HEINI PÖNNI USAGE OF CONTINUOUS STEEL TRUSS IN MULTISTOREY SHOPPING CENTRE FRAME. Master of Science Thesis - PDF

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HEINI PÖNNI USAGE OF CONTINUOUS STEEL TRUSS IN MULTISTOREY SHOPPING CENTRE FRAME Master of Science Thesis Examiners: Prof. (Tech.) Markku Heinisuo and M.Sc. (Tech.) Tarmo Mononen Examiner and subject was

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HEINI PÖNNI USAGE OF CONTINUOUS STEEL TRUSS IN MULTISTOREY SHOPPING CENTRE FRAME Master of Science Thesis Examiners: Prof. (Tech.) Markku Heinisuo and M.Sc. (Tech.) Tarmo Mononen Examiner and subject was approved in department meeting 5th September 2012 i ABSTRACT TAMPERE UNIVERCITY OF TECHNOLOGY Master s Degree Program in Civil Engineering PÖNNI, HEINI: USAGE OF CONTINUOUS STEEL TRUSS IN MULTISTOREY SHOPPING CENTRE FRAME Master of Science Thesis, 101 pages, 15 Appendix pages September 2012 Major: Structural Engineering Examiners: Prof. (Tech.) Markku Heinisuo, M. Sc. (Tech.) Tarmo Mononen Keywords: continuous steel truss, continuous composite column, rigid frame, shopping centre, shopping mall construction Rautaruukki Construction is developing a new frame system for shopping centres. This Master of Science Thesis is part of the project. The frame system is based on continuous steel trusses and composite steel columns. Floors are typically hollow core slabs. The structural characteristics of shopping centre buildings were researched by examining executed targets in Finland, Sweden and Norway. In analyzed frames the first two storeys are typically parking levels. Above parking levels are hypermarket and commercial levels. On the roof is a technical level. All floor to floor heights and clearances were defined by target reviews. In the parking levels the columns grid is 17,0 x 5,4 m 2 and in the upper levels 17,0 x 10,8 m 2. The height of steel trusses is determined by optimizing consumptions of steel and required stiffness and also by ensuring adequate routing space for HVACE-utilities. Loads are determined by usage of levels and by Eurocodes. Four static frame models were analyzed. The static function of the frame and critical loads were clarified. The largest loads 5-10 kn/m 2 were applied on hypermarket and commercial levels and 2,5 kn/m 2 was applied on parking levels. The research exhibited that the size of columns was determined by N-M resistance not the swayfactor α cr. The factor α cr is in all researched frame models over 10 so frames are nonsway. Using continuous steel trusses instead of one-bay trusses the circular section of middle columns is about mm larger. The frame of the shopping centre must be adaptable and configurable. Structural elements that limit the use of space, such as shear walls, bracings and struts, should be avoided or minimized in order to improve the efficiency of the space. In all analyzed frame models the stiffness of the continuous steel truss composite column -system guaranteed the stability in the direction of frame. The stability in opposite direction was not been checked in this research but it is normally carried out by steel bracings. Topics for future research could be among other things optimizing of continuous steel truss, development of joints between continuous trusses and columns and development of dimension tools for unbraced frame. ii TIIVISTELMÄ TAMPEREEN TEKNILLINEN YLIOPISTO Rakennustekniikan koulutusohjelma PÖNNI, HEINI: JATKUVAN TERÄSRISTIKON KÄYTTÖ MONIKERROKSISESSA KAUPPAKESKUSRUNGOSSA Diplomityö, 101 sivua, 15 liittesivua Syyskuu 2012 Pääaine: Talonrakennustekniikka Tarkastajat: Prof. Markku Heinisuo, DI Tarmo Mononen Avainsanat: jatkuva teräsristikko, liittopilari, kehäjäykistys, kauppakeskus, kauppakeskusrakentaminen Rautaruukki Oyj on kehittämässä uutta runkojärjestelmää kauppakeskuksille. Tämä diplomityö on osa hanketta. Runkoratkaisussa ontelolaattavälipohjia kannattavat jatkuvat teräsristikot ja pilareina ovat teräksiset liittopilarit. Työssä tutustuttiin kauppakeskusrakennuksen rungon vaatimuksiin tutkimalla toteutettuja kauppakeskuksia Suomessa, Ruotsissa ja Norjassa. Kohteiden perusteella päädyttiin runkoon, jossa kaksi ensimmäistä kerrosta ovat parkkitasoja. Parkkitasojen päällä on hypermarketkerros sekä kaupallisia kerroksia. Ylimpänä on tekninentila. Vapaat huonekorkeudet ja kerroskorkeudet määritettiin kohdekatsauksen perusteella. Parkkihalleissa pilarijako on 17,0 x 5,4 m 2 ja ylemmissä kerroksissa 17,0 x 10,8 m 2. Teräsristikkojen korkeudet määriteltiin optimoimalla teräsmenekki ja teräksen lujuus sekä LVI-tekniikan läpivientien tarve. Kuormat määriteltiin tasojen toimintojen ja EC:n mukaan. Rungosta tehtiin neljä staattista mallia, joiden perusteella selvitettiin rungon toiminta ja kriittiset kuormitukset. Suurimmat hyötykuormat 5-10 kn/m 2 ovat hypermarket ja kaupallisilla tasoilla, kun taas parkkitasojen hyötykuorma on 2,5 kn/m 2. Tutkimus osoitti, että pilareiden koon määrää riittävän N-M kestävyyden saavuttaminen, eikä niinkään kehän sivusiirtyvyystekijä α cr. Kerroin α cr on kaikissa tutkituissa