HAZİRAN Türk Dış Politikasının Temel Konuları - PDF

Türk Dış Politikasının Temel Konuları HAZİRAN 2013 Bu Kitapçık, Türk Dış Politikasının Temel Konuları Hakkında Özlü İngilizce Konuşma Notları İçermektedir. TÜRK DIŞ POLİTİKASININ TEMEL KONULARI (Haziran

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Türk Dış Politikasının Temel Konuları HAZİRAN 2013 Bu Kitapçık, Türk Dış Politikasının Temel Konuları Hakkında Özlü İngilizce Konuşma Notları İçermektedir. TÜRK DIŞ POLİTİKASININ TEMEL KONULARI (Haziran 2013) Değişen Dünyada Türk Dış Politikası.. 3 AB Katılım Süreci. 8 Kıbrıs.. 13 Terörle Mücadele 18 Ortadoğu.. 22 Ortadoğu daki Değişim Hareketleri.. 25 İran ın Nükleer Programı 29 Türkiye-Ermenistan İlişkileri ve1915 Olayları.. 31 Türkiye nin Ekonomisi 35 2 DEĞİŞEN DÜNYADA TÜRK DIŞ POLİTİKASI The world has not yet found order since the end of the Cold War. The process of change continues. New power centres like China, Russia, Brazil, India, South Africa and Turkey are emerging. There are also new and developing threats such as terrorism, weapons of mass destruction, organized crime, environmental problems, volatility in food and energy prices, cross-cultural and religious intolerance. Overall, it is a more complex world. Post-World War II mechanisms can no longer meet today s requirements. We need a more representative and democratic system. The United Nations Security Council and other post Second World War mechanisms need to be reformed. Turkey is at the centre of this big change. Turkey is no longer at the sidelines of Europe or Asia, but is at the epicentre of Afro-Eurasia. There are many risks and opportunities in this region. Turkey has a strong and resilient economy, a dynamic open society and an advanced democracy. Turkey also has strong historical and cultural ties with many countries in this region. Therefore as a constructive power, Turkey has been playing an active role in its region, which is undergoing a comprehensive transition. 3 Turkey pursues a more dynamic, visionary and multidimensional foreign policy. Turkish foreign policy is guided by clear principles and led by a strong vision. The fundamental principle of Turkish foreign policy is Peace at Home, Peace in the World. We attach high importance to solve problems with our neighbours. We want to achieve peace and stability in our region through economic interdependence, political dialogue and cultural understanding. Resolving conflicts through engagement and cooperation is one of our key goals. We are aware that these will not take place instantly. We must be patient and adhere to our visionary approach. And we must expand the scope of our partnerships. Occasionally it is claimed that there is a shift in the axis of Turkish foreign policy. They suggest that there is a change in our foreign policy priorities and focus. These claims and suggestions are not true. A country s values determine its foreign policy axis. For Turkey, those values have not changed. As a secular and functioning democracy based on the rule of law, free elections and respect for human rights, Turkey represents, and promotes universal values. Our ties with our allies and partners in the West are strong as ever. 4 No country is our adversary or enemy. There might be countries with which we have some problems. Still, we wish to solve our problems through dialogue and cooperation. We made important progress in our foreign policy approach. We still keep the vision of improving our relations with our neighbours. The high volatility and instability of our region does not change our commitment. We are determined to contribute to the peace and stability around us. For this purpose we always keep channels of dialogue open. We have strengthened strategic relationships with our Western partners. We have enhanced our partnerships with the emerging powers of Africa, Asia-Pacific and Latin America. Today no geography is distant to us. Turkey is present economically and politically in all parts of the world. We have become more active and visible in international organizations. We are also working together with many regional organizations. We have launched many mediation and facilitation initiatives in places like Lebanon, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Afghanistan, Kyrgyzstan, Iran, Sudan and Somalia. The Mediation for Peace initiative, which we have launched together with Finland in September 2010, has been generating a great deal of interest within the UN family. 