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Te Growth and Decline of Research on the History of Adult Education in Contemporary Hungary: Trends and Issues of Historical Research from 1993 to 2013 Balázs Németh* This paper demonstrates how research

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Te Growth and Decline of Research on the History of Adult Education in Contemporary Hungary: Trends and Issues of Historical Research from 1993 to 2013 Balázs Németh* This paper demonstrates how research on the history of adult education in Hungary has evolved in the last two decades according to major research themes and problem areas, and reflects on distinguished trends and issues of adult education research in the changing historical contexts. Furthermore, the paper underlines some key particularities of the rise and fall of research on the history of adult education in Hungary. Keywords: comparative research, features of historical research on adult education in Hungary, trends and issues in research and development, andragogy Introduction Adult education in Hungary changed dramatically through the formation of an open society and market economy (Németh, 1989). The process of transformation was also accelerated by the growing influence of international research organizations such as the UNESCO, the OECD and the newly emerging European Union. This resulted in the articulation of new research dimensions, which included the economy, the employability, the community, society and citizenship. Hungary, by becoming an associated member of the EU, witnessed the emergence of new forms of adult education and training. These new forms enabled by research and development helped adults to find identities and values either on individual or community level. Under these new circumstances many former structures of adult education, for example the folk high school, managed to grow and expand their mission ( Tóth, 2002), while others declined or even disappeared totally. This was the case with second chance schooling, which after its fifty years of providing education to adults nearly vanished after 1990 (Bajusz, 2005). It is also essential to point out the roles and values of certain distinguished research schools in establishing trends and raising issues, along with their significant influence on adult education research. In this respect it is important to mention the Durkó-school, which contributed greatly to the development of the field by establishing the frames of cultural roles and functions for adult education ( Durkó, 1998; 1999) as well as the promotion of the use of comparative approaches by Maróti (Maróti, 1998). Furthermore, Felkai s attempt to connect educational policy research with the history of adult education was also of great importance. Felkai investigated the processes by which adult education and/or training had become an integral part of education, employment and cultural policies in modern Hungary after 1867 ( Felkai, 1998a; 1998b). By several research articles published in the 1990s Felkai provided a detailed review of the evolution of institutionalisation of adult education as well as of the related movements of particular social groups between 1850 and This historiographical approach was, however, not entirely novel, since Pál Soós from the University of Debrecen (Soós, 1998), Andor Maróti from Eötvös Loránd University (Maróti, 1992, 1998) and László Harangi (Harangi, 1998) also investigated the history of Hungarian adult education and called for further research in the field. Gyula Csoma s main research interests focused on the study of the workers * PTE FEEK Andragógia Intézet, egyetemi docens intézetigazgató, 40 The Growth and Decline of Research on the History of Adult Education in Contemporary Hungary: Trends and Issues of Historical Research from 1993 to 2013 Balázs Németh schools and second chance schooling. Attaining full development by the 1970s, these forms of education were soon incorporated in the mainstream school-policy of the socialist Hungary between 1985 and 1988 ( Csoma and Gellért, 1963). Major phases of adult education research in Hungary A frame-model to signal the change and development of modern adult education research Period I. The beginning and early phase of adult education research in Hungary ( ) Period II. Special focus on the relationships between adult education, ideology and labour. The emergence of culture and science-oriented adult education research with more emphasis on emerging trends and issues of adult education within the international context ( ) Period III. The phase of new routes and closer relationships to the world, especially to Western Europe. The impact of the UNESCO CONFINTEA IV and other international research cycles to accelerate systematic adult education research. The revival of the Hungarian folk high school movement ( ) Period IV. Hungary became an associated member of the EC/EU. Adult education research in Hungary drew closer to its European counterparts, gaining interdisciplinary and comparative research dimensions. The impact of scientific networking, conferences and adult education associations/institutions. The impact of the growth of adult education research (EAEA; IIZ-DVV; UNESCO UIL, History of Adult Ed. Internat. and Central European Conference Series on AE, etc.) ( ) Period V. Preparations for the EU Membership Even closer ties to the EU and other international organisations/institutions. Intensive participation in comparative adult education research and development during the so-called Lisbon decade through several European programmes and Lifelong Learning initiatives with focus on adult learning (e.g. FP, Erasmus, Grundtvig, Leonardo, etc.) ( ) Period VI. A slow decline in adult education research in Hungary in line with the international trends. Less holistic, more reductionist approaches in research with constantly emerging focus on labour market, skills and employment- related impacts. Complementary orientation to spatial structures (e.g. learning cities/regions and learning communities) and the reconfiguration of citizenship. (2010 to present) Te roles and impact of the frst three periods under communist rule During the first period, which started five years after the revolution against Soviet Russia, communist Hungary witnessed a post-war wave of democratization of schooling, which involved a more democratic attitude toward the reorganisation of the schools for adults. This era marked the emergence of critical approaches in social sciences, psychology and sociology. Networking opportunities with western scientific groups were also not uncommon. In the 1960s Mátyás Durkó applied the German model of andragogy to examine the role of adult