kehämalleissa yli 10, joten kehät ovat sivusiirtymättömiä. Jatkuvia ristikoita käytettäessä pyöreät keskipilarit ovat noin mm suuremmat kuin mitä yksiaukkoisia ristikoita käytettäessä. Kauppakeskuksen rungon tulee olla muuntojoustava. Tilaa rajoittavia elementtejä, kuten runkoa jäykistäviä porraskuiluja ja väliseiniä sekä ristikoita ja pukkeja, tulisi välttää tai niiden määrä tulisi minimoida, jotta tila pystytään hyödyntämään mahdollisimman tehokkaasti. Tutkituissa tapauksissa jatkuva teräsristikko - liittopilari -järjestelmän jäykkyys riittää takaamaan kehälle riittävän stabiiliuden kehän suunnassa. Kehään nähden vastakkaisen suunnan stabiliteettia ei tässä tutkimuksessa tarkasteltu, mutta se hoidetaan normaalisti teräksisillä jäykisteristikoilla. Seuraavia tutkimusaiheita hankkeen tiimoilta voisivat olla muun muassa jatkuvan ristikkopalkin optimointi, ristikon ja pilarin liitosten kehitys ja sivusiirtyvän kehän mitoitusohjelman kehitys. iii PREFACE This Master of Science thesis was carried out at the Tampere University of Technology, Department of Civil Engineering, directed by Professor Markku Heinisuo. This thesis is part of large research of rigid shopping mall frames of which main girders are continuous steel trusses commissioned by Rautaruukki Corporation. I would like to express my gratitude to my examiners Professor Markku Heinisuo and Mr. Tarmo Mononen for their guidance and encouragement during this process. Arto Sivill thank you for your time and help during structural analysis. Also thanks to Finnmap Consulting Oy Ismo Tawast for offering me the possibility to write my thesis of this subject and for keeping this thesis in right tracks. KPM Engineering Oy Juha Tanttu: Thank you for arranging me workplace. In closing, the greatest thanks to my boyfriend Janne for unfailing patience and understanding. August 11th 2014, Tampere Finland Heini Pönni iv CONTENTS 1 Introduction Background of research Objective of research Implementation of research Scope of research Review of Shopping Centres in Sweden, Norway and Finland Case Case Case Case Case Case Case Case Case Case Conclusions on case review Stability of structures IN SHOPPING CENTRES Lateral force resisting systems Braced frame Moment frame Shear wall and in-filled frame Wall-frame system Other alternatives Difference between braced and unbraced frames Buckling length for columns by SFS-ENV :1992 Annex E Loads based on Euro Code DESIGN Permanent loads Imposed loads Snow load Wind action Global analysis by SFS-EN AC Effects of deformed geometry of the structures Structural stability of frames Imperfections Load combinations Ultimate limit states Serviceability limit states Deformations and horizontal displacements Frame analysis Case 1, rigid one-bay frame Sections... 60 5.1.2 Loads Load combinations Forces and moments of the columns and displacements of the frame Buckling analysis Case 2, one-bay frame supported with stair shafts Sections Loads Load combinations Forces and moments of the columns and displacements of the frame Case 3, rigid three-bay frame, truss h=1800mm Sections Loads Load combinations Forces and moments of the columns and displacements of the frame Buckling analysis Case 4, rigid three-bay frame, truss h=1600mm Sections Loads Load combinations Forces and moments of the columns and displacements of the frame Buckling analysis Buckling length of bottom chord Conclusions on frame analysis Results Result evaluation Suggestions for future research References Appendix Appendix Appendix Appendix v vi NOTATION Symbols Latin upper case letters A A 0 C e C t E F cr F Ed G kj,sup/ G kj,inf H Ed I K L L c M Sd Q k V cr V Ed V Sd W el Latin lower case letters b c d c dir c e (z) c f,o c s c season d f y g k is the area is the basic area is the exposure coefficient is the thermal coefficient is the modulus of elasticity is the elastic critical buckling load for global instability mode based on initial elastic stiffnesses is the design loading on the structure are the upper/lower characteristic value of permanent action j is the design value of the horizontal reaction at the bottom of the storey to the horizontal loads and fictitious horizontal loads is the second moment of area is the effective stiffness coefficients (I/L) is the system length of a member is the theoretical buckling length is the design value of the total moment is the characteristic value of a variable concentrated load is the buckling load according to the frame elasticity theory is the total design vertical load on the structure on the bottom of the storey is the design value of the vertical total load is the elastic section modulus of member is the width of the structure [m] is the dynamic factor is the directional factor is the exposure factor is the force coefficient of structures or structural elements without free-end flow is the size factor is the seasonal factor is the depth of the structure [m] is the yield strength of member is the weight per unit area, or weight per unit length vii h is the height of construction work [m] l s is the length of snow drift