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Institutionen för systemteknik Department of Electrical Engineering Examensarbete Feasibility Study for Wireless Control on The Countermeasure Dispenser System Master thesis performed at SAAB AB Järfalla,

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Institutionen för systemteknik Department of Electrical Engineering Examensarbete Feasibility Study for Wireless Control on The Countermeasure Dispenser System Master thesis performed at SAAB AB Järfalla, Stockholm Master Thesis in Communication Systems at Linköping Institute of Technology by Rawin Pinitchun Sukanya Pinsuvan LiTH-ISY-EX--12/4544--SE Linköping 2012 Department of Electrical Engineering Linköping universitet SE Linköping, Sweden Linköpings tekniska högskola Linköpings universitet Linköping Feasibility Study for Wireless Control on The Countermeasure Dispenser System Master Thesis in Communication Systems at Linköping Institute of Technology by Rawin Pinitchun Sukanya Pinsuvan LiTH-ISY-EX--12/4544--SE Handledare: Examinator: Supervisor1: Chaitanya, Tumula V.K. ISY, Linköpings universitet Supervisor2: Näsvall, Alf SAAB AB Examiner: Assoc.Prof.Alfredsson, Lasse ISY, Linköpings universitet Linköping, 25 January, 2012 Presentation Date January 25, 2012 Publishing Date (Electronic version) Department and Division Department of Electrical Engineering Language X English Other specify below Number of Pages 107 Type of Publication Licentiate thesis X Degree thesis Thesis C-level Thesis D-level Report Other (specify below) ISB N (Licentiate thesis) ISRN: LiTH-ISY-EX--12/4544--SE Title of series (Licentiate thesis) Series number/issn (Licentiate thesis) URL, Electronic Version Publication Title Feasibility of Replacing Wireless Standard in the Countermeasure Dispenser Systems Author(s) Rawin Pinitchun Sukanya Pinsuvan Abstract Electrical wiring on board aircraft has raised serious weight and safety concerns in the aerospace industry. Wires are antenna. It may also cause interference to radio-based systems on the aircraft, or, in the case of military aircraft, create a signature that can be detected by enemy receivers. Wireless application in avionic system helps reducing the total weight and reconfigurable of the aircraft; hence, lower the fuel costs, installation cost and maintenance costs, as well as the signature of the aircraft. The focus of this thesis, therefore, is to study the feasibility of different wireless standards, namely Wi-Fi, Bluetooth and ultra-wide band (UWB), on replacing the wired data connection in the EW countermeasure or chaff/flare dispenser systems. The study was constructed under the supervision of the department of Electronic Defense System, Saab AB in Järfalla, Stockholm. The discussion will be based on the resource availability, the reliability, the stability and the security of the wireless system relative to an avionic application; i.e., whether wireless links will negatively affect the overall reliability and safety of the aircrafts. Due to the theoretical studies and results from the simulation, we studied the feasibility issue and concluded that UWB is the most appropriate choice of wireless communication for non-critical aerospace applications, comparing with Wi-Fi and Bluetooth. UWB links can have reasonable immunity to interferences, low interference to other on-board wireless systems, and good security performance. Sammanfattning Antalet el-ledningar i flygplan har har blivit avsevärt fler i moderna flygplan, med ökad vikt och komplexitet som följd. Eftersom en el-ledning i sig är en antenn kan el-ledningar orsaka interferens och störningar på radiobaserade system i flygplanet och speciellt militära flygplan är känsliga för att generera signaturer som kan upptäckas av fiendens mottagare. Trådlös kommunikation mellan olika avionikenheter i flygplanet kan minska antalet ledningar och därmed vikt. Ändringar i avioniksystemet kan göras enklare, vilket ger lägre installationsoch underhållskostnader. Färre ledningar i flygplanet minskar också