education in the modernisation process of cultural organisations and institutions through pedagogical and 41 Neveléstudomány Tanulmányok andragogical research, which affected both the theoretical and practical aspects of the field. Durkó established a specialized school for the research and development of adult education at the University of Debrecen in the late 1960s and combined his approach with folklore, sociology, history, psychology and pedagogy. During its thirty years of existence, the Durkó-school contributed greatly to the modernisation of the Hungarian adult education both from theoretical and practical perspectives, and, in the end, it managed to establish the frame for the cultural roles and functions of adult education (Durkó, 1999). During the same period, Gyula Csoma began his critical analysis of the evolution of second chance schooling. Later he turned his attention to the conditions of successful adult learning and highlighted the necessity of effectively constructed curricula for adult learners ( Csoma, 1998.) Kálmán Benő analysed the efforts to develop the school-education of adults undertaken in the post-war years of free cultural education ( szabad művelődés) from 1945 to 1948 (Benő, 1970). This period, which was dominated by formal learning, indicated a clear need for ideology-based structures and methods in adult education. Simultaneously, new interests in the reconfiguration of the cultural life and in the modernisation of culture-based education brought about the development of alternative forms and routes of expression. Western ideas from new waves of philosophy, performing arts, sociology and educational philosophy were particularly welcome at the time. The impact of 1968 and that of other anti-war youth movements also called for a more critical mind-set in research. The need for developing not only structures/infrastructures but also rights and actions for a more democratic society became more and more prominent, and resulted in various initiatives, such as the Citizens Europe. Finally, the historic era itself was intellectually inspiring and favourable for outlining further research on the history of adult education. Being characterized by a comparative approach, the research of this period focused on current trends and issues in an internationally bipolar environment. The second period of adult education research in Hungary was dominated by the theme of emerging labour oriented training programmes for workers at a time in which labour market was literally non-existent. Adult education researchers of this period applied a more holistic view on culture, whereas scientific dissemination became more noticeable. However, adult education was provided by state-owned institutions and organisations, which, based on their state monopoly, exerted systematic control over all forms of education, training and cultural activities, thus undermining any grass-route initiative. As we can see, this period was characterized by abnormal operation, however, the fact that all educational processes triggered alternative ways of expression of thought led to the erosion of the system in the following period. Nevertheless, in this second period several special experimental attempts and models emerged, all of which reflected the common effort to implement critically inspired methods and approaches in adult education. As a consequence, research in adult education raised new questions, for example what modern meant in the Hungarian context and how it could be expressed. The historiography of the period, signalled by Felkai s work, focused on historical contexts to explain the role of the state and that of the new social classes, such as intellectuals, the intelligentsia, working class, and the changing conditions of the almost disappearing peasantry. Another dimension for historical research was highlighted by the analysis of the evolution of in-service training of major companies and enterprises from 1850 to This attempt was accelerated by the economic historians of the time, namely Iván Berend T., Miklós Szuhay (Berend and Szuhay, 1975), László Katus (Katus, 1979) and Béla Krisztián. Krisztián, a talented researcher of vocational education and training, for example, pointed out the roles and peculiarities of the post-war modernisation of vocational education and training in Hungary and contributed greatly to the development of genuine modernity in the early 1960s (Krisztián, 1986). 42 The Growth and Decline of Research on the History of Adult Education in Contemporary Hungary: Trends and Issues of Historical Research from 1993 to 2013 Balázs Németh The third period of adult education research in Hungary was dominated by new routes and reforms. In its attempt to modernize the system of adult education, the state allowed the formation of several alternative adult education associations, all of which played an important role in the process of preparation for the political change of the regime. János Sz. Tóth and others, for example, established a new association for Hungarian folk high schools in 1988, which was based on the declaration of UNESCO CONFINTEA IV from Paris in 1985 (UNESCO, 1985). Movements of civic groups organized demonstrations for the freedom of cultural, economic and political life, also raising the issue of environmental protection. These social, political and economic changes were all reflected in the adult education of the period. Historical research gradually got rid of the political and ideological burdens, and turned towards finding best practices of adult education and training in modern Hungary from 1850 to 1950 and even up to The aim of this effort was to identify old practices that could be useful in helping adults to learn and perform better under the new circumstances ( Felkai, 1986). This period can be seen as a preparatory stage for an ample and complicated set of actions. Trends and issues of historical research from 1992 to Tree periods of adult education research in a democratic Hungary The fourth period of adult education research in Hungary, from 1992 to 2000, was largely influenced by the activities and key initiatives of the Budapest Project Office of IIZ-DVV (the International Institute of the German Folk High Schools).The main mission of the office was to support the research and development of adult education in Hungary by introducing new themes and methods, and by creating communities, in accordance with current international trends. This period also brought about the generation shift of researchers. Durkó, Felkai, Maróti, Harangi and Zrinszky urged their former students, Koltai, Sári, Pethő and Sz.Tóth, to continue the historical research on the education of adults. Together they