or snow loaded area [m] m is the number of columns in a row n is the number of storeys P is the relevant representative value of a prestressing action q b is the reference mean (basic) velocity pressure q k is the characteristic value of a uniformly distributed load, or line load s is the snow load on the roof [kn/m 2 ] s k is the characteristic value of snow on the ground at the relevant site [kn/m 2 ] u is the horizontal displacement of a structure or structural member v b is the basic wind velocity v b,0 is the fundamental value of the basic wind velocity w is the vertical deflection of a structural member z e, z i are the reference height for external wind action, internal pressure Greek lower case letters α is the pitch of a roof, measured from horizontal [ ] α A is the reduction factor α cr is the factor by which the design loads would have to be increased to cause elastic instability in a global mode α h is the reduction factor for height h applicable to columns α m is the reduction factor for the number of columns in a row α n is the reduction factor γ is the weight density of snow [kn/m 3 ] γ M0 is the partial factor for resistance of cross-sections whatever the class is γ M1 is the partial factor for resistance of members to instability assessed by member checks γ M2 is the partial factor for resistance of cross-sections in tension to fracture δ H,Ed is the horizontal displacement at the top of the storey, relative to the bottom of the storey η is the distribution factor λ is the slenderness ratio λ is the non dimensional slenderness μ is the snow load shape coefficient µ s is the snow load shape coefficient due to sliding of snow from the upper roof µ w is the snow load shape coefficient due to wind viii ρ φ φ 0 ψ r ψ λ ψ 0 ψ 1 ψ 2 is the density is the global initial sway imperfection is the basic value for global initial sway imperfection is the reduction factor of force coefficient for square sections with rounded corners is the reduction factor of force coefficient for structural elements with end-effects is the factor for combination value of a variable action is the factor for frequent value of a variable action is the factor for quasi-permanent value of a variable action Terms and definitions Buckling length Frame GLA Global analysis system length of an otherwise similar member with pinned ends, which has the same buckling resistance as a given member or segment of a member the whole or a portion of a structure, comprising an assembly of directly connected structural elements, designed to act together to resist load; this term refers to both moment-resisting frames and triangulated frames; it covers both plane frames and three-dimensional frames Gross leasable area the determination of a consistent set of internal forces and moments in a structure, which are in equilibrium with a particular set of actions on the structure Irreversible serviceability limit states serviceability limit states where some consequences of actions exceeding the specified service requirements will remain when the actions are removed Limit states states beyond which the structure no longer fulfills the relevant design criteria Reversible serviceability limit states serviceability limit states where no consequences of actions exceeding the specified service requirements will remain when the actions are removed Serviceability limit states states that correspond to conditions beyond which specified service requirements for a structure or structural member are no longer met Structural analysis procedure or algorithm for determination of action effects in every point of a structure Structural model idealization of the structural system used for the purposes of analysis, design and verification ix Ultimate limit states states associated with collapse or with other similar forms of structural failure Definitions of Retail Centres Entertainment Centre An entertainment centre in comprised of more than one building. It is occupied by companies focused on leisure services, such as cinemas, gyms, restaurants, leisure goods dealers, and theme parks. An entertainment centre has joint management and marketing. [2, p. 124] (Factory) Outlet Centre Factory outlet centres are comprised of more than one commercial building. They typically contain speciality retailers concentrating on selling single brands. The low price level is due to a product range that does not include newest collections. Outlet centres operate outside city centres and they have joint management and marketing. There are no outlet centres in Finland. [2, p. 123] Home Centre Home centres are comprised of a number of retailers of renovation and interior design items located in the same building [2, p. 124] Hypermarket Centre A hypermarket centre is comprised of a single commercial building containing a hypermarket and at least 10 other retail outlets or other services. These all open onto a covered walkway. The hypermarket s share is more than 50% of the property s total area. [2, p. 123] Indoor Market An indoor market is an entity composed of specialist