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Volume 21, Number 2, 2014 I M O O S Steven Drakeley A A M H ṣ Ḥ R I Ahmed Ibrahim Abushouk V E T : F M W Peter G. Riddell E-ISSN: STUDIA ISLAMIKA STUDIA ISLAMIKA Indonesian Journal for Islamic

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Volume 21, Number 2, 2014 I M O O S Steven Drakeley A A M H ṣ Ḥ R I Ahmed Ibrahim Abushouk V E T : F M W Peter G. Riddell E-ISSN: STUDIA ISLAMIKA STUDIA ISLAMIKA Indonesian Journal for Islamic Studies Vol. 21, no. 2, 2014 EDITOR-IN-CHIEF Azyumardi Azra MANAGING EDITOR Ayang Utriza Yakin EDITORS Saiful Mujani Jamhari Jajat Burhanudin Oman Fathurahman Fuad Jabali Ali Munhanif Saiful Umam Ismatu Ropi Dadi Darmadi INTERNATIONAL EDITORIAL BOARD M. Quraish Shihab (Syarif Hidayatullah State Islamic University of Jakarta, INDONESIA) Tau k Abdullah (Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI), INDONESIA) Nur A. Fadhil Lubis (State Islamic Institute of Sumatera Utara, INDONESIA) M.C. Ricklefs (Australian National University, AUSTRALIA) Martin van Bruinessen (Utrecht University, NETHERLANDS) John R. Bowen (Washington University, USA) M. Kamal Hasan (International Islamic University, MALAYSIA) Virginia M. Hooker (Australian National University, AUSTRALIA) Edwin P. Wieringa (Universität zu Köln, GERMANY) Robert W. Hefner (Boston University, USA) Rémy Madinier (Centre national de la recherche scienti que (CNRS), FRANCE) R. Michael Feener (National University of Singapore, SINGAPORE) Michael F. Laffan (Princeton University, USA) ASSISTANT TO THE EDITORS Testriono Muhammad Nida' Fadlan ENGLISH LANGUAGE ADVISOR Jessica Soedirgo Simon Gladman ARABIC LANGUAGE ADVISOR Nursamad Tb. Ade Asnawi COVER DESIGNER S. Prinka STUDIA ISLAMIKA (ISSN ; E-ISSN: ) is an international journal published by the Center for the Study of Islam and Society (PPIM) Syarif Hidayatullah State Islamic University of Jakarta, INDONESIA. It specializes in Indonesian Islamic studies in particular, and Southeast Asian Islamic studies in general, and is intended to communicate original researches and current issues on the subject. is journal warmly welcomes contributions from scholars of related disciplines. All submitted papers are subject to double-blind review process. STUDIA ISLAMIKA has been accredited by e Ministry of Education and Culture, Republic of Indonesia as an academic journal (SK Dirjen Dikti No. 56/DIKTI/Kep/2012). STUDIA ISLAMIKA has become a CrossRef Member since year erefore, all articles published by STUDIA ISLAMIKA will have unique Digital Object Identi er (DOI) number. Copyright Reserved Editorial Office: STUDIA ISLAMIKA, Gedung Pusat Pengkajian Islam dan Masyarakat (PPIM) UIN Jakarta, Jl. Kertamukti No. 5, Pisangan Barat, Cirendeu, Ciputat 15419, Jakarta, Indonesia. Phone: (62-21) , , Fax: (62-21) ; Website: Annual subscription rates from outside Indonesia, institution: US$ 75,00 and the cost of a single copy is US$ 25,00; individual: US$ 50,00 and the cost of a single copy is US$ 20,00. Rates do not include international postage and handling. Please make all payment through bank transfer to: PPIM, Bank Mandiri KCP Tangerang Graha Karnos, Indonesia, account No (USD), Swift Code: bmriidja Harga berlangganan di Indonesia untuk satu tahun, lembaga: Rp ,-, harga satu edisi Rp ,-; individu: Rp ,-, harga satu edisi Rp ,-. Harga belum termasuk ongkos kirim. Pembayaran melalui PPIM, Bank Mandiri KCP Tangerang Graha Karnos, No. Rek: Table of Contents Articles 197 Steven Drakeley Indonesia s Muslim Organisations and the Overthrow of Sukarno 233 Ahmed Ibrahim Abushouk An Arabic Manuscript on the History of Iṣlāḥ and Irshād Revolution in Indonesia 259 Peter G. Riddell Variations on an Exegetical eme: Tafsīr Foundations in the Malay World 293 Murodi Al-Niẓām al-ri āsī ma a ta addudīyat al-aḥzāb: al-taḥāluf fī tārīkh al-ri āsat ba da niẓām al-ḥukm al-jadīd ( ) 321 Ayang Utriza Yakin Ḥuqūq al-insān wa al-dīmūqrātīyah wa dawr al-mujtama al-madanī