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  ШБЕСШЯ  ешшхшшхщрш Журнал издается в 1358  т  Выходит  а раэ в год УЧРЕДИТЕЛЬ Министерство образования РФ СОУЧРЕДИТЕЛЬ Московский государственный институт стали  w  сплавов (технологический университет) СОУЧРЕДИТЕЛЬИЗДАТЕЛЬ ЗАО «Калвис» Главный редактор Е А ЛЕВАШОВ Заместитель  главного  редактора НИ  РАКОВА Редакционная коллегия 3 В Адамов, М И Алкацев, А  ГЬ  Амосов,  ВЛ  Арутюнов, И.П Боровикекая,  В  П Быстро©, В Ю. Васильев, F  Ы  Вольдман^ А М. Галкин, Д В Дробот, В С Зопоторейский, В А, Кечик, Б А Колачев,8.А Лебедев, Г.А Лйбенсон т В.В Мальцев, В В Миклушевский, Г Г, Минеев, АД Михнев, С С Набойченко, И  В*  Николаев, М В Пикунов, Л В Поляков, С  П  Распопин, 3 Г Сапихов, ВIV Сизяков, Ж А Сйразутдинова, В С Стрижке» Н Н Хавский, А  М  Чекмарев, М Р Шапировский, Д В. Швхирев, Д В Штанский Ответственный секретарь А А. Кудинова Редакторов Стенина Компьютерный дизайн и верстка ЕА Легкая АДРЕС РЕДАКЦИИ 119049, Москва, В-49 т  Ленинский пр , 4 Московский государственный институт стали  и  сплавов (технологический университет^ Ten  i  факс {095) 230-45-35 E-maii  cUs@oniine го Адрес в Интернет http //wwwnmtmtsis *u <& «Известия высших учебных заведении Цветная металлургия»,  2MS г ЛР № ШЭ7770Г iat)5 SB Сдано в набор-17112003 Подписано в печать 1  £ 12 2003 Формат  6Q*BB  1/B Офсетная печать Пач листов it on Уч  та  л 1t№ Отпечатано  G ГОТОВЫХ  дяапозитивов в ЗАО * Твхинпрасс» 1W25S. Москва угьДм Ульянова 44 СОДЕРЖАНИЕ МЕТАЛЛУРГИЯ ЦВЕТНЫХ МЕТАЛЛОВ Абрамов А.С., Храпунов В.Е., Исакова Р.А., Жунусова Г.Ж., Требу-хов С.А., Садвакасов Д.А. Испарение ртути через пористые слои нейтрального вещества при пониженном давлении Наторхин М.И., Волков Л.В. Цементационная очистка растворов хлорида свинца от серебра и меди структурированными свинцовыми губками 13 Синько A.BJ, Белоусова СВ. Исследование механизма процесса цементации меди реагентным никелевым порошком 16 Гуревич Р.А., Балмаев Б.Г., Лайнер Ю.А., Ямпуров МЛ. Исследование плотности и вязкости растворов сульфата алюминия МЕТАЛЛУРГИЯ РЕДКИХ  Ш  БЛАГОРОДНЫХ МЕТАЛЛОВ 20 Медведев А.С., Богатырева Е.В. Разложение вольфрамитовых концентратов NaOH в присутствии части отвального кека 25 Ушаков О.С., Калашников А.Л., Матюха В.А., Смагин А.А., Ушакова Т.В., Козлова Р.Д, Исследование продуктов гидролиза гексафторида течтура 29 Хатин Г.Д., Букин В.И., Ситдикова Ю.С. Экстракция галлия из щелочных растворов М-(2-гидрокси-5-нонилбензил)-р\|3-дигидрокси-этил амином ЛИТЕЙНОЕ ПРОИЗВОДСТВО 36 Знаменский Л.Г. Активация наносекундными электромагнитными импульсами жидкостекольного связующего для точного литья ОБРАБОТКА МЕТАЛЛОВ ДАВЛЕНИЕМ 38 Соломонов К.Н., Кругов А.В. Моделирование пластического течения материала МЕТАЛЛОВЕДЕНИЕ И ТЕРМИЧЕСКАЯ ОБРАБОТКА 45 Агалаков В.В., Пушкарев С.Ю., Нигматуллина Е.С. Применение магниевых сплавов в автомобилестроении 48 Дедов Н.В., Савченко НЛ., Королев П.В., Мельников А.Г., Кульков С.Н. Износостойкость керамических материалов на основе Zr0 2 54 Белова С.Б , Носов В.К. Влияние водорода на пластичность и сопротивление деформации сплава  ВТЗО  при испытаниях на сжатие ПОРОШКОВЫЕ МАТЕРИАЛЫ И ПОКРЫТИЯ 59 Оглезнева  С.А.  Алмазный инструмент с матрицей системы «железо-никель» 63 Малый Е.Н., Дедов Н.В., Соловьев А.И., Кульков С.Н., Савченко Н.Л., Саблина Т.Ю., Мельников А.Г., Королев П.В. Спекание керамики Y-TZP из плазмохимических порошков СТРУКТУРНАЯ МАКРОКИНЕТИКА. СВС 69 Камынина O.K., Рогачев А.С., Сычев А.Е., Умаров Л.М. Механизм и динамика формирования пористого продукта в волне самораспространяющегося высокотемпературного синтеза ВТОМ ТИЗ ЦИЯ ТЕХНОЛОГИЧЕСКИХ ПРОЦЕССОВ 75 Лисиенко В.Г., Ташкинов А.Ю., Насыйров Я.А., Климов М.И., Альтман П.С., Гончаров А.Е. Исследование ионизации и ее влияния на падение напряжения и частоту капельных замыканий при вакуумном ДУГОВОМ  переплаве жаропрочных сплавов стали 78 Хилай В.