risken för oavsiktlig strålning som kan upptäckas av fienden. Fokus i detta examensarbete har därför varit att studera möjligheter att använda olika trådlösa standarder så som Wi-Fi, Bluetooth och UWB som ersättning för ledningsbunden data kommunikation i motmedelssystem i militära flygplan. Arbetsuppgiften var formulerad av Saab Electronic Defence Systems i Järfälla som också bidrog med handledning under genomförandet. I rapporten diskuteras tillgänglighet, tillförlitlighet, stabilitet och datasäkerhet vid användningen av trådlös kommunikation i avioniksystem. Resultatet baseras på teoretiska studier samt simuleringar och slutsatsen är att UWB funnits mest användbar i denna tillämpning. Keywords: Wireless on Aircraft, Countermeasures Dispenser System, CMDS, Chaff/Flare Dispenser Abstract Electrical wiring on board aircraft has raised serious weight and safety concerns in the aerospace industry. Wires are antenna. It may also cause interference to radio-based systems on the aircraft, or, in the case of military aircraft, create a signature that can be detected by enemy receivers. Wireless application in avionic system helps reducing the total weight and reconfigurable of the aircraft; hence, lower the fuel costs, installation cost and maintenance costs, as well as the signature of the aircraft. The focus of this thesis, therefore, is to study the feasibility of different wireless standards, namely Wi-Fi, Bluetooth and ultra-wide band (UWB), on replacing the wired data connection in the EW countermeasure or chaff/flare dispenser systems. The study was constructed under the supervision of the department of Electronic Defense System, Saab AB in Järfalla, Stockholm. The discussion will be based on the resource availability, the reliability, the stability and the security of the wireless system relative to an avionic application; i.e., whether wireless links will negatively affect the overall reliability and safety of the aircrafts. Due to the theoretical studies and results from the simulation, we studied the feasibility issue and concluded that UWB is the most appropriate choice of wireless communication for non-critical aerospace applications, comparing with Wi-Fi and Bluetooth. UWB links can have reasonable immunity to interferences, low interference to other on-board wireless systems, and good security performance. Sammanfattning Antalet el-ledningar i flygplan har har blivit avsevärt fler i moderna flygplan, med ökad vikt och komplexitet som följd. Eftersom en el-ledning i sig är en antenn kan el-ledningar orsaka interferens och störningar på radiobaserade system i flygplanet och speciellt militära flygplan är känsliga för att generera signaturer som kan upptäckas av fiendens mottagare. Trådlös kommunikation mellan olika avionikenheter i flygplanet kan minska antalet ledningar och därmed vikt. Ändringar i avioniksystemet kan göras enklare, vilket ger lägre installations- och underhållskostnader. Färre ledningar i flygplanet minskar också risken för oavsiktlig strålning som kan upptäckas av fienden. Fokus i detta examensarbete har därför varit att studera möjligheter att använda olika trådlösa standarder så som Wi-Fi, Bluetooth och UWB som ersättning för ledningsbunden data kommunikation i motmedelssystem i militära flygplan. Arbetsuppgiften var formulerad av Saab Electronic Defence Systems i Järfälla som också bidrog med handledning under genomförandet. I rapporten diskuteras tillgänglighet, tillförlitlighet, stabilitet och datasäkerhet vid användningen av trådlös kommunikation i avioniksystem. Resultatet baseras på teoretiska studier samt simuleringar och slutsatsen är att UWB funnits mest användbar i denna tillämpning. v Acknowledgments Foremost, we would like to express our sincere gratitude to our thesis examiner Assoc.Prof.Lasse Alfredsson, our supervisors Mr.Tumula V.K Chaitanya (LiU) and Mr.Alf Nasville (Saab, Inc.) for their continuous support of our research, for their patience, motivation, enthusiasm, and immense knowledge. Their guidance helped us in all the time of writing