bi Indūnīsīyā Book Review 375 Din Wahid Kembalinya Konservatisme Islam Indonesia Document 391 Muhammad Nida Fadlan & Dadi Darmadi Islam, Local Culture, and Japan-Indonesian Relations Ahmed Ibrahim Abushouk An Arabic Manuscript on the History of Iṣlāḥ and Irshād Revolution in Indonesia Abstract: is article deals with an Arabic manuscript written in 1960s by a Ḥaḍramī migrant settled in Indonesia and kept in circulation up to the present time. e purpose of this article is to give a textual analysis of the manuscript and assess its contribution to the history of the Ḥaḍramī migration to the Netherlands East Indies and the Ḥaḍramī awakening that took its shape in the rst half of the twentieth century. e manuscript s contents are systemically assessed and placed in their historical context while being compared with the available primary sources in the eld. is content analysis approach enables the author to examine the reliability, objectivity and comprehensiveness of the manuscript in terms of its input to the modern history of the Ḥaḍramī diaspora in Indonesia. Keywords: Iṣlāḥ and Irshād organization, Islamic modernism, Dutch colonialism, the Irshādīs, the Alawī Sayyids, Aḥmad al-sūrkittī, Umar Sulaymān Nājī, Indonesia, Singapore, the Ḥijāz. 233 234 Ahmed Ibrahim Abushouk Abstrak: Artikel ini membahas naskah Arab yang ditulis pada 1960-an oleh seorang pendatang Ḥaḍramī yang tinggal di Indonesia yang terus beredar hingga sekarang. Tujuan dari artikel ini adalah memberikan analisis teks naskah dan menilai sumbangsihnya bagi sejarah migrasi orang-orang Ḥaḍramī di Hindia-Belanda dan kebangkitan mereka yang terjadi pada paruh pertama abad ke-20. Isi naskah secara sistematis akan dinilai dan ditempatkan dalam konteks sejarahnya dan membandingkannya dengan sumber-sumber utama yang ada di dalam bidang ini. Pendekatan analisis isi memungkinkan penulis untuk menguji kebersinambungan, keandalan, dan keutuhan naskah, yaitu mengenai sumbangsih naskah tersebut dalam sejarah modern diaspora Ḥaḍramī di Indonesia. Kata kunci: Lembaga Iṣlāḥ dan Irshād, Modernisme Islam, Penjajahan Belanda, Irshādī, Sayyid- Alawī, Aḥmad al-sūrkittī, Umar Sulaymān Nājī, Indonesia, Singapura, Ḥijāz. - : An Arabic Manuscript on the History 235 Scholarship on the Ḥaḍramī migration from the South of the Arabian Peninsula to regions adjacent to the Indian Ocean, extending from the Red Sea to Southeast Asia, witnessed remarkable development in 1990s, inspired by the publication of the monumental work edited by Ulrike Freitag and William G. Clarence-Smith, Hadhrami Traders, Scholars and Statesmen in the Indian Ocean, 1750s-1960s. During the last fteen years, a series of scholarly publications was circulated in the Ḥaḍramī diaspora in the India Ocean littoral. 1 In these publications special attention has been paid to the socio-political and religious con ict, and intellectual discourse that emerged between the Alawī Sayyids 2 and the Irshādīs 3 in colonial and post-colonial Indonesia. A number of books, newspaper articles and pamphlets were circulated in Indonesia and Ḥaḍramawt, addressing the Alawī-Irshādī discord from two different perspectives. e Alawīs accuse the leader of the Irshādīs, al-surkittī, of dividing the Ḥaḍramī in the diaspora into two con icting parties, while their Irshādī opponents attribute the source of the con ict to the practices of the Alawī elite that are not in harmony with the fundamentals of Islam. e present 134 page-arabic manuscript was written by Umar Sulaymān Nājī, a prominent gure of the Irshād movement in the rst half of the 20th century, labelling it A History of the Iṣlāḥ and Irshād Revolution in Indonesia. In the subsequent sections, a short biography is written on the author (Nājī), his objectives of producing the manuscript and its description and contents. e manuscript is a primary source for scholars and students who are interested in studying the history of the Irshād Organization and the causes of the