В., Карелов С.В., Мамяченков СВ., Кирпнков А.С Способ расчета материальных балансов сложных технологических схеме учетом оборотных материалов ЭКОНОМИКА И МЕНЕДЖМЕНТ 81 Кельчевская Н.Р., Срогович М.И. Новые пути взаииагайегвйяфысшей школы и металлургической промышленности в XXi веке  ИЗВЕСТИЯ  ВУЗОВ  ЦВЕТНАЯ МЕТАЛЛУРГИЯ №  б  2003 CONTENTS EXTRACTIVE METALLURGY OF NONFERROUS METALS Abramov A.S., Khrapunov V.E., Isakova R.A., Zhunuso-va G.Zh., Trebukhov S.A., Sadvakasov D.A.  Evaporation of mercury through porous layers of neutral substance at reduced pressure 4 Diffusion of mercury vapors was studied experimentally at 200 °C and 13 3 kPa through the air silicon oxide layers of size from (-0 063+0 05) to (-0 2+0 16) mm aluminum and iron oxides of (-0 063+0 05) mm in size and 0 442-0 807 in porosity Diffusion coefficient through the air was 25 9 W 5  m*/s The effective diffusion coefficient through the oxide layers was (514+ ã11 2) 10 5  nrVs being increased with growth of porosity and mean size of pores which was calculated on the basis of mean sizes of particles and porosity The mechanisms of Knudsen gas flow are observed with mean pore size up to 0  1  mm and they are also observed with greater pore sizes when the layer consists of fine dispersed particles Natorkhin M.I., Volkov L.V.  Cementation clearing of lead chloride solutions of salver and copper by means of structured sponges 9 A possibility of sedimentation of silver and copper from the solution of chlo nde leaching by cementation of lead was investigated The conditions to form structured lead sponges that have extremely developed surface to ensure effective extraction of silver and copper aie shown The methods of determination of  visible  sponge area have been offered Sin'ko A.VJ, Belousova S.V. Investigation of the mechanism of copper cementation by reagent nickel powder  13 The cementation process was investigated to reveal the mechanism of electrochemical replacement of copper by reacting nickel powder Microscopic and microprobe  X-ray  analysis of the cementation products extracted from the industrial apparatuses found the cementation process to proceed rot all the surface of Ni powder but only on its active centers the potential of which is higher then the nickel ionization potential (18 15 eV) as to finely ground powders copper sedimentation takes place mainly on one crystallization center and only in single instances this does on two or three centers there are no diffusion processes except for diffusion of copper cations out of the depth of the electrolyte to the cathode area and through double electncal layer copper is extracted as an independent phase in the form of self-growing dendrites Gurevich R.A., Balmaev B.G., Lamer Yu.A., Yampu- rov  M.L.  A study of density and viscosity of aluminum sulfate solutions 16 The work has investigated a dependence of density and viscosity of the so/u tions produced by leaching of alumina-containing burnt rock by sulfunc acid within concentrations of 56 6-146 88 g/l Al 2 0 3  and in the temperature range of 25-95 °C Equations were drawn to describe  the  temperature and concentration dependence of density It was found that changes in the structure of aluminum sulfate solutions when rising to higher concentrations in the range of 95 g1 А1^0з Activation energy of viscous flow has been calculated their values are evidence of the structural changes in the solutions METALLURGY OF LESS-COMMON AND PRECIOUS METALS Medvedev  A.S.,  Bogatyryova E.V.  Decomposition of  wolf ramite concentrates by NaOH solution over a part of waste cake 20 The additive effect of nuclei of crystallization centers in the solid reaction produc's of interacting wolframite concentrates with alkaline solutions for extraction of wolfram into the solution was expenmentally venfied Based on t(*e results obtained a process flowsheet of decomposftforr  of  wolframite concentrates by alkaline solutions including low-grade ones has been proposed Ushakov O.S., Kalashnikov A.L., Matyukha V.A., Sma-gin A.A., Ushakova T.V., Kozlova R.D.  