of this thesis. We could not have imagined having better advisor and mentors for our Master study. Besides, we would like to pay our sincere appreciation to all the instructors and officers at Communication Systems department, Linköping University for their support, encouragement, and insightful comments during our studies in the Master program. We would like to express our gratitude to the Royal Thai Air Force for granting us this scholarship, the FMV for their supports as well as their kindness in helping us on any matter during our studies in Sweden. Last but not the least; we would like to express thanks to our family for supporting us spiritually, cheering us up and being by our sides at every moment. Without any of them, this research would never be accomplished. Institution of Technology Sukanya Pinsuvan Linköping University Rawin Pinitchun Linköping, Sweden February 2012 vii Table of Contents Abstract... v Acknowledgments... vii Table of Contents... ix List of Figures... xiii List of Tables... xv List of Abbreviations... xvi Chapter Introduction Background Problem Description Purpose of the Study Document Outline... 2 Chapter Electronic Warfare (EW) Introduction and Definition of EW Countermeasure Dispenser Systems Saab s Advanced Countermeasure Dispenser System (BOL ACMDS) 6 Chapter Wireless Techniques Wireless LAN (Wi-Fi) Introduction and Background IEEE Configurations Benefits of Wireless LAN Bluetooth Introduction and Background Topology Bluetooth Protocol Architecture Link Management Bluetooth General Profiles Benefits and Advantages ix 3.3 Ultra-Wideband Direct Sequence-UWB (DS-UWB) Multi-Band OFDM (WiMedia) Applications and Future Outlook Chapter Theoretical Comparison The OSI Model The Physical Layer (PHY) Frequencies of Operation and Channels Modulation and Data Rates Range and Power Packet Structure at PHY Layers The MAC Layer Contention Access Contention-Free Access The Hidden Node Problem MAC Frame Formats Conclusion Chapter Wireless Antenna Antenna Parameters Impedance bandwidth Antenna Radiation Patterns Antenna Directivity and Gain Antenna Polarization Wireless Antenna Wi-Fi Antenna Bluetooth Antenna UWB Antenna Chapter Wireless Security Wireless Security Threats Security Threat in the Application Layer Security Threat in the Transport Layer... 59 6.1.3 Security Threat in the Network Layer Security Threat in the Data Link Layer Security Threat in the Physical Layer Multi-Layer Security Threat Wireless Security Countermeasures Countermeasure in the Application Layer Countermeasure in the Transport Layer Countermeasure in the Network Layer Countermeasure in the Data Link Layer Countermeasure in the Physical Layer Multi-Layers Countermeasure Security of each Wireless Standard Wi-Fi Security Bluetooth Security UWB Security Wireless Security Comparison Chapter Simulation The Purposes of the Simulation Simulation Tools Simulation Scenarios Dispensing Process Simulation Wireless Performance Simulation NS-2 Parameters Configuration Physical Layer, MAC Sublayer and Transport Layer configuration Antenna Configuration Propagation Model Configuration Channel Configuration Message Flow Configuration Simulation Results and Discussions Dispensing Process Simulation Result Wireless Performance Simulation Results Summary xi Chapter Preliminary Design Feasibility of Wireless on the Aircraft Wi-Fi Bluetooth UWB The Selected Standard Preliminary Design Application Layer Transport Layer Network Layer Data Link Layer Physical Layer Chapter Conclusion & Further Study Conclusion Further Study Appendix Program Codes A. Tcl simulation programs A.1 Tcl code for dispensing process simulation A.2 Tcl code for wireless performance simulations B. MATLAB code for path loss calculation Reference List of Figures Figure 1: EW Integrated Defensive Aids System (IDAS)... 