Hovedbanegården. KBM 3832, Vestervold Kvarter, Sankt Matthæus Sogn Sokkelund Herred, Københavns Amt KØBENHAVNS MUSEUM / MUSEUM OF COPENHAGEN - PDF

KØBENHAVNS MUSEUM / MUSEUM OF COPENHAGEN Hovedbanegården KBM 3832, Vestervold Kvarter, Sankt Matthæus Sogn Sokkelund Herred, Københavns Amt Kulturstyrelsen j.nr.: /KBM-0015 Claes Hadevik &

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KØBENHAVNS MUSEUM / MUSEUM OF COPENHAGEN Hovedbanegården KBM 3832, Vestervold Kvarter, Sankt Matthæus Sogn Sokkelund Herred, Københavns Amt Kulturstyrelsen j.nr.: /KBM-0015 Claes Hadevik & Niels H. Andreasen Museum of Copenhagen Vesterbrogade København V Telefon: Fax: Cover picture: Part of map from 1890 with the locality marked (red dot). The City Archives Survey and Drawing Collection. Cadastral units 95, 648, 507 Udenbys Vester kvarter, drawn on Berggrens kort Museum of Copenhagen Contents 1 Abstract / Resumé Introduction Proposed Development Legislative Framework Administrative data Topography and historical background Archaeological background Archaeological potential and aims Methodology and measurement system Excavation and Documentation Finds registration Results Archaeological results Summary References Literature Appendices... i Finds Report... ii List of contexts... xi List of finds... xi List of images... xiii The stratigraphy at the corner of Reventlowsgade/Stampesgade... xiv 3 1 Abstract / Resumé On the occasion of the Metro Company building a Metrocityringen subway station next to Copenhagen Central Station (Hovedbanegården), Museum of Copenhagen has from May to July 2012 and June to September 2013 conducted a watching brief as archaeological pre-investigation. At the corner of Reventlowsgade and Stampesgade, a possible cobblestone surface was exposed in a section one meter below street level. Below the cobblestones was found a street surface with regular sett paving that probably dates around 1845 when the first train station was constructed. Thick levelling layers from mainly the 19 th century and a brick-built street sewer were the only archaeological features documented in Stampesgade. A total of 1142 objects from the levelling layers consist of various types of ceramics, glass and a few bone, leather, metal and flint objects. Except for a prehistoric retouched flint flake, the finds date from the 18 th to the early 20 th century. Archaeological periods: Late post-medieval, Modern time Features: paved areas, levelling layers, brick sewer Key words: Copenhagen suburbs, pipe clay domino tile 4 Figure 1. Hovedbanegården. Location of the investigated site (red star). 5 2 Introduction 2.1 Proposed Development On the occasion of establishing a Metroringen subway station next to Copenhagen Central Station (Hovedbanegården), the Museum of Copenhagen conducted a watching brief from May until July 2012 and from June until September 2013 as an archaeological pre-investigation at Stampesgade and Reventlowsgade (Fig. 2). The station is part of the Cityring Project, which will provide a new transportation system to the surrounding outskirts of the city. Museum archaeologists were Claes Hadevik and Niels H. Andreasen (field leaders), Mikkel B. Siebken (archaeologist) and Marc Hauge (university archaeology student). Developer of the project was the Metro Company and construction work was conducted by C.G. Jensen A/S. 2.2 Legislative Framework The watching brief will follow guidelines required by Kulturstyrelsen (Danish Agency for Culture; in KUAS Vejledning 2010) and Danish Museum law (Bekendtgørelse af museumsloven nr. 1505). Standards for investigations carried out by Copenhagen Museum are stated within a document covering the overall archaeological design aspects of the Cityring project which was approved by KUAS in the autumn of 2009 and in June 2010 (Project Design 2009). According to Danish legislation, no research financed by the developer, in this case the Metro Company, will be carried out. The end product of the excavation is working statements and site reports, which contains empirical conclusions and basic cultural historical interpretations. For the smaller of the Metro Cityring excavations (named Categories 2 and 3 in the preparations work for the project) there will also be produced a joint report which will highlight the most interesting cultural historical results from the excavations (called Bygherrerapport ). Further archaeological research and analysis can only be carried out under separate funding. This complies with statements in the Danish Museums law (Bekendtgørelse af museumsloven nr. 1505). Construction work that involves excavation can be temporarily stopped in accordance with Museum Act 26 (protection of ancient monuments). Museum of Copenhagen was contacted well in advance, so that a test excavation could take place before the construction work was initiated. The Metro Company agreed on the further details with Kulturstyrelsen and the Museum of Copenhagen. 