5 In addition to its bilateral and multilateral efforts, Turkey hosts Istanbul Conferences on Mediation that annually bring together the experts and practitioners in the field of mediation. We are also co-sponsoring the largest-ever United Nations initiative (Alliance of Civilizations) to promote cultural dialogue, harmony and mutual respect. As a responsible member of the international community, we have also become an important donor country. As of 2012, we are providing close to 2.5 billion USD of official development assistance (ODA). Turkish Cooperation and Development Agency (TİKA-Türkiye İşbirliği ve Kalkınma Ajansı) is carrying out development projects in more than 100 countries. In Afghanistan, which is the largest recipient of Turkish development aid, for instance, we have completed over 800 projects amounting up to 400 million USD. We offer a helping hand to all underdeveloped nations. We have initiated many regional cooperation projects like Black Sea Economic Cooperation, Southeast Europe Cooperation Initiative, Caucasus Stability and Cooperation Platform, Iraq Neighbors Forum. We play an essential role in energy security with many oil and natural gas pipelines crossing our territory. Turkey is a reliable partner for peace, security and constructive globalization. Our vision for 2023, the 100th anniversary of the Turkish Republic, is: 6 to become a full member of the EU, to take our place among top ten economies of the world, to be a major development partner for all the developing nations, to be generator of global welfare, to be an active and constructive player in all international and regional organizations, to be a wise country whose contributions and engagement is sought worldwide, to set a successful example in its wider region for democracy, respect for human rights and sustainable development, to have the political, economic and diplomatic capacity to help establish and maintain a new world order which will be just, fair and democratic. 7 AB KATILIM SÜRECİ Turkey has been part of European history for centuries. Turkey is a member of most of the European organizations. Turkey is a founding member of the Council of Europe (Avrupa Konseyi). It is also member of NATO, Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE [Avrupa Güvenlik ve İşbirliği Teşkilatı-AGİT]). European integration will not be complete without Turkey s EU membership. Turkey-EU relations are built on many agreements all aiming at full membership Turkey becomes an associate member Turkey and the EU establish Customs Union Turkey received candidate status Turkey and the EU start accession negotiations. Turkey cannot accept any form of relationship other than full membership. This is what has been agreed upon in the first place. We don t ask for special favours, but want the EU to live up to its contractual obligations. We want fair and equal treatment with other candidates. Discrimination against Turkey is eroding the credibility of the EU. 8 Turkey is fully committed to the EU accession process. The EU membership remains a strategic goal for Turkey. The reform process to meet the EU membership criteria will continue. We are also preparing a new constitution that will consolidate the reform process in Turkey. These reforms aim first and foremost to provide the highest standards in every field of life to our own citizens. Both Turkey and the EU will benefit from our membership. Concerns about Turkey s membership are not justified. Economic: Turkey is currently the world s 16th and Europe s 6th biggest economy. Turkey is projected to become Europe s 2nd largest economy in Turkey will not be an economic burden to the EU. Just the opposite, Turkish membership will bring new opportunities to the EU. Turkey s and the EU s performances during the recent economic crisis provide a proof of that. Turkish economy continued to grow during the crisis, creating more than 4 million additional jobs. Social: There won t be a vast migration from Turkey to Europe. In fact immigration is now reversed and more people are returning to Turkey to benefit from our economic growth. Cultural: Being a country with a predominantly Muslim population should not be seen as a problem. After all, the EU is a community of principles, standards and values, not a religious or cultural club. 9 Like the rest of the European countries Turkey is also founded on common universal principles, such as the rule of law, respect for human rights and democracy. Turkey s membership will be the strongest response to the so-called clash of civilizations claims. It will consolidate the unity in diversity of the EU. Political: Turkey and the EU share the same wider neighbourhood. Turkey s active foreign policy to generate peace, stability and prosperity in this geography complements that of the EU. In this respect, the membership of Turkey will give the opportunity and greater leverage for the EU to become more influential in this neighbourhood and beyond. This will also have positive implications for our region. EU countries should thus be more active in informing and preparing their public opinion for Turkey s membership. Increased people-to-people contacts are essential. Lifting visas on Turkish citizens will certainly help allow this interaction. Many third countries, which are not even a candidate for membership, already enjoy visa exemption. Visa free travel is the contractual right of Turkish citizens, as called for by the European Court of Justice. We are in dialogue with the EU to achieve visa-free travel to the Schengen area for Turkish citizens. We want to complete this process as soon as possible with a Road Map that meets our just and legitimate concerns. Our accession process should not be compromised for short term political gains. 