic command is used to forcefully demand an act. For example, لن فع ا means, verily do! and لن فع لي means, verily he must do! All conjugations of the emphatic command are derived from the emphatic. Active voice conjugations of the emphatic command reflect the person, لي فعل ن gender, and plurality of the individual commanded. For example, means, verily they must do! Passive voice conjugations of the emphatic command reflect the person, gender, and plurality of the object of the command. For example, فعل ن لي means, verily they (e.g., those tasks) must be done! PRINCIPLE FOUR The emphatic command is formed from the emphatic in two distinct ways. In the case of the active voice of the first and third person, the emphatic command is formed by (1) removing the lām of emphasis ( ل ) from the emphatic and (2) replacing it with the lām of command ( ل ). Because all forms of the emphatic are stateless,(مب ني) this lām does not change the state of. However, s meaning changes from the emphatic to the emphatic command. For example, لن فع لي (verily he will do!) becomes لن فع لي (verily he must do!). PRINCIPLE FIVE Active voice conjugations of the second person emphatic command are formed by (1) removing the ل from the emphatic, (2) replacing the initial tā of the second person with a hamzah (seated on an The Command 45 لت فع لن alif), and (3) voweling this hamzah with a kasrah. 27 For example, (verily you will do!) becomes ن ل فع ا (verily do!). PRINCIPLE SIX All passive voice conjugations of the emphatic command, including the second person, are formed by replacing the lām of emphasis ( ل ) with the lām of command ( ل ). For example, لن فع لت (verily you will be done!) becomes لن فع لت (verily be done!) [table 9.3]. ESSENTIAL NOTE The conjugations of the command and the emphatic command must be memorized (table 9.3) before moving to the next lesson. 27 In some cases, this hamzah is voweled with a dammah. See footnote 26. 46 FUNDAMENTALS OF CLASSICAL ARABIC TABLE 9.1 CREATING THE FIRST AND THIRD PERSON ACTIVE VOICE COMMAND VERB IN ORIGINAL RAF A ي فعل He or It (S/M) does SIGN OF RAF A LĀM OF COMMAND CAUSING JAZM MEANS OF EXPRESSING JAZM ACTIVE VOICE COMMAND لي فع ل ي فع لان They (D/M) do nūn + ل Drop final nūn He/It (S/M) must do! لي فع لا ي فعل و ن They (P/M) do nūn + ل Drop final nūn They (D/M) must do! لي فع لوا ت فعل She or It (S/F) does They (P/M) must do! لت فع ل ت فع لان They (D/F) do nūn + ل Drop final nūn She/It (S/F) must do! لت فع لا ي فع لن They (P/F) do Stateless No change ل + (مب ني) They (D/F) must do! لي فع لن ا فعل I do They (P/F) must do! ل ا فع ل ن فعل We do I must do! لن فع ل We must do! M=Masculine F=Feminine S=Singular D=Dual P=Plural The Command 47 TABLE 9.2 CREATING THE SECOND PERSON 28 ACTIVE VOICE COMMAND PRESENT TENSE IN JAZM STEP ONE STEP TWO ACTIVE VOICE COMMAND ت فع ل You (S/M) ا فع ل لا ت فع You (D/M) [You] Do! (S/M) ا فع لا ت فع لوا You (P/M) [You] Do! (D/M) ا فع لوا ت فعلي You (S/F) [You] Do! (P/M) ا فعلي ت فع لا You (D/F) [You] Do! (S/F) ا فع لا ت فع لن You (P/F) [You] Do! (D/F) ا فع لن [You] Do! (P/F) M=Masculine F=Feminine S=Singular D=Dual P=Plural 28 Recall that the second person is used to refer to the individual spoken to. Therefore, each of the conjugations listed in table 9.2 directly commands an individual or a group of individuals. For example, لا فع ا (do!) commands two individuals to perform an action (i.e., you two do!). 48 FUNDAMENTALS OF CLASSICAL ARABIC PASSIVE VOICE EMPHATIC TABLE 9.3 THE COMMAND ACTIVE VOICE EMPHATIC PASSIVE VOICE ACTIVE VOICE لي فع ل لي فع ل لي فع لن لي فع لن Verily he/it (S/M) must be done! Verily he/it (S/M) must do! He/It (S/M) must be done! He/It (S/M) must do! لي فع لا ن لي فع لا ن لي فع لا لي فع لا Verily they (D/M) must be done! Verily they (D/M) must do! They (D/M) must be done! They (D/M) must do! لي فعل ن لي فعل ن لي فع لوا لي ف ع لوا Verily they (P/M) must be done! Verily they (P/M) must do! They (P/M) must be done! They (P/M) must do! لت فع لن لت فع لن لت فع ل لت فع ل Verily she/it (S/F) must be done! Verily she/it (S/F) must do! She/It (S/F) must be done! She/It (S/F) must do! لت فع لا ن لت فع لا ن لت فع لا لت فع لا Verily they (D/F) must be done! Verily they (D/F) must do! They (D/F) must be done! They (D/F) must do! لي فع لنا ن لي فع لنا ن لي فع لن لي فع لن Verily they (P/F) must be done! Verily they (P/F) must do! They (P/F) must be done! They (P/F) must do! لت فع لن ا فع لن لت فع ل ا فع ل Verily [you] be done! (S/M) Verily [you] do! (S/M) [You] Be done! (S/M) [You] Do! (S/M) لت فع لا ن ا فع لا ن لتفع لا ا فع لا Verily [you] be done! (D/M) Verily [you] do! (D/M) [You] Be done! (D/M) [You] Do! (D/M) لت فعل ن ا فعل ن لت فع لوا ا فع لوا Verily [you] be done! (P/M) Verily [you] do! (P/M) [You] Be done! (P/M) [You] Do! (P/M) لت فعل ن ا فعلن لت فعلي ا فعلي Verily [you] be done! (S/F) Verily [you] do! (S/F) [You] Be done! (S/F) [You] Do! (S/F) لت فع لا ن ا فع لا ن لت فع لا ا فع لا Verily [you] be done! (D/F) Verily [you] do! (D/F) [You] Be done! (D/F) [You] Do! (D/F) لت فع لنا ن ا فع لنا ن لت فع لن ا فع لن Verily [you] be done! (P/F) Verily [you] do! (P/F) [You] Be done! (P/F) [You] Do! (P/F) لا فع لن ل ا فع لن ل ا فع ل ل ا فع ل Verily I must be done! Verily I must do! I must be done! I must do! لن فع لن لن فع لن لن فع ل لن فع ل Verily we must be done! Verily we must do! We must be done! We must do!
Related Search
We Need Your Support
Thank you for visiting our website and your interest in our free products and services. We are nonprofit website to share and download documents. To the running of this website, we need your help to support us.

Thanks to everyone for your continued support.

No, Thanks