HLB Situation Branco Peres Citus. Alexandre Tachibana, PhD João Paulo Branco Peres Guilherme Garieri Edélcio Adolfo de Oliveira Jr. - PDF

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HLB Situation Branco Peres Citus Alexandre Tachibana, PhD João Paulo Branco Peres Guilherme Garieri Edélcio Adolfo de Oliveira Jr. Coffee (Processing and Exporting): Adamantina - Sao Paulo Varginha - Tokyo

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HLB Situation Branco Peres Citus Alexandre Tachibana, PhD João Paulo Branco Peres Guilherme Garieri Edélcio Adolfo de Oliveira Jr. Coffee (Processing and Exporting): Adamantina - Sao Paulo Varginha - Tokyo The oldest business of Branco Peres 10 of the biggest Green Coffee exporter The biggest of Specialty Coffee Others: Instant, Roasted and Grounded Coffee. Alcohol and Sugar: Adamantina - Junqueirópolis (Sao Paulo) 21,000 ha (52,500 acres) Alcohol: 90 million liters Sugar: 45,000 mt Cattle: Sao Paulo and Mato Grosso 10,000 ha (25,000 acres) 11,000 cattle Citrus: 9,000 ha (22,500 acres) 3,400 ha 0-4 years 5,600 ha 4 years 24 farms 3,300,000 trees 5,500,000 boxes (40,8 kg) São Judas Farm 240,000 trees São Francisco Farm - 350,000 trees Branco Peres Case Sta Maria Farm: 250 ha (625 acres) 75,000 trees 240,000 boxes (40,8kg) 19 year-old Citrus Canker: Prevention: -Health young tree -Desinfection (Cars, Trucks, Harvest Material, etc) -Change clothes (uniforme) -Windbreaks Citrus Canker: Prevention: -Inspections = HLB+CVC+Canker -4 a 10 inspections/year (depending on risk of farm). GREENING (HLB) Why should we treat this disease? What s its importance? GREENING IN CHINA FARM IN ARARAQUARA (SAO PAULO) Oldest case in Araraquara region Farm without HLB control 90,000 trees destroyed by HLB in 6 years Pêra Rio block with 100% 11 months Pasture Pasture Greening evolution in 3 year old block Old and infected orchard Westin/Cravo (2002) July/2004 (0,3%) Dike Forest Old and infected orchard May/2005 (15%) Forest Dike Old and infected orchard Old and infected orchard Greening evolution in 3 year old block Hamlin/Cravo (2002) 9 months Old and infected orchard May/2005 (27,4%) Old and infected orchard Sugar Cane Hedge Sugar Cane Hedge Old and infected orchard Old and infected orchard Old and infected orchard Old and infected orchard Forest Hedge/Sugar Cane August/2004 (0,6%) Hedge/Sugar Cane Forest Symptoms Evolution MARCH 2004 AUGUST 2004 Case: Cambuhy 2,000,000 trees 4 inspections/year Chemical control Airplane spraying Source: Fernando Tersi Erradicação de Greening na Cambuhy/mês HLB eradication at Cambuhy monthly Plantas jul/04 ago/04 set/04 out/04 nov/04 Transmission dez/04 jan/05 fev/ mar/05 abr/05 mai/ Symptoms jun/05 jul/05 ago/05 set/05 out/05 nov/ dez/05 jan/06 fev/06 mar/ Plantas Spring and Summer Fall and winter Case: Agrindus 300,000 trees (3years old) HLB groves neighbor 6 inspections/year Chemical control Systemic + spray Souce:Roberto Yank Jr. Total 360 symptomatic trees Low incidence Symptomatic trees distribution Distribuição das Amostras Positivas 77 % 0,27%; 77% 23 % 0,08%; 23% Neighbor block Divisas Restante Rest of groves HLB INSPECTION SANTA MARIA FARM Inspection HLB INSPECTION - INFECTED AREAS períod (month) Inspection jan feb mar apr may jun jul aug sep oct nov dec 1st. 2nd. 3rd. 4th. 5th. 6th. 7th. 8th. 9th. 10th. Inspection Inspection - Form: 1) Ground : 100% trees are inspected. 800 trees/day/ person Inspection Inspection Inspection Inspection Inspection 2) Platform (old orchard): 100% trees are inspected trees /day / platform Inspection Platform importance: May/05= 769 symptomatic trees platform (81%) ground (19%) June/05= 317 symptomatic trees platform (46%) ground (54%) Inspection x Inspector How about training? How about motivation people to find HLB? Inspector Inspectors characterization?! Porcentage (%) With problem Normal Excellent Situation Inspector Inspector Result: 20% of trees are not inspected!!!! Just in the next inspection they ll be inspected (=60days). 