2.3 Administrative data On completion of the fieldwork, Museum of Copenhagen produced a concise interpretative report on the archaeological results of the excavation (this report), which includes an outline of the historical and archaeological contexts and a summary of the results. A copy of this report was distributed to the Metro Company and to Kulturstyrelsen.. The documentary archive relating to the fieldwork is deposited with the Museum of Copenhagen. All digital records are filed in the IntraSIS database program. 6 This report, along with its figures, was produced by Claes Hadevik and Niels H. Andreasen. Anthony Ruter has contributed most of the text in Section 3 on the topography and historical background of the site. All relevant documentation is archived, and the finds material is curated by Museum of Copenhagen. A digital copy of the report has been distribued to Kulturstyrelsen and to the developer, the Metro Company. Kulturstyrelsen case ID KBM ID and internal case ID KBM 3832, case ID 1965 County District City Area Parish Duration of field work phase Museum archaeologists Copenhagen Sokkelund Copenhagen Vestervold Sankt Matthæus Area (m 2 ) and % of estimation m 2 (100 %) Volume (m 3 ) and % of estimation m 3 (100 %) Coordinate system DKTM 3 Height system DVR 90 X-coordinates Y-coordinates Meters above sea level 3,0 3,2 Construction work by Developer Claes Hadevik (field leader on guidewall phase), Niels H. Andreasen (field leader on station box phase), Mikkel Siebken (archaeologist) and Marc Hauge (university archaeology student) C.G. Jensen A/S Metroselskabet Table 1. Hovedbanegården. Technical and administrative data. 7 Figure 2. Hovedbanegården. Location of the investigated site at Stampesgade and Reventlowsgade and earlier archaeological observations in the area (see Table 2). 8 3 Topography and historical background The upper parts of the natural geology consist of ice age clayey moraine starting at a level of 2.5 m below the street surface. In prehistoric times, and even in the middle ages, the Øresund sea level has been under considerable fluctuation, sometimes leaving these areas under water. This indicates that they have not been very suitable for habitation and agriculture, but more for pasture. 1 The street surface at Stampesgade today lies at 3.2 masl and the street is raised two meters or more above the above the natural surface by graded fill deposited in the 19 th century. The natural coastline (prior to the recent infilling) in the Vesterbrogade quarter lay along the present Tietgensgade, it continued to the southwest just south of the Halmtorv curving away to the south along the line of the modern Sønder Boulevard. 2 Inspection of historic maps shows that during the 17 th century, the Stampesgade locality lay outside the major moat and rampart complex initiated by Christian IV and completed by his successor King Frederick III. However, the locality was situated within the Western Retrenchement constructed in the 1620s. The outwork in this area was a low rampart and a shallow moat built from the canalized segment of Rosenåen ( The Rose River ). This stream drained from the Sankt Jørgens Sø via a small cannel where Stenosgade and Viktoriagade lie today. There were few if any large buildings before the blocks between Colbjørnsensgade and Reventlowsgade were constructed at the end of the 19 th century after the fortifications were decommissioned. Prior to this there had been an injunction against construction outside the main fortification ring, because any buildings could be looted and used for cover by armies advancing against the main ramparts and any civilians trapped in those buildings could be killed by defensive fire from the bastions. 3 However, this injunction was not strictly enforced and there was a tendency for people to settle just outside the walls near the main city gates particularly when the fortifications were neglected and invasions were not anticipated. This allowed the growth of impromptu suburbs. This process was facilitated by the city s practice of leasing allotments to citizens and collection rent from families squatting on public land. These people were periodically displaced when the fortifications were expanded and/or remodelled or when new outworks were added. The full urbanization of the area outside the fortification ring commenced only after the complex was decommissioned in the mid-19 th century. After this period, the area developed quickly. The Vesterbro suburb has a long history and allotments outside the city walls were granted to citizens as early as the middle ages. While actual houses would have been few, small and scattered at that time, fenced gardens, hayfields, and cow sheds would have been common. Large areas were used as common pastures to graze livestock owned by the city s inhabitants. 