con ict that emerged between the Alawīs and Irshādīs and its repercussion on the Ḥaḍramī Diaspora in Indonesia. But this does not mean that its narration on the con ict issue is neutral but one argues that it represents the Irshādīs view which is in contrast with that of their Alawī opponents. Who is Umar Sulaymān Nājī? Umar Sulaymān Nājī was a prominent student of al-shayh Aḥmad al-sūrkittī. He received his education at the Irshād School in Jakarta and after his graduation, he was appointed as the founding headmaster of al-irshād school in Pekalongan in central Java in He was 236 Ahmed Ibrahim Abushouk active in politics and much involved in politics of his country of origin (Southern Yemen). erefore, he was elected as chair of the Liberation Committee of Southern Yemen. He contributed abundantly to the Irshād daily and weekly newspapers, and in 1921 chaired the editorial board of al-shifā monthly magazine ( ). In 1926, Nājī was selected as chair of the Irshād delegation that attended the rst Islamic conference organized by Abdul Aziz al-saud (d. 1953) in Mecca. His journalist background seems to have quali ed him to draft the manuscript under review in 1960s, praising the achievements of his Irshādī fellows and their Iṣlāḥ and Irshād Revolution in Indonesia (al- Zayn: 2003; al-hijī: 1993; Nājī: n.d.). e Idea of Nājī s Manuscript Nājī states the objective of his manuscript as to document the history of the Irshād revolution in a proper and authentic way that makes it accessible to young Irshādīs before being distorted by adverse publications of their Alawī opponents. is objective leads us to ask a question: why did Umar Sulaymān Nājī write his manuscript in the 1960s in particular, two decades after the death of his teacher Aḥmad al-sūrkittī whom the Alawī rivals consider as the primary source of the division of the Ḥaḍramī community in Indonesia? In the preface of his manuscript (or memoirs), Nājī answers this question, saying that in 1961 Shaykh Maḥmūd Shaltūt, 4 the Grand Imām of al-azhar ( ) visited Solo in Indonesia and met Abd al-qādir al-jafrī 5 and his fellows who showed interest in producing a comprehensive study on the Muslims and Islam in Indonesia. Nājī claims that the Imām commended their proposal and suggested to them to write on the social status of the Arab migrants in Indonesia and the challenges that face them in performing the message of Islam and its teachings. (Nājī, n.d.: 6) As Nājī argues, al-jafrī did not take the Imām s suggestion seriously but produced an elaborate study on the history of the Arab community in Indonesia, highlighting the Alawī Sayyids contributions to the spread of Islam in the Malay world and the causes that led to the division of the Ḥaḍramī diaspora into two disputing blocs: the Alawīs and Irshādīs. e study was published in two articles in al-azhar Magazine which was widely circulated in the Muslim world. e two articles dealt with various topics, including the history of Islam in the Far East, Muslim preachers and spread of Islam in Java, migration of An Arabic Manuscript on the History 237 the Alawī Sayyids to Java, Dutch colonialism and its impact on the Muslim society, spread of modern Islamic education, and causes of the Alawī-Irshādī con ict and socio-political and religious consequences (al-jafrī, 1961). It appears that the two articles published in al-azhar Magazine were praised by the Alawī Sayyids while criticised by their Irshādī opponents who challenged their objectivity in terms of their discussion of the spread of Islam in Indonesia, and the causes and development of the Alawī- Irshādī dispute. In this context, an Indonesian scholar, known as Shawkat al-baḥrī, of Jokro Amantu University, refuted al-jafrī s claim that Islam was spread in Indonesia by the Alawī Sayyids, giving the credit to the Muslims who came from Gujarat in North-West India. He also accused the Alawī Sayyids of disseminating mythical beliefs and polytheist traditions that diverted