Investigation of tellurium hexafluonde hydrolysis products 25 Behavior and chemical forms of the products of TeF e  to water interaction were investigated dunng their thermal decomposition within the temperature range of 293-1173 К Composition  and i  properties of starting intermediate and final products were studied by chem cal analysis IR spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis during their thermal decomposition Fluoro'el'unc acids were found to be formed dunng concentration by evaporation of the solution with hydrolysis products For example at T = 463 К residuum is glassy crystals that contain pentafluorotel unc ac d HOTeF; When heating in the  air to 873  К  its evaporation and partial dissociation with formation  of TeOa oxide take place Nitnc acid processing of the solution with hydrolysis products followed by their concentration by evaporation results in formation of ТеОз at 593 К and that of ТеО г  at 713 K High pure tel'unum is formed dunng the following reduction of ТеОг by hydrogen Khatm G.D., Bukin V.I., Sitdikova Yu.S.  Gallium extraction from alkaline solutions by N-(2-hydroxy-5-nonyIbenzyl)-P p-dihydroxyethylamine 29 Extraction of gallium and aluminum from NaOH solution by N (2 hydroxy 5 nonylbenzyl)  J  p-dihydroxyethylamine (NBEA) has been studied Based on the data on interphase distnbution of gallium IR spectroscopy and calculation of possible structures of extracted comprex the composition and structure of extracted gallium complex (RGa(OH)i) were determined by the methods of molecular mechanics An equation of extraction of gallium and aluminum by NBEA from alka'ine solutions was proposed Effectiveness of NBEA was shown for extraction of gallium in a wide range of alkaline concentrations (£ = a -94—99 % at  С-  аон  - 0 U5 0 mole/I) Extraction of gallium from alumi num containing solutions has been studied A possibility of making use of NBEA for extraction of gallium from recyc'e solutions of alumina producton process was shown For example gallium can be extracted from model Bayer solutions (C GJ  - 0 3 g'l  С» -  30 g/l Смаон - 3 mole/l) to the amount of 20-58 o with its complete separation from aluminum at the re-extraction stage CASTING PRODUCTION Znamensky  L.G.  Activation of soluble silicate glue for investment casting b\ nanosecond electromagnetic impulses 36 Application of nanosecond electromagnetic impulses (NEMI) was considered for activation of sodium silicate glue in the precision molding A drop in viscosity and specific e'ectnc resistance and a nse in wetting and adhesive ability of sodium si'icate b nder in the field of NEMI were found Based on the results obtained the effecti/e process o' preparation of sod urn Silicate binder has been developed to ensure increasing quality of manufacture of ceramic forms and decreasing the bronze and brass art investment casting reiects METAL FORMING Solomonov K.N., Krutov A.V.  Modeling of material plastic \ielding 38 The artc'e reve s the last de/e'cpments n the field of mathematical com pu'er geometnc physical model ng of metal plastic yielding in particular in the aluminum workpiece die forming and pressing processes The models taken and their computer realization are descnbed as different program com p exes  A great attention is paid to consideration of program packages being based on the fin te-element method Geometnc mode'ing allowing observing the task solution on the display is given as one of the  promising  trends A companson of different approaches is given and their advantages and disad v3ntnges are need PHYSICAL METALLURGY AND HEAT TREATMENT Agalakov