Anteprima Estratta dall' Appunto di Informatica Università : Università degli studi di Palermo Facoltà : Informatica Indice di questo documento L' Appunto Le Domande d'esame e' un sito di knowledge sharing per facilitare lo scambio di materiali ed informazioni per lo studio e la formazione.Centinaia di migliaia di studenti usano ABCtribe quotidianamente per scambiare materiali, consigli e opportunità Più gli utenti ne diffondono l'utilizzo maggiore e' il vantaggio che ne si può tr

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    Anteprima Estratta dall' Appunto diInformatica   Università : Università degli studi di Palermo  Facoltà : Informatica  Indice di questo documento L' AppuntoLe Domande d'esame e' un sito di knowledge sharing per facilitare lo scambio di materiali ed informazioni per lo studio e laformazione.Centinaia di migliaia di studenti usano ABCtribe quotidianamente per scambiare materiali, consigli eopportunità Più gli utenti ne diffondono l'utilizzo maggiore e' il vantaggio che ne si può trarre : 1.Migliora i tuoi votied il tempo di studio gestendo tutti i materiali e le risorse condivise2.Costruisci un networkche ti aiuti nei tuoi studi e nella tua professione3.Ottimizza con il tuo librettoelettronico il percorso di studi facendo in anticipo le scelte migliori per ogni esame4.Possibilità di guadagnovendendo appunti, tesine, lezioni private, tesi, svolgendo lavori stagionali o part time. - [Pagina 1]   L' Appunto   A partire dalla pagina successiva potete trovare l' Anteprima Estratta dall' Appunto. Se desideri l'appunto completo clicca questo link.   Il numero di pagina tra le parentesi tonde si riferisce a tutto il documento contenente l'appunto.Sull'appunto stesso in alcuni casi potrete trovare una altra numerazione delle pagine che si riferisce al soloappunto. - [Pagina 2]    1  Fundamentals of Computer Design   And now for something completely different.   Monty Python’s Flying Circus - [Pagina 3]    2  I  Chapter One Fundamentals of Computer Design  Computer technology has made incredible progress in the roughly 60 years sincethe first general-purpose electronic computer was created. Today, less than $500will purchase a personal computer that has more performance, more main mem-ory, and more disk storage than a computer bought in 1985 for 1 million dollars.This rapid improvement has come both from advances in the technology used tobuild computers and from innovation in computer design.Although technological improvements have been fairly steady, progress aris-ing from better computer architectures has been much less consistent. During thefirst 25 years of electronic computers, both forces made a major contribution,delivering performance improvement of about 25% per year. The late 1970s sawthe emergence of the microprocessor. The ability of the microprocessor to ridethe improvements in integrated circuit technology led to a higher rate of improve-ment—roughly 35% growth per year in performance.This growth rate, combined with the cost advantages of a mass-producedmicroprocessor, led to an increasing fraction of the computer business beingbased on microprocessors. In addition, two significant changes in the computermarketplace made it easier than ever before to be commercially successful with anew architecture. First, the virtual elimination of assembly language program-ming reduced the need for object-code compatibility. Second, the creation of standardized, vendor-independent operating systems, such as UNIX and itsclone, Linux, lowered the cost and risk of bringing out a new architecture.These changes made it possible to develop successfully a new set of architec-tures with simpler instructions, called RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer)architectures, in the early 1980s. The RISC-based machines focused the attentionof designers on two critical performance techniques, the exploitation of  instruction-level parallelism  (initially through pipelining and later through multiple instructionissue) and the use of caches (initially in simple forms and later using more sophisti-cated organizations and optimizations).The RISC-based computers raised the performance bar, forcing prior archi-tectures to keep up or disappear. The Digital Equipment Vax could not, and so itwas replaced by a RISC architecture. Intel rose to the challenge, primarily bytranslating x86 (or IA-32) instructions into RISC-like instructions internally,allowing it to adopt many of the innovations first pioneered in the RISC designs.As transistor counts soared in the late 1990s, the hardware overhead of translat-ing the more complex x86 architecture became negligible.Figure 1.1 shows that the combination of architectural and organizationalenhancements led to 16 years of sustained growth in performance at an annualrate of over 50%—a rate that is unprecedented in the computer industry.The effect of this dramatic growth rate in the 20th century has been twofold.First, it has significantly enhanced the capability available to computer users. Formany applications, the highest-performance microprocessors of today outper-form the supercomputer of less than 10 years ago. 1.1 Introduction - [Pagina 4] 
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