grocery outlets, located in the city centre, with personal service and with stalls which face an interior walkway. Indoor markets have on joint management and few have joint marketing. [2, p. 123] Lifestyle Centre Lifestyle centres are comprised of more than one commercial building opening onto an outdoor space and which have a lot of speciality dealers and restaurants. The design aims for a complete, urban milieu on a particular theme. They are characterized by the rich use of decoration and street furniture. Lifestyle centres have on anchor tenant, but they do have joint management and marketing. There are no lifestyle centres in Finland. [2, p. 124] Other commercial Centres Other commercial centres are comprised of one or more commercial buildings in which a number or retailers operate and which are not included in any of other definitions given. [2, p. 124] x Retailers department store A retailers department store has a number of retail outlets separated by fittings. Some traders operating in a retailers department store may have separate units, either legally or because of security concerns. Retailers department stores are almost always in a city centre and have joint management and marketing. There are on retailers department stores in Finland. [2, p. 123] Retail Park Retail parks are comprised of more than one commercial building. They house mainly speciality shops. Retail parks are usually located outside city centre districts, are onestorey, and face a joint parking area. [2, p. 123] Shopping Centre A shopping centre consists of a commercial building in which retail outlet and services open inwards onto a walkway or concourse. The gross leasable area is generally at least sq.m. Shopping centres have at least 10 retail outlets. A mall has one or more anchor tenants and a number of key traders as well as other retailers and services. The service may be either commercial or public. A single trader may not exceed 50% of the total commercial space. Shopping centres have joint management and marketing. [2, p. 122] Strip Centre A strip centre is comprised of one or more commercial buildings in which the retail outlets mostly face an open space [2, p. 123]. 1 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background of research Rautaruukki has completed during last ten years several multi-storey frames in which the truss girders is used in decks. One shopping mall was very unique and innovative. In this building the frame was stabilized my moment rigid conjunctions between truss girders and columns. The two lowest floors (K1 and K2) were parking levels. First and second floors were for commercial facilities. The third floor was technical space. In parking levels the distribution of column was chosen as 5,3 x 17,0 m 2 and in commercial levels as 10,6 x 17 m 2. In parking levels the frame was made of pre-cast concrete members and longitudinal stability of the frame was executed by using diagonal pre-fab concrete struts and concrete walls. In other direction the column-beam concrete frame stiffened itself. In commercial level the frame was combined of 2-bay prefabricated composite columns and continuous composite steel trusses. In these floors longitudinal stability was maintained by composite columns and non-bearing stiffener trusses, partly bracings and in other way the frame was rigid and stabilized itself. Frame of the third level was steel frame. The frame was mostly functioning as unbraced frame. There are several customer values and sound argumentations to use rigid frame instead of braced frame. One crucial requirement is adaptability of space. Because the frame stabilizes itself in direction of the frame there is no need for shear walls or bracings which will prevent or make future renovations very expensive. By using steel trusses the HVACE-utilities has free penetration through them and the floor to floor height is a bit lower than using pre-fabricated pre-tensioned concrete members. Because the floor to floor height is lower, façade area is reduced and some material costs are saved. Also the total gross-volume of the building is smaller and so money is saved during the whole life cycle of the estate. Rautaruukki is developing sustainable new technologies and design solutions to improve the efficiency of the construction process, to shorten construction time and to reduce the amount of work done on site. That created an interest to develop described rigid frame even more competitive with sound and robust customer and technical values. 1.2 Objective of research Objective of the research was at the beginning to examine the main functions and structural characteristics of shopping malls. Where are the shopping malls located? How do people get there? How is the public transport been taken into account? What about parking? What are the functions located in estate? What do they require from the property? How many storeys shopping malls usually have? What frame structures has been used? The idea was to find qualities for average shopping
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