5 Figure 2: Industrial, Scientific and Medical (ISM) Band Figure 3: Channel Allocation for Standards Figure 4: Basic Structure of IEEE b PHY packet format Figure 5: Bluetooth Basic Rate Packet Format Figure 6: Bluetooth EDR Packet Format Figure 7: Hidden Node Problem Figure 8: The Positions of the Antennas Figure 9: Omnidirectional Antenna Radiation Pattern Figure 10: Directional Antenna Radiation Pattern Figure 11: Vertical linear polarization Figure 12: Horizontal linear polarization Figure 13: Right Hand Circular Polarization Figure 14: Left Hand Circular Polarization Figure 15: Polarization Mismatch Loss of Circular Polarization Figure 16: Dual-Band Printed Dipole Antenna Figure 17: Two-Layer EMC Patch Antenna Figure 18: Dual-Patch Air Parch Antenna Figure 19: Planar Invert F Antenna (PIFA) Figure 20: Ceramic Chip Antenna Figure 21: Planar Inverted Cone Antenna (PICA) Figure 22: Printed Symmetrical Bi-Arm UWB Antenna Figure 23: Circular Slot Antenna Figure 24: Elliptical Slot Antenna Figure 25: Man-In-The-Middle attack Figure 26: AES Block Cipher Figure 27: Bluetooth Authentication Process Figure 28: E0 Stream Cipher Process Figure 29: Generation of the Encryption Key Figure 30: Counter Mode Encryption (CTR) with AES Block Cipher Figure 31: Dispensing Command Messages Exchanging Figure 32: Dispensing Process Simulation Figure 33: Performance Simulation Process of each Wireless Standard Figure 34: Two-Ray Ground Reflection Model Figure 35: The Process Delay Comparison of three Wireless Standards Figure 36: Goodput Comparison with the Distance Equals to 4 m Figure 37: Goodput Comparison with the Distance Equals to 10 m Figure 38: BER of Rayleigh Fading Figure 39: Message Delay Comparison within 4 m Figure 40: Message Delay Comparison within 10 m Figure 41: Path Loss Comparison in the Free Space Model Figure 42: Path Loss Comparison in the Two-Ray Ground Reflection Model.. 94 Figure 43: Path Loss Comparison in the ITU-R Model Figure 44: Bluetooth Nodes Distribution on the Aircraft Structure xiii Figure 45: The Preliminary Design Figure 46: UWB PHY signal flow Figure 47: Convolutional Encoding List of Tables Table 1: Theoretical Comparison of Wireless Standards Table 2: Wi-Fi Antennas Comparison at 2.4 GHz Table 3: Wi-Fi Antennas Comparison at 5.5 GHz Table 4: Bluetooth Antennas Comparison Table 5: UWB Antennas Comparison Table 6: Wireless Security Threats and Countermeasures Table 7: Denial-of-Service Attacks Table 8: Wireless Security Comparison Table 9: Network Simulators Comparison Table 10: Parameters Configuration for NS xv List of Abbreviations AAA ACMDS AI ARW ARS BC CMDS DE DEW EW EM RF IR NBC ES ESM EA ECM ECCM EP SAM RWR MDF SPS MAW RCS RT PLCP PMD ISM DRS EWC PLF UWB Wi-Fi PIFA CPW PICA IDS UDP TCP HTTP MITM DoS Anti-Aircraft Artillery Advanced Countermeasures Dispensing System Air Interceptor Anti-Radiation Weapons Adaptive Rate Selection Bus Controller CounterMeasure Dispenser System Direct Energy Directed-Energy Weapons Electronic Warfare ElectroMagnetic Radio Frequency InfraRed Nuclear, Biological and Chemical Electronic warfare Support Electronic warfare Support Measure Electronic Attack Electronic CounterMeasure Electronic Counter-CounterMeasure Electronic Protection Surface-to-Air Missiles Radar Warning Receiver Mission Data File Self-Protection Suite Missile Approach Warning Radar Cross-Section Remote Terminal Physical Layer Convergence Procedure Physical Medium Dependent Industrial, Scientific, and Medical Supports Dynamic Rate Shifting Electronic Warfare Controller Polarization Loss Factor Ultra-WideBand Wireless Fidelity Planar Inverted F Antenna Coplanar Waveguide Planar Inverted Cone Antenna Intrusion Detection System User Datagram Protocol Transmission Control Protocol Hyper Text Transfer Protocol Man-In-The-Middle Denial-of-Service xvi Chapter 3 Electronic Warfare (EW) ARP Address Resolution Protocol MAC Media Access Control TLS/SSL Transport Layer Security/Secure Socket Layer PCT Private Communications Transport IPSec Internet Protocol Security WLANs Wireless Local Area Networks WEP Wired Equivalent Privacy WPA Wi-Fi Protected Access ICV Integrity Check Value IV Initialization Vector PRNG Pseudo Random Number Generator TKIP Temporal Key Integrity Protocol PSK Pre-Shared Key AES Advanced