V.V., Pushkaryov S.Yu., Nigmatuilina  E.S. Application  of тацпеыит  jJloyvin the  motor-car  industry 45 ->  CONTENTS The most intensive growth of consumption of cast rmgnesium alloys can be observed in the automobile industry (at present the  b anch  uses about 9Q % of the alloys produced) This is caused by the fact that abroad the problems of reducing car weight become more and more urgent Application of light construction materials especially magnesium having the least density (1 74 g/cm 3 ) is one of the mam solutions of the problem By now magnesium parts are applied almost  m  all parts of a car engine transmission body passenger compartment In the course of car operation the magnesium parts work in different conditions therefore different demands are made to mechanical properties to each of them These demands are deciding in the choice of the magnesium alloy grade At present four alloy grades are used for pressure die casting in production quantities but none of the alloy compositions conform in full the requirements in creep resistance at the elevated temperatures Dedov N.V., Savchenko N.L ,  Korolyov P.V., Melmkov A.G., Kul'kov S.N.  Wear resistance ot ceramic materials on the basis of  7хО г  48 Using light and scanning electron microscopy the structures fomned on the Zr0 2  + 3 % mol Yj0 3  fnction surface when its sliding on cast high-speed steel have been studied The tests were earned out according to the «disc-pin» scheme The slip velocity was 9 4 m/s and loading was 1, 5 and 10 MPa Friction of ceramics over steel under the cited conditions is accompanied by formation of a system of cracks over the surface Their quasipenodic position being perpendicular to the sliding direction is the charactenstic of the structures Average distance (quasipenod) between transverse cracks is several tens of micrometers Under all conditions of fnction a transfer layer is formed which is as a result of transfer on it of material of steel rider and its following oxidation at the cost of high temperatures developing in the contact zone Intensity of wear and tear of ceramic material was found to corre'ate with distance between transverse cracks and amount of transfer layer on its surface Small quantity of transfer layer on the friction surface and formation of the structure with great average distance between cracks and their wide distnbution in sizes conform to increased intensity of wear and tear at the average loads (5 MPa) Belova S.B., Nosov V.K. The effect of hydrogen on ductilitv and strain resistance of VT30 allov in tests for compression 54 Based on the results of compression tests within the temperature range of Г = 20+1050  С  the features of the effect of hydrogen on ducti.'y and resis tance to deformation of VT30 alloy have been stud ed In the lower temperature range (20-600 C) ductility and resistance to de'ematon are deter mined by growth of a volume portion of  5  phase and increasing its thermal stability with increasing the hydrogen content Hardening of the alloy by dissolved hydrogen was noted at the 3-range temperatures At  T i  600 °C polygonization and recrystallization are controlling rrechansms of dynamic softening processes POWDER MATERIALS AND COATINGS Oglezneva S.A. Diamond instrument with the matrix of the «iron-nickel» system 59 Binder for diamond ins'rument on the basis of mechanically alloyed steel containing 1 % P and 12 % Ni has been developed Liquid phase sintering of the power-saturated binder at Г = 850 °C allows hot p'essing or pressure sintenng to be e 1  т rated Using metallography X-ray and m crcprobe  X  ray analysis formation of metastable austenite was found in the binder structure Strain austenite-martensite transformation facilitating solid phase strengthening is observed in the course of friction of diamond instrument w  th  n eke alloyed iron based concentration heterogeneous matrix over the abrasive Specific consumption of diamond determined in the laboratory and working conditions is dependent of the volume of austenite-martensite transformation the greater it is the lesser the specific consumption of diamonds is Maly E.N., Dedov N.V., Solovyov A.I., Kul'kov S.N., Savchenko N.L., Sablina T.Yu., Mel'nikov A.G., Korolyov P.V.  