ordinary Indonesians from the right path of Islam (al-baḥrī: 1961). Umar Sulaymān Nājī also accused al-jafrī of misusing the Imām of al-azhar s message to highlight the contributions of his Alawī fellows towards the development of Muslim institutions and Islamic cause in Indonesia while ignoring the contributions of other Muslims (Nājī: 1961). ese critiques conveyed a negative message to the editorial board of al-azhar Magazine, emphasizing that al-jafrī s study did not serve the message of the Grand Imām of al-azhar Mosque, but rather widened the rift between the two disputing forces ( Alawīs and Irshādīs) of the Ḥaḍramī community in Indonesia. As a consequence, al-azhar Magazine wrote the following remarks: During the visit of the Grand Shaykh of al-azhar, Maḥmūd Shaltūt, to certain cities in Indonesia, he was received by the teacher Abd al-qadir al-jafrī in Solo, where the Grand Shaykh asked him about the status of Muslims in Indonesia in general and their religious and social affairs in particular. He then entrusted him to write a comprehensive study that would explain their providence in education, understanding of the message of Islam, and the resources that they need to achieve their objectives in terms of Islamic jurisprudence, acquaintance of knowledge and their struggle in life. Al-Jafrī drafted the study and sent it off to the department of culture at al-azhar Mosque, where the department published it in [al- Azhar] Magazine, depending on the wide knowledge of the author, his good intention and noble objective. Two parts of his long study were published in two consecutive issues. After the readers in Indonesia advised the Magazine that the author was in uenced by his Alawī affiliation rather than his Indonesian-ness, the Magazine stopped the publication of the remaining parts of al-jafrī s study (Nājī: n.d., 6-8). 6 238 Ahmed Ibrahim Abushouk is passage re ects the features of the socio-political atmosphere in which Umar Sulaymān Nājī produced his manuscript on the history of Iṣlāḥ and Irshād Revolution in Indonesia, dividing it into three Parts. Part I covers the period from 1914 to 1930, addressing the formation of the Iṣlāḥ and Irshād organization and its development; Part II covers the period from 1930 to 1950; and Part III focuses on the period from 1950 up to the present (1960s) (Ibid.). ere is no evidence that Nājī has produced parts II and III of his proposed study. e only available part is Part I which deals with the origins and development of the Iṣlāḥ and Irshād movement in Indonesia. e present article provides a descriptive analysis of the contents of the rst part of Nājī s manuscript, placing it in its historical context and wider framework of the primary sources that highlight the history of the Irshād movement and its relationship with the Alawī organizations. Description and Content of the Manuscript Nājī s manuscript is written in very clear Arabic-script. e autograph of the writer appears on page 134 but it is not easy to discern the full name of the writer. e approximate size of the writing area of the Xerox copy is 12.5 x 17.5 cm. e manuscript seems to have been completed after 1967 because there is a footnote at page 9, documenting the emergence of the People s Democratic Republic of Yemen on 30 November e cover page of the manuscript carries its title, Tārīkh awrat al- Iṣlāḥ wa-al-irshād bi-indūnīsiyā, followed by al-marḥala al-ūlā [the rst phase], and author s name. ere is no evidence that this manuscript was produced in a lithographic form or was widely circulated in Indonesia or Yemen. However, it was accessible to some researchers such as Bisri Affendi who classi ed it in his bibliography as a handwritten (Affendi: 1976, 176) and Natalie Mobini-Kesheh who listed it as a manuscript (MS) (Mobini-Kesheh: 1999, 256). e author of this article is indebted to Abd al-qādir al-tamīmī of Surabaya who furnished him with a Xerox copy of Nājī s manuscript in 1998, when he was editing the text of Tārīkh al-irshād. 