4 Windmills would have been the largest structures in the 1 Cf. Skaarup 1999, 73ff. 2 Ramsing Jørgensen Nørregaard area. The official census of 1496 lists 17 garden allotments outside the city s south western gate the Vesterport for which the owners paid between 4 and 8 shillings a year. Over time the number of holdings increased and the windmills multiplied to supply the growing city s demand for flour and groats. Other industries increasing utilized the area outside the city walls. These initially included those cottage industries like rope-making, cloth dyeing and laundries that required more space than the cramped city could provide, and those that produced effluvia like tanneries. By the early 18 th century reberbanerne the long sheds used for rope-making, stretched all the way from the Vesterbrogade (Then called the Landevej til Valby) to the present Sønder Boulevard (which was then the coast), along what are now the blocks between Absalonsgade and Saxogade. Taxes on these mills and small factories were a significant source of revenue so officials were disinclined to limit the growth of the suburb. A royal decree in 1577 forbade the slaughter of cattle and sheep within the city to improve sanitation. 5 However, it cannot be the case that this ordinance forced all of the small slaughterhouses out of the city. Small scale slaughtering by butchers and private persons within the city walls persisted until the 1870s. 6 However, Christopher Valkendorf, the royal treasurer at the time, did establish a large subdivided slaughterhouse in the Vesterbro suburb shortly after the decree. 7 The location of this early slaughterhouse is not evident on historic maps and it is difficult to determine where it lay relative to the Stampesgade locality. The meat packing industry only came to dominate the quarter after 1879 when Copenhagen s Commune built a municipal stockyard called the Brune Kødby on the site formerly owned by the Enighedsværn, a private shooting club, next to the Gasværk Harbor near the modern corner of Kvægtorvsgade and Tietgensgade. After 1888, this was the only place in Copenhagen where livestock could be legally slaughtered. Centralization and state management of the industry provided more efficient, hygienic and humane slaughter. 8 The Brune Kødbyen extended north of the intersection of the Kvægtorvsgade and Halmtorv, about 300 m southwest of the Stampesgade locality. The development of industries outside the walls during the 16 th and 17 th centuries, attracted settlement and the suburb continued to grow. A census taken in 1622 records no less than 110 families living permanently outside the cities walls in the Vesterbro suburb, renting space from the city. 9 Maps of the area drawn in the early 17 th century before the city was besieged have very few details and the distribution of structures and allotments is difficult to discern. However, a map drawn in 1624, by the German engineer Heinrich Thome shows structures lining both sides of Vesterbrogade with their allotments aligned north-south. 10 Another German map drawn 25 years later shows the same area within the western outwork, labelled as the western suburb, transected by a regular grid or streets or 5 Nørregaard Bjerregaard Nørregaard Bjerregaard Nørregaard Lorenzen 1930, plate III. 10 paths, but no structures or allotments are indicated. 11 All historic maps show structures concentrated only along the Vesterbrogade. In the mid-17 th century, the Stampesgade locality lay at the southern margin of the Dronningens Enghave, a royal pleasure garden located just outside the Vesterport and south of Vesterbrogade. This baroque garden covered most of the area where the Tivoli Gardens and Copenhagen Central Station now stand. It was established by Queen Consort Sophie Amalie after the coronation of her husband, Frederick III in The garden was landscaped with exotic plants and had small buildings, paths, pavilions, and ponds. Some fairly substantial building may also have been incorporated in the design because in 1657, 40,000 bricks were used to build a structure somewhere in on the premises. However, no large standing structures are indicated on any surviving map. Several maps drawn in the late 17 th and 18 th centuries do plot large symmetrical rectangles near the garden and along the inside of the outwork rampart (Figures 3 and 4). These are probably reflecting gardens or ponds but some may have been features associated with the outwork. They are certainly not roofed structures. The gardens and all associated features were demolished by Swedish troops during the Siege of Copenhagen in the Second Nordic War from 1658 to 60. More detailed maps drawn just after the siege of Copenhagen in 1658 show the same grid as the earlier German maps with the Swedish batteries and entrenchments superimposed. 12 According to these maps, the Swedish trenches were situated north of the Stampesgade locality. Christian Geddes perspective map of 1761 depicts a long wharf known as the Tømmerplads that extended along what is now Tietgensgade. This had been constructed shortly before the map was drawn. 13 By 1879, the wharf had been dismantled and the shore extended with fill to form a three-sided harbour called the Tømmergrav. By the turn of the century, this harbor had been filled in completely and it now forms the blocks between Tietgensgade and the Kalvebod Brygge. 