ISSN: Emmanuel Josserand, HEC, Université de Genève (Editor in Chief) - PDF

ISSN: Emmanuel Josserand, HEC, Université de Genève (Editor in Chief) Jean-Luc Arrègle, Université du Luxembourg (editor) Laure Cabantous, ESCP Europe, Paris (editor) Stewart Clegg,

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ISSN: Emmanuel Josserand, HEC, Université de Genève (Editor in Chief) Jean-Luc Arrègle, Université du Luxembourg (editor) Laure Cabantous, ESCP Europe, Paris (editor) Stewart Clegg, University of Technology, Sydney (editor) Olivier Germain, U. du Québec à Montréal (editor, s) Karim Mignonac, Université de Toulouse 1 (editor) Philippe Monin, EM Lyon Business School (editor) Tyrone Pitsis, University of Newcastle (editor) Jose Pla-Barber, Universidad de València (editor) Michael Tushman, Harvard Business School (editor) Florence Villesèche, HEC, Université de Genève (managing editor) Walid Shibib, Université de Genève (editorial assistant) Martin G. Evans, University of Toronto (editor emeritus) Bernard Forgues, EM Lyon Business School (editor emeritus) Yvonne GIORDANO 2012 Book review: Marta SINCLAIR 2011 Handbook of Intuition Research 15(1), est la revue officielle de l AIMS Association Internationale de Management Stratégique Copies of this article can be made free of charge and without securing permission, for purposes of teaching, research, or library reserve. Consent to other kinds of copying, such as that for creating new works, or for resale, must be obtained from both the journal editor(s) and the author(s). is a double-blind refereed journal where articles are published in their original language as soon as they have been accepted. For a free subscription to and more information: and the author(s). is the official journal of AIMS Book review Marta SINCLAIR (2011). Handbook of Intuition Research. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Pub. Hardcover : 296 pages Publisher : Edward Elgar Pub (Published September 29, 2011) Language: English ISBN13: ISBN10: Reviewed by Yvonne Giordano, GREDEG, Université de Nice Sophia Antipolis Intuition is already a long-standing concern (Agor, 1984; Barnard, 1938; Simon, 1987) but it is often used as an umbrella term (Glöckner & Ebert, Chapter 14: 161), just as decision-making was in the past. For many years, under the influence of the tradition of heuristics and biases (HB) (Tversky & Kahneman, 1971, in particular), intuitive processes and outcomes have been considered as inefficient mental shortcuts. Then, a relative turn-around for research into intuition currently gives rise to many publications which show a great vivacity in many disciplines. Martha Sinclair s book (she was Senior Lecturer at the University of Brisbane when it was published) is one effective illustration and comes just at the right moment to draw up a statement in a spirit of respectful disagree[ment] (xvi). Research on intuition - and the very definition of the concept - is highly controversial and the entire book illustrates the discordant views to which it gives rise. The work has been written with a clear intention: to lead intuition out of a retrenched area, dealing with sub-scientific processes and outcomes, and to give us fresh knowledge, specifically within and between cognitive psychology and neuroscience research. It discusses not only widely recognized works, but also other, less advanced contributions that prompt further research on the subject. We are left with no certainties once we are done reading, but rather a very stimulating invitation to continue exploring, and in particular in the domain of management, which was one of the very first fields to be concerned with intuition. STRUCTURE AND CONTRIBUTIONS The book is made up of five parts and twenty-one chapters. The first part (Conceptualizing Intuition, Chapters 1 to 5) investigates the many different facets of the intuitive processes, and discusses consciousness and affects. The second part (Functions of Intuition, Chapters 6 to 134 9) shows the links between intuition, on the one hand, and expertise, strategy, entrepreneurship and ethics, on the other. The third part (Intuition in Professional/Occupational Domains, Chapters 10 to 15) shows intuition-in-action in various professional fields, including emergency medicine, law, movie sets and teaching. The fourth part (Nonlocal Perspective, Chapters 16 and 17) stretches the concept of intuition to its very limits by analyzing noetic form and nonlocal intuition, far from assuming that intuitions are the result of processed information that we already possess or have been in contact with. Finally, the fifth part (Cultivating Intuition, Chapters 18 to 21) militates in favor of the idea that intuition is an available mental resource (mindfulness) and examines its qualities in relation to various activities, with a specific focus on higher education. All of the thirty-six authors who contribute to this debate come from many and varied disciplines, which confers on the book a contrasted and pluralistic approach; this is to be welcomed in a work tackling such