Sintering ot Y-TZP ceramics using plasma-chemical powders 63 The articles represents the results of studying microstructure phase composition and mechanical properties of ceramics on the basis of Y TZP produced by vacuum sintenng in a wide range of temperatures and holding time periods of powders of 2гОг + 3 mol % Y 0 3  produced by decomposition of water solution of Zr Y nitrates in the plasma of HF discharge The data produced and the properties of ceramics sintered in the air are com pared It was found that sintering in vacuum allows denser and stronger ceramics to be produced it having density close to theoretical one at the sintenng temperature of 1750 °C There are no traces of spontaneous transformation from tetragonal phase into monoclinic one when cooling from the sintering temperature despite the fact that its average grain size runs up to 4 6 urn Such matenal has high strength (up to 1000 MPa) and fracture toughness (up to 15 MPa m 3 ) STRUCTURAL MACROKINETICS. SHS Kamynma O.K., Rogachyov A.S., Sychyov A.E., Uma-rov L.M.  Mechanism and dynamics of formation of porous product in wave of self-propagatmg high-temperature synthesis 69 Application of rapid video shooting (500 frames/s) allowed one to follow the dynamics of substance transfer in the combustion wave with spatial resolution of - 10 (im with the 5 Ti + 3 Si and Ti + С on the basis of titanium powder of РТОМ PTM and PTS with particles of 80-200 urn in size taken as an example The expenments were earned out in argon environment under a pressure of 1 at It was shown that firstly expansion of the environment then its compression takes place directly behind the front of combustion wave Dimensions of these zones were determined and dependence of the width of strain range on titanium particle sizes was found Making use of a dilatometer plant allowed us to estimate the forces ansmg in the front of combustion wave and resulting in elongating the specimens PROCESS CONTROL AND AUTOMATION Lisienko V.G., Tashkmov A.Yu., Nasyirov Ya.A., Kh-mov M.I., Al'tman P.S., Goncharov A.E.  A study of ionization for voltage drop and frequency of drop closings in the course of vacuum arc re-melting ot heat-resistant steels 75 An expenment on vacuum arc remelting of alloyed steel electrode of 380 mm in diameter into an ingot of 465 mm in diameter was earned out at Verkhnaya Salda Metallurgical Production Association A statistical model of arc voltage drop change has been developed depending on duration of ionization relaxation process The model proposed can be used for optimal control of the vacuum arc remelting Khilay V.V., Karelov S.V., Mamyachenkov S.V., Kirpi-kov A.S.  The convenient mode of calculation of  the  composite mass balances of ramified flow diagrams is presented in view of reverse materials 78 Mode of calculation of the mass balances of composite flow diagrams in view of reverse matenals The possibility of fast count of balance is taken into account at a modification of makeup of a feed stock indexes of extraction on elements parameters of operations The advantages in companson with usually used computer programs are shown ECONOMICS AND MANAGEMENT Kel'chevskaya N.R., Srogovich M.I.  