Encryption Standard PIN Personal Identification Number ACO Authenticated Ciphering Offset LFSR Linear Feedback Shift Registers COF Ciphering Offset Number CTR Counter Mode CBC-MAC Cipher Block Chaining Message Authentication Code CCM Counter-Mode/CBC-MAC GTK Group Transient Key DSSS Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum FHSS Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum OFDM Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing DS-UWB Direct Sequence UWB MB-OFDM Multiband OFDM NS-2 Network Simulator version 2 UCBT University of Cincinnati LLC Logical Link Control CSMA/CA Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance DCC-MAC Dynamic Channel Coding MAC IR-UWB Impulse Radio UWB BNEP Bluetooth Network Encapsulation Protocol BER Bit Error Rate SNR Signal to Noise Ratio AWGN Additive White Gaussian Noise VSWR Voltage Standing Wave Ratio PDF Probability Density Function xvii Chapter 1 Introduction This first chapter will introduce the reader to the thesis. The background, the problem description and the purpose of the study will be discussed. The overview of the thesis report will also be presented in this chapter. 1.1 Background The numbers of wireless application in avionic system as well as the related studies have been increasing regularly, including the entertainment system, the internet application or any wireless sensor. It helps reducing the total weight; hence, lower the fuel costs. Also, the reconfigurable of the aircraft would be easier, which leads to the lower installation and maintenance costs. The ongoing studies are mostly focus on the airliner. Wireless application in military service, especially in the electronic warfare (EW) system can hardly be found due to the high security and stability requirement. The focus of this thesis is to study the feasibility of different wireless standards, namely Wi-Fi, Bluetooth and ultra-wide band (UWB), on replacing the wired data connection in the EW countermeasure or chaff/flare dispenser systems. The study was constructed under the supervision of the department of Electronic Defense System, Saab AB in Järfalla, Stockholm. The discussion will be based on the resource availability, the reliability, the stability and the security of the wireless system relative to an avionic application. 1.2 Problem Description Countermeasure dispenser systems (CMDS) are a part of the self-protection systems (SPS) which are integrated on most military ground, sea and avionic platforms, such as the military fighter, to protect itself from being jammed, locked and destroyed by radar or infrared seeking missiles. The typical SPS consists of the countermeasure or chaff/flare dispenser system, radar warning receiver (RWR), laser warning system (LWS), missile warning system (MWS) and man 1 Chapter 1 Introduction machine interface (MMI). In the tactic situations, RWR, LWS and MWS are responsible for detecting radar, laser and ultra-violet (UV) signals, which are the guidance signals of the respective missiles. Then, the mentioned signals will communicate with the central processing unit called the defensive aids computer (DAC) via different wired communication links. If the threat signal is detected, the DAC will process, select the appropriate countermeasure method and transmit the command signal to the CMDS to dispense either chaff or flare. Installing the CMDS onto the platform is a very expensive and sensitive work. It includes wiring many complex subsystems via complicated links. It would be even more difficult to repair or rewiring the system when any damage has occurred. It is very time-consuming, very costly and it is not flexible due to massive and challenging wiring connections. In order to solve this complexity, wireless system could be one of the possible solutions. The focus of this thesis is to analyse the possibility in replacing the wired communication in the CDMS with different wireless standards, focusing on Wi-Fi, Bluetooth and ultra-wide band (UWB) tec
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