a controversial subject, which embraces such fields as cognitive and clinical psychology, neurobiology, medicine, management and organizational behavior, education, economics and physics. All the authors work in varied fields and use different methods, which supports the notion that intuition is of a cross-cutting nature: intuition is thus something which comes out as clearly in emergency medicine as it does in managerial decision-making or even the legal domain. As for the theme of decision-making, then, intuition does not specifically belong to a particular field, and some of the authors who contribute to the book are from clearly multidisciplinary institutions. Moreover, Martha Sinclair calls for the development of collaborations across multiple disciplines as well as the increase of empirically grounded research, both using experimental methods and in natural settings. Finally, the book exposes and discusses the most recent theories on the ways in which high-order animals learn, think and judge. MAIN ADVANCES With intuition, we know simply that we know something without knowing how or why we know it (Sinclair, Chapter 1: 4). Broadly speaking, intuition may be defined as direct knowing that arises through rapid, non-conscious and holistic information processing or holistic associations (Dane & Pratt, 2007: 33). After a long period of doubt and criticism surrounding this strange construct, intuition is now considered a legitimate subject of social scientific inquiry (Hodgkinson & Sadler- Smith, Chapter 5: 52). Evidently, researchers of the HB tradition have previously neglected intuition because of systematic errors and inferior choices made by experimental subjects. At the opposite of the HB tradition, Naturalistic Decision Making (NDM) (Klein, Chapter 6; Lipshitz, Klein & Orasanu, 2001; Salas, Rosen & DiazGranados, 2010) has emphasized the power of intuitive experts judgments in specific real set- 135 tings. This book tries to extend intuition beyond the limited area of decision-making; it does so because this concept is now cross-pollinating our knowledge and the ways we learn and think in our everyday lives. System 1 and System 2: dual processing models One of the most important contributions to intuition is the development of System1/System 2 theories. According to these theories, the associative learning system operates outside of awareness (System 1). By contrast, analysis is associated with the rational/deliberative system as intentional, primarily conscious, verbal and relatively affect-free (System 2). Humans process information in parallel systems, but there is no clear agreement about affects, their role and the time at which they are activated nor if the two systems are independent and travel through different pathways in the brain. The best-known theory is the Cognitive- Experiential Self-Theory (CEST) (Epstein, 2010 and Chapter 4), which claims that the two systems interact, working simultaneously and influencing each other as they do so. The intuitive system usually reacts first but another possible sequence is that the intuitive system reacts to the rational one, e.g. when a thought produced by the rational system instigates emotions or produces associations in the experiential one (Guzak & Hargrove, Chapter 9: 99). It seems that the mutual influence of the experiential and rational systems results in conflicts and compromises between them. Methodologically, each type of processing should be captured by an independent scale. Nevertheless, CEST is not the only dual processing model. Many of the current dual process models are default-interventionist models (authors emphasis) assuming that both systems interact with intuitive processes being activated by default and deliberative processes being activated only if necessary to intervene and correct (Glöckner & Ebert, Chapter 14: 161; Evans, 2008). Other models suggest that both systems interact in parallel. For the reader who remains uncomfortable with this recent psychological research, the book does not appear to be terribly instructive: it is necessary to muddle through the chapters to gain a better understanding of the divergences between the models. Plessner, Betsch and Betsch (2008) introduce these models in a more advanced way, but their book is also rather more inaccessible for the non-specialist reader. The special issue of the Psychological Inquiry review (21, 2010), probably written at the same time as this book, provides useful assistance in grasping some subtle arguments which fall beyond the scope of this review. Meanwhile, other researchers such as Hammond (1996) maintain a unidimensional view (or cognitive continuum view ): humans use one cognitive style at the expense of the other, with information travelling along the same neural pathways. Rational/deliberative and intuitive styles are at the opposite ends of a single continuum. Each style is dependent on the degree of structuring of the task, its complexity, and its ambiguity (Guzak & Hargrove, Chapter 9: 100); one style may be preferred over the other. One person