9 10 Diaphorina citri INSPECTION Diaphorina citri Ninfa Ovos Adulto Adulto Inspection Inspection: - 1% trees are inspected - 4 young flushes/plant are observed. - Level (%) = Infested flushes x Total flushes - Period / frequency : 15 days REAL SITUATION SANTA MARIA FARM 6.000 HLB symptomatic trees - Santa Maria Farm Situação Atual Symptomatic Trees Trees Reset % Trees % Reset Percentage (%) sep/0 4 dec/0 4 jan- 05 mar/ 05 apr/0 5 may/ 05 jun/0 5 jul/05 aug/0 5 Trees Reset % Trees 6,71 0,008 0,002 0,001 0,03 1,07 0,44 0,14 0,05 0,031 0,022 0,004 0,006 0,011 0,007 0,001 0,024 0,125 % Reset 0,51 0,000 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,000 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 sep/0 5 oct/0 5 nov/0 5 dec/0 5 jan/0 6 feb/0 6 mar/ 06 apr/0 6 may/ 06 0 date 6.000 HLB symptomatic trees - Santa Maria Farm Situação Atual 8 Symptomatic Trees Trees Reset % Trees % Reset Percentage (%) Trees Reset % Trees 6,72 1,80 0,17 % Reset 0,51 0,00 0 Total 6, year First Eradication First Erradication First Erradication DIAPHORINA CONTROL Season 2004/2005: - Fog or 3 Insecticides spraying Season 2005/2006: - NO Fog - Insecticides in all spraying (7 until may/06). + Intervention in any psylla level (1 until may/06). Season 2005/2006: 1 st - Before flowering - September/ nd Flowering - October/ rd -1 st Black Spot - Nov-dec/ th -2 nd Black Spot - January/ th -3 rd Black Spot - February/ th - Foliar Fertilizer + S - March/ th - Foliar Fertilizer + S - Apr - May/2006 Insecticides - Psylla control (Brazil) Comercial Name Technichal Name Chemical Group Conc. (%) Dosage (ml/100l water) Decis 100 Delthametrina Piretroide Karatê Zeon 50 Lambdacialotrina Piretroide Dimetoato 500 Dimetoato organofosforado Malathion 1000 Malathion organofosforado 87, Actara 250 Thiametoxam Neonicotinoide Provado 200 Imidacloprido Nicotinóide Marshal 200 Carbosulfan Carbamato Young trees - sprayer 12,0 11,0 10,0 9,0 8,0 7,0 6,0 5,0 4,0 3,0 2,0 1,0 0,0 Average level of Diaphorina Citri - Situação Atual SANTA MARIA FARM 1st/jan 2nd/jan 1st/feb 1st/feb 2nd/feb 1st/mar 2nd/mar 1st/apr 2nd/apr 1st/may 2nd/may 1st/jun 2nd/jun 1st/jul 2nd/jul 1st/aug 2nd/aug 1st/sep 2nd/sep 1st/oct 2nd/oct 1st/nov 2nd/nov 1st/dec 2nd/dec 1st/jan 2nd/jan 2nd/feb 1st/mar 2nd/mar 1st/apr 2nd/apr 1st/may 2nd/may Level (%) Season 04/05 Season 05/06 Inspection Costs of Psylla control + Inspections Diaphorina Control 1) annual spraying (frequency/year): 8 2) Insecticide cost (US$/2000L): ) Machinery cost (US$/hm): ) Spray Volume (L/ha): 1,000 5) Operational capacity (ha/hour) 1.2 Diaphorina control - exclusive cost: Number US$/ha Insecticide Machinery Total 72.50 Inspections 1) Labor cost (US$/hour): ) Machinery cost (US$/hm): ) Operational capacity (ha/hour) - ground 0.3 4) Operational capacity (ha/hour) - platform 2.0 Diaphorina control - exclusive cost: Number US$/ha Platform Ground Total Total 0,450 0,400 0,350 HLB total cost - old orchard US$ 215,00/ha Cost (US$/box) 0,300 0,250 0,200 0,150 0,100 0, Yeld (box/ha) Considerations: -HLB Inspections high frequency (10 inspections/year). -Inspectors trained -Symptomatic trees Eradicate as soon as possible. -Very intensive Diaphorina control. -HLB Control costs US$ 0,17 to 0,42/box, depend on yield Final Consideration: Greening is a very costly disease and hard to control, but the results are good for those who take good care of the grove. THANK YOU!!! Alexandre Tachibana Phone +55 (16)
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