New v.avs of interaction between the Higher School and metallurgical industry mXXKenturv 81 Under the modem conditions of severe competition it is insufficient for any organization to use standard managenal set of instruments in order to hold leadership - so named innovative approach and a new concept of management process «mtellectualization of management» should be taken for add ing to their arsenal Its substance is in making use of intellectual instruments of management for comprehensive development of its intellectual potential In addition it is necessary to pay a special attention to the human component of the intellectual capital The developed procedure on interaction of the metallurgical industry and the Higher School in specialist training facilitates this taking the trends of development of the branch into account Its aim is to bnng Ihe requirements of enterpnses to conformity  with  the human resources and quality of their training in the insttutes of higher educaton Metallurgical enterprises of Sverdlovsk  Distnct and Russia were  a subject of this investigation 3  ИЗВЕСТИЯ  ВУЗОВ  ЦВЕТНАЯ МЕТАЛЛУРГИЯ №  б  2003 УДК 661 791-982 ИСПАРЕНИЕ РТУТИ ЧЕРЕЗ ПОРИСТЫЕ СЛОИ НЕЙТРАЛЬНОГО ВЕЩЕСТВА ПРИ ПОНИЖЕННОМ ДАВЛЕНИИ ©2003  г.  А.С. Абрамов, В.Е. Храпунов 1 , Р.А. Исакова, Г.Ж. Жунусова, С.А. Требухов, ДА. Садвакасов Институт металлургии и обогащения 1 , г. Алматы, Респ. Казахстан Экспериментальна иеследова-нз диффузия паров ртути при Т=  2Q0  °С й  Р  *  13*3  кПа  че* рез воздух, спои сжсидрв кремния крупностью от -0,063 + +ã  0Д)5  ДО-0,2+0,16  мм,  Оксидов алюминия и железа .крупностью -0,063+0,05 мм, гористостью  0,442-0,807  Коэффициент диффузии через воздух составил 25,810 * М%, эффективный коэффициент диффузии через слои исследованных оксидов равнялся (5,4+11,2) 1СГ 5  M 2 fc, увеличиваясь с ростом пористости и среднего размера пор, вычисленного исходя из средних размеров частиц и пористости При среднем раз-< мере пор до 0,1 мм иаблго-даются закономерности кнуд-сеновскога течения газов +  ко* торые заметны и при большем размере пор, если слой состоит из тонкодисперсных частиц В литературе имеются весьма скудные сведения о влиянии пористости, состава и строения дисперсной среды на кинетические закономерности процессов разложения, испарения веществ в вакууме и практически отсутствуют данные о поведении ртути и ее соединений при нагревании в присутствии пористых  тел в  вакууме. В данной статье приведены результаты экспериментального исследования процесса испарения ртути через слои кварца, оксидов железа и алюминия при пониженном давлении. Определение скорости испарения металлической ртути через слой пористого материала проводилось методом непрерывного взвешивания с помощью пружинных весов навески ртути в тигле со слоем фильтра из исследуемого материала в процессе нагрева. Важно было выяснить влияние высоты слоя, пористости, природы материала на скорость процесса. По измеренным величинам скорости вычислялся эффективный коэффициент диффузии паров ртути через слой материала. Коэффициент диффузии через слой пористого материала рассчитывали следующим образом. Из уравнения массообмена между поверхностью ртути и газовым пространством в реторте, через слой толщиной  И,  можно записать выражение для удельного потока паров (скорости испарения) с поверхности фильтрующего слоя. Полагая, что среднее содержание ртути в парогазовой смеси определяется температурой поверхности конденсации и близко к концентрации ртути при температуре насыщения, равной температуре на поверхности конденсации, и пренебрегая этой величиной из-за ее малости, а также принимая, что концентрация паров ртути у ее поверхности зависит от давления насыщенных паров ртути при ее температуре, уравнение скорости диффузионного потока записывается следующим образом: V =ã АС R  +  hID Преобразуя его, получим ДС/К=Д + й/Д (1) (2) где  АС  —  разность концентраций между поверхностью ртути и парогазовым слоем  над  тиглем;  R  —  суммарное сопротивление массообмена между 1  480100, Респ Казахстан, г Алматы, ул Шевченко, 29/33 Тел (3272)91-56-95 Факс (3272)91-46-60
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