initiated new higher education programmes for adult education professionals at BA and MA levels, thus enabling the transition of historical research into the academic environment. Almost all Hungarian state universities established new departments of adult education/andragogy or preserved former departments of cultural studies, popular education, and human resource development. Between 1994 and 1995, Maróti conducted a detailed comparative OTKA (National Scientific Research Fund) research project to map the similarities and differences between various adult education organisations and institutions in a number of European countries, such as the UK, Denmark, Austria, Switzerland, Finland, Sweden, Germany and Italy. As members of this research group, Harangi examined the Danish adult education, whereas Pethő investigated the adult education in Austria and Switzerland ( Harangi, Pethő, and Maróti, 1995). László Zrinszky, in his book on adult education published in 1998, dedicated a whole chapter to the comparative study of modern German and Hungarian adult education ( Zrinszky, 1998.) In her research, Katalin Gelencsér examined the relationships between culture-based informal education and the emergence of adult education in Hungary. In the History of Hungarian Cultural life from 1780 to 1980, Gelencsér s mapped the roles of adult participation in culture, which she viewed as a special form of informal learning ( Gelencsér, 1998a; 1998b). Sz. Tóth, as a leader of the Hungarian Folk High School Society, published a number of state-of-art papers on the re-establishment and the developing perspectives of folk high schools (Sz. Tóth, 1998). Dénes Koltai implemented a new design for adult education research at the University of Pécs. By combining the andragogy studies with the emerging training of adult educators, a new type of qualification came into being, which was intended for future human resource managers of both cultural institutions and enterprises. 43 Neveléstudomány Tanulmányok This new framework enabled systematic research, which in turn brought about the functional change of adult education from both theoretical and practical perspectives. A number of other higher education institutions, among which the University of Debrecen and the University of Pécs, joined the IIZ-DVV Budapest Office with the scope of mapping the Hungarian adult education and training. Erika Juhász from Debrecen and Klára Bajusz from Pécs joined this research project in Later Juhász turned to the research themes of non-formal autonomous learning and learning communities ( Juhász, 2009), while Bajusz became interested in the development of folk high schools and second chance schooling ( Bajusz, 2005). The first conference on adult education research in Hungary supported by the IIZ-DVV and UNESCO UIL was held in Dunaújváros in On this occasion Németh called for a paradigm shift in the systematic research on the history of adult education (Németh, 2001). Between 1992 and 2002, Tamás T. Kiss carried out a large amount of research on the history of informal adult education in Hungary during the interwar period of He provided an accurate description of the educational policy of conservative governments in Hungary of the period in question, drawing attention on the impact of the marginalisation of adult schooling and on the emergence of informal adult learning, thus underlining the fact that folk education lacked the democratic approach towards participation and citizen autonomy (T. Kiss, 1998). It is also important to articulate the impact of the international conference series on the history of adult education in Central-Eastern Europe. In this respect, the Pöggeler conferences should be mentioned. These have been held every other year from 1982 and the conference booklets were published by Peter Lang in a series called Andragogy Pedagogy Gerontagogy. Németh initiated research partnership with Pöggeler in 1998, and, as a result, the Eighth International Conference on the History of Adult Education with its focus on the ideas and ideologies of adult education was organised in Pécs, Hungary in July Similarly, the Salzburg talks on adult education organised by the Austrian Folk High School Association played a crucial role in shaping the Hungarian research of adult education. The Strobl conferences on Central-European Adult Education, organised by Volker Otto, also had a major impact on the research of adult education in Hungary. Between 1996 and 1998 the Strobl conferences were held at various locations. Supported by the IIZ-DVV (later known as DVV International) two conferences of the series were organised in Hungary: the first in Debrecen in 1998 (with its focus on the history of the adult education in Hungary), and the second in Pécsvárad in 2000 (with its focus on adult education in Central-Eastern Europe from the Enlightenment to World War II). DVV International together with the Budapest Project Office provided support and assistance to many Hungarian researchers to participate on scientific events. A number of researchers, such as Sári (Sári, 2000), Maróti (Maróti, 1998), Soós (Soós, 1998) and Pordány (Pordány, 2000), could share their latest research findings on various issues of the Hungarian adult education. Pordány became interested in the research of informal adult learning, the evolution of citizenship education and community learning (Pordány, 1998; 2000), whereas Striker and Arapovics, two researchers from Eötvös Loránd University, were mainly involved in the study of participation, citizenship education and the roles of civil society ( Arapovics, 2005, 2007; Striker, 2011). Another important dimension of this period was marked by the growing number of national conferences on adult education, which were largely influenced by UNESCO CONFINTEA V and its Declaration (UNESCO, 1998). These conferences created new platforms for research on several themes, such as participation, methodologies, target groups, profession and professionalization, relevant learning theories, adult education policy developments in the EU etc. In addition, the European Commission and the DG Education started planning and 44 The Growth and Decline of Research on the History of Adult Education in Contemporary Hungary: Trends and Issues of Historical Research from 1993 to 2013 Balázs Németh promoting their new adult learning programme. From 1993 to the European Year of Lifelong Learning in 1996 the EU drew more and more attention to adult education (for example through the White Paper on Education and Training from 1995), which became a significant element of lifelong learning. By the end of the decade, research was heavily
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