cannot employ a high degree of intuition and deliberation at the same time (Sinclair, 2010: 379). According to Sinclair, the apparent differences between these theories 136 may not be so vast: while dual-systems theories examine the process (intuit-ing as non-conscious information processing), the cognitive continuum theory deals with the outcome (intuition as a consciously registered outcome), i.e. the resulting cognitive style. Neuroscience seems to assert that the deployment of the two processes, deliberative and intuitive, depends to a large extent on the level of prior experience which echoes the NDM tradition. Intuitive expertise and NDM A significant amount of research has been conducted in the NDM framework, which explains the connections between intuition and expertise (Klein, Chapter 6; Lipshitz et al., 2001). This movement claims that in specific settings (uncertainty, time pressure, high stakes, permanently changing conditions, etc.), experts do not generate and compare sets of options but rather use their prior experience to categorize situations rapidly. Expertise is organized in highly sophisticated patterns which are context-dependent or domain-specific. Many NDM models exist; the Recognition Primed Decision model (RPD) of Klein is one of them and is a blend of intuition and analysis (Klein, Chapter 6: 74). The pattern matching is a speed tacit knowledge process which compares the observed situation with typical situations already encountered in prior experience. Then, using mental simulation, the decision-maker imagines an option until it appears to fit the situation. According to Klein, the pattern-matching element is the intuitive part (System 1, fast and unconscious) and the mental simulation is the conscious and analytical part (System 2, slow and deliberate). A purely intuitive strategy relying only on pattern matching would be too risky because sometimes the pattern matching generates flawed options (Klein, Chapter 6: 74). When testing the prediction from the RPD model, the first option the expert considers is usually satisfactory, which exemplifies Herbert Simon s notion of satisficing (Klein, Chapter 6: 74). Training in intuitive decision-making allows a person to size up situations more quickly, recognize problems and anomalies of the situation and feel confident when selecting the first course of action (Bakken & Haeren, Chapter 11: 127). The NDM movement has contributed to the work of numerous types of professional: army small-unit leaders, Navy commanders, jurors, anesthesiologists, airline pilots, nurses, highway engineers, etc. (see also the special issue of Organization Studies, 27(7), 2006). Linking intuition with NDM would seem to limit the application of intuition to experts alone. According to Sinclair, this is only one and quite a narrow view of intuition as relying exclusively on experiences which we already possess. The distinction between inferential and holistic intuition is useful to understand why intuition must be considered in a broader sense. Inferential and holistic intuition In the framework of NDM, experts knowledge is organized in highly sophisticated patterns coming from their previous accumulated experiences. In this specific case, intuition is termed inferential by Pretz 137 (Chapter 2) because experts knowledge is organized in a meaningful way, allowing them to rely on the long-term memory of these typical and automatized configurations. They automatically recognize familiar situations and intuitively know how to react with remarkably high speed and accuracy by trusting intuition (Pretz, Chapter 2: 19 & 23). Thanks to relevant methodological work tools such as cognitive task analysis (CTA, Crandall, Klein & Hoffman, 2006), the experts are partly able to expose some of the inferences used. This kind of process is also called matching style by Sinclair (Chapter 1: 10). Nevertheless, intuition can also be of a holistic type. It is non-sequential and usually deals with the high-speed synthesis of unconnected memory fragments (Sinclair, Chapter 1: 5) in a new framework which is incompatible with conscious deliberation. The outcome is something new and is close to what Glöckner and Ebert (Chapter 14) call constructive style. It seems that holistic intuition is appropriate in highly complex problems and may be used also by non-experts in their daily lives. Inferential intuitive judgments rely on automated analyses Holistic intuitive judgments rely on holistic integration of cues The link between complexity and intuition has a corollary: the link between intuition and expertise in a given field. For Pretz (Chapter 2: 22-24), the novices mainly use a holistic intuition because they do not have enough knowledge to use an analytic approach. As soon as experience grows, the intermediate experts start to become familiar with and handle the rules, so that they can give analytic responses. When a high level of expertise is reached, inferential intuition - supported by sophisticated domain knowledge becomes possible. Yet, this does not exclude holistic intuition, when