7 e preface of the manuscript is extracted from an article written by Abd al- Azīz al-rushayid, editor-in-chief of al-kuwaitī-al-iraqī Magazine, published in the issue no. 8 of the Magazine in 1350/1931. is preface is described as a word of a neutral Arab on the pioneer An Arabic Manuscript on the History 239 of the Irshād awakening and founder of its schools in Indonesia, the teacher and Shaykh Aḥmad Muḥammad al-sūrkittī al-anṣārī l-sudānī. e original is in Arabic translated into English by the author. A photo of al-shaykh al-sūrkittī was inserted between the title of the preface and the text. e structure of the manuscript is based on sub-titles that deal with various issues, including the coming of Islam to the Netherland East Indies, the emergence of Islamic awakening (nahda), the Arab society in Indonesia, the migration of the Ḥaḍramīs to Indonesia, the arrival of Shaykh al-sūrkittī in Jakarta and his struggle for the establishment of an Islamic reformist movement, the causes and repercussions of the con ict that emerged between the Alawī Sayyids and Irshādīs, the proposals of the Arab unity and reconciliation and causes of their failure, and the branches of the Irshād organization and alumni of its schools. In the subsequent sections, I shall present these issues from Nājī s perspective and try to compare them with other primary sources written by the Irshādīs themselves. is approach leads us to assess the historical reliability of the manuscript and its contribution to the documentation of the Irshād history in Indonesia. e Iṣlāḥ and Irshād Movement in History Nājī s manuscript focuses especially on the history of the Iṣlāḥ and Irshād movement, highlighting its major achievements in Indonesia. It is different from Tārīkh al-irshād which pays special attention to the life and career of Shaykh Aḥmad al-sūrkittī and his con ict with the Alawī Sayyids. Conceptual Remarks e title of Umar Sulaymān Nājī s manuscript, as mentioned earlier, is Tārīkh awrat al-iṣlāḥ wa-al-irshād bi-indūnīsiyā, emphasising that the Iṣlāḥ and Irshād movement had succeeded in overthrowing the old socio-political and religious system of the Ḥaḍramī society in Indonesia in favour of a new one that established its strength on the values and fundamentals of Islam. He argues that his memoirs is about a sudden development of a nation which was drowned in illiteracy, ignorance, myths, tribal fanaticism and false inherited habits (...). It is about bitter and longstanding struggle against corrupt beliefs, and exploitation of religious and racial privilege. (Nājī: n.d., 4). us, he describes the 240 Ahmed Ibrahim Abushouk Iṣlāḥ and Irshād movement as a reformist one that rose against religious and racial practices that contrasted with the principles of Islam. is Nājī s statement should not be taken at its face value since the Irshādī rivals had totally rejected the message of the movement and stood rmly against its reformist project. e Irshād movement did not enjoy the full support of the Ḥaḍramī community in Indonesia, but rather succeeded in creating awareness among the non-sayyid Ḥaḍramīs who began to criticize some socio-religious practices of the Alawī Sayyids such as kissing hands for blessing or visiting holymen s graves for mediation and intercession. It seems that this partial support of the Irshād movement has urged Natalie Mobini-Kesheh not to use the term revolution in her book, when dealing with the Irshād organization. She prefers to use the phrase the Ḥaḍramī awakening, describing that awakening (or nahḍa) as the adaption of modern, western-style methods of organization and education which aimed, above all, at the attainment of a loosely progress (Mobini-Kesheh: 1999, 7). In this respect, one may argue that the term revolution used by Umar Sulaymān Nājī does not suit the nature of the Iṣlāḥ and Irshād movement because the movement d
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