14 After about 1860, approximately 3.25 km 2 of the shallow Kalvebod coast between the rampart and Engehavevej was filled in and leveled in several stages. Much of the sediment was mined from the new railroad cut that extended the line through the western part of the city. Building the coast of the Kalvebod out nearly 500 m required raising the level of the former coastal plane. Much of the natural terrain to the west in the blocks between Tietgensgade and Vesterbrogade was buried under as much as two meters of fill during this period to complete the grade from the new coastline. 11 Lorenzen 1930, plate XVIII. 12 Dahl 1991, Gedde Jørgensen Figure 3. The suburb Vesterbro. Plan over the terrain between St. Jørgens Lake and Kalvebodstrand From Før og Nu 1919, p Original in the Copenhagen City Archive. The approximate location of the locality marked by red dot. Figure 4. Frederiksberg, samt Terrainet mellem Frederiksberg og Hovedstaden (Forstaden Vesterbro). Aar From Før og Nu 1919, p Original in the Royal Library (previously Geheime Archive). The approximate location of the locality marked by red dot. 12 Copenhagen s first train station was opened in This station lay in Drønnings Engehave within the footprint of the modern station, which has operated since 1911 (Fig. 7). 15 The first stations platforms were oriented perpendicular to those of the modern station and were the northern terminus of the tracks, which ran due south crossing the Jernbanevejen (the modern Reventlowsgade), along the modern Reverdilsgade and continue along the coast of the Kalveboden. Reventlowgade is labeled Jernbanevejen on maps drawn in the mid-19 th century (Fig. 5). Some of these show small sheds or other structures on the blocks to the south and east of the station. Some of the smaller structures may have been dismantled around 1863, when the first railroad station was razed and the second built between Axeltorv, Gyldenløvesgade and Vester Søgade. 16 On V.F.A. Berggreens map of 1889, only one structure is indicated near Stampesgade. This was the building belonging to the Enighedsværn noted above. 17 While it cannot be claimed with complete certainty, inspections of historic maps indicate that large multi-storey structures were not constructed on the Stampesgade locality until the 20 th century. Based on maps, there appears to have been farms close by in , but from 1843, the area looks empty. Stampesgade itself appears on Berggrens 1889 map labeled as Stormgades Forlængelse (Fig. 6). The block does not appear on earlier maps. The locality was part of the first railroad yard in the mid-19 th century and before that part of the Dronningens Enghave. Figure 5. Map from 1858 with the approximate location of the locality next to the first train station marked by a red dot. 15 Jørgensen 1990; Poulsen Jørgensen 1990; Poulsen Berggreen Figure 6. Berggren s map from 1890 with the location of the locality marked with a red dot. Copenhagen City Archive. Figure 7. Excavation for the new (third) Main Train Station in Note that Reventlowsgade is paved with setts. From Før og Nu 1919, p 4 Archaeological background A search of the area around Stampesgade/Reventlowsgade was made in the archives of the Museum of Copenhagen and the online database maintained by the Heritage Agency of Denmark (www.dkconline.dk 2009). Only sites with historic or archaeological relevance to the area have been included here. These have been plotted on Fig. 2 and in Tab. 2), using their respective locality numbers. Historic items include an 1838 Frederic VI ½ shilling found near the corner of Viktoriagade and Istedgade (Sted-lokalitetsnr ). The location of a cannon-boat supposedly sunk in the old Gasværk 15arbour around 1900 (Sted-lokalitetsnr ) is misplotted. The location of the plot is well to the northeast of the old Gasverk 15arbour and was probably already filled by Of the reported finds the oldest is clearly the most significant and least expected. This is a bronze Palstave, probably cast during the early-middle Bronze Age from 1700 to 1101 BC (Sted-lokalitetsnr ) found at the western corner of Vesterbrogade and Viktoriagade. This point probably lay somewhat closer to the coast during the Bronze Age and the item may have been part of a larger feature. The fact that this was reported as an isolated find does not preclude a significant Bronze Age component in the area. Year Location SB-nr Observation Reventlowsgade 12 (A) Colbjørnsensgade 7 (B) Colbjørnsensgade Bjørnsdals Have (C) Corner of Vesterbrogade and Victoriagade N. for Ingerslevsgade (D) th and 18 th c. Earthenware pottery 18 th and 19 th c. Earthenware pottery and clay pipes Parts of human skeleton found in pit below basement (undated) Early bronze age bronze palstave ( BC) Find of 1838 Frederic VI ½ shilling Information concerning shipwreck from c (misplotted). Table 2. Previously recorded archaeological finds and features (see also figure 2). 15 5 Archaeological potential and aims Even though there are no indications of archaeological remains in the actual area, prehistoric, medieval and post medieval features could still be
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