the issue is felt to be highly complex (e.g. an important number of variables and/or a completely new phenomenon). For Sinclair, the NDM literature is interesting but does not exhaust knowledge of the intuitive processes because mainly focused on inferential intuition. Creative intuition Beyond the field of decision, intuition also includes creative properties as exposed by Strick & Dijksterhuis (Chapter 3). For the Unconscious Thought Theory, intuition can produce something fundamentally new, which then paves the way to creativity (the Aha! moment in Chapter 3 ; insight in Chapter 5, or Euréka! in Koestler, 1965). This theory studies the combination of or alternation between active searches for information on an issue, where the individual searcher is goal-oriented, and incubation periods, where he stops any active attention (period of distraction ) to listen finally to what he feels ( gut feeling ; Gigerenzer, 2007). Distraction is a phase of diverted attention; it acts as a bubble that puts to sleep poor heuristics or the setting on rigid patterns to promote a fresh look on the issue. This incubation interlude should not be merged into passivity because the subject knows he has to find the solution (he is goal-oriented). Unconscious thought is goal-dependent, i.e. without a goal, people do not engage in unconscious thought. The same idea, called defocused attention, is developed by Duggan and 138 Mason (Chapter 7: 83) about strategic intuition: insights do not come to those who simply ignore problems or wait passively for solutions to bubble to consciousness. Therefore, with Hodgkinson & Sadler-Smith (Chapter 5), we need to identify the roles played by incubation and intuition in the processes leading to insight. Along Hogarth s lines (2001: 254), we can say that insight is typically reserved for those moments when people suddenly realize that they can see into the structure of problems (Hodgkinson & Sadler-Smith (Chapter 5: 53) so that the solution suddenly enters conscious awareness. This subjective experience is followed by a strong conviction of certainty. Laboratory studies (e.g. the Remote Associates Test) support the role of incubation and intuition in the process leading to insight. Sinclair (Chapter 1) considers that we must expand intuition to creation and not limit it to a domain-specific expertise: our everyday experiences are also a source of intuition. Strategic management and entrepreneurs (Chapters 7 and 8) combine existing dispersed patterns in novel and creative ways. We must go beyond expertise to link intuition with broad experience accumulated in the past directly or indirectly via reading, seeing and hearing. Finally, even if creative intuition seems instantaneous at the Eureka! moment, it is not always immediate: a long period of incubation may be necessary. For some researchers, the positive properties of incubation may be related to the role of a state characterized by psychophysiological coherence (McCraty, Atkinson, Tomasino & Bradley, 2009; Tomasino, Chapter 21); this state would be a state of optimal function which is associated with emotional stability, reduced stress and negative emotions and an increase in positive emotions (Tomasino, Chapter 21: 254). Intuition in critical occupations: life, death and law The third part of the book (Intuition in professional/occupational domains, Chapters 10 to 15) will perhaps speak louder to management scholars. Since intuition is discussed through concrete occupations, the authors seem to consider that its virtues are greater than experimental laboratory models tend to show. This is mainly due to the fact that the contributors deal with critical situations (emergency nursing and emergency medicine, firefighting, aviation, crisis management) but also with apparently counter-intuitive occupations as legal expertise. Langan-Fox and Vranic (Chapter 10: ) underline the role of intuition in what they call critical settings : may be because of the gravity of their decisions, professionals in these occupations do not take intuition lightly [ ] intuition is a vital construct (authors' emphasis). Nursing intuition, for example, appears to be an important component of medical diagnosis. The authors show that knowledge, experience and expertise are reciprocally dependent and interact permanently so that intuition is a valid behavior not only in emergency but also in clinical nursing. Intuition is mixed with analysis and is also efficient in detecting instantaneous danger elsewhere, such as in air-traffic control, military combat or law enforcement. Here, intuition is heavily linked with training, observing cues and signals that indicate danger, responding to emergencies and noticing with all our senses and not only over-relying 139 on our vision: our senses are stronger than we think (Langan-Fox and Vranic, Chapter 10: 117). In other words, intuition is linked with mindfulness (Dane, Chapter 18). Paradoxically, if classic military decision-making models omit or diminish the role
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