10 The Cyprus issue should not continue to poison Turkey- EU relations. It was a mistake to let a divided Cyprus accede to the EU. Turkey should not be expected to pay the price of this mistake. (Kıbrıslı Rumlara limanlarımızın açılmasını öngören) The Additional Protocol was signed with the understanding that the EU will lift the isolation imposed on Turkish Cypriots. This is the EU s duty in accordance with the EU Council decision of April The EU has not yet performed this duty. The current situation is not acceptable or sustainable. There are 35 chapters. 14 of them have been opened. However, 17 chapters of accession talks are blocked due to political reasons. There is a pressing need to enhance the dialogue between Turkey and the EU on strategic issues of common interest and/or concern. The accession process should be allowed to run its course. This is the EU s contractual obligation. In this process Turkey should be treated in a fair and equal manner like any other candidate country. We cannot accept double standards. Turkey-EU relations have much wider regional and global consequences. In particular, Arab countries that are going through a regionwide transition are watching our accession process closely. 11 EU leaders must display visionary leadership and start acting upon it. After a long stalemate, we appreciate the recent decision to open Chapter-22 on regional policy and coordination of structural instruments. However, we look forward to progress on all negotiation chapters, notably Chapters 23 and 24. There is a need for a game-changer to break the impasse and to enhance public confidence towards the EU in Turkey. Abolishing all political obstacles in the negotiation process and granting a visa-free travel for Turkish citizens could serve for this purpose. 12 KIBRIS Turkey and the Turkish Cypriot side have always supported a solution based on the UN parameters. The UN Plan of 2004 (Annan Planı) was a balanced one for both sides. It laid the ground for the two communities to live together in a new partnership state. It was endorsed by the entire international community including the EU and the UN Security Council members. The plan was put to separate simultaneous referenda on both sides of the island in The Turkish Cypriots accepted the plan by a large majority (65%) while the Greek Cypriots rejected it by an even larger majority (76%). The Greek Cypriots made the Partnership Republic (Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti) that was established by international treaties in 1960 impossible to function. They did not want to share power with the Turkish Cypriots. In 1963 they started systematic violence towards the Turks. They killed the Turks in great numbers. In 1974 there was a Greek sponsored coup d état to unite the Island with Greece. Turkey had no choice but to exercise its rights to protect the Turkish Cypriots. The 1974 intervention was not an invasion. It was a legitimate action arising from Turkey s guarantor rights, as mentioned in the London-Zurich Agreements. 13 Turkish forces in the island are there to protect the Turkish Cypriots and the ongoing ceasefire. On the other hand, there are also Greek forces stationed in the South, numbering around This number is much greater than foreseen by the 1960 treaties. Turkey will withdraw its forces to the level that will be defined in a future comprehensive settlement. If the Annan Plan had been approved by the Greek Cypriots, the Turkish force would have been very small. The search for a solution to the Cyprus issue has been going on for almost half a century. The United Nations has already established the parameters of a fair and lasting settlement. A just and comprehensive solution should foresee a bicommunal and bi-zonal partnership state. Turkish and Greek Cypriots should be legally and politically equal. The Greek Cypriots illegally claim to be the sole representative of the island. This is not acceptable. Greek Cypriots have not paid any price for not accepting a solution. In 2004 the Greek Cypriots were allowed to become a member of the EU. The Greek Cypriots try to prevent even sports and cultural events on the Turkish side. The restrictions imposed upon the Turkish Cypriots for decades continue. These are illegal. Even the UN Secretary General called for lifting the sanctions after the referenda of The Turkish Cypriots are committed to finding a comprehensive settlement. They continue their constructive efforts with the UN Secretary General. Turkish Cypriots still want a comprehensive settlement and a new partnership in Cyprus. Both the current Turkish Cypriot government and the opposition support the efforts to reach a just and fair solution. The polls on the Greek Cypriot side, on the other hand, clearly show that they do not want a common solution. The Greek Cypriot youth has a negative view against a common future with the Turkish Cypriots. The Greek Cypriot side is rejecting the compromise proposals of the Turkish Cypriots without putting on table anything new and acceptable. Current talks cannot go on forever and the process should be expedited. We want a negotiated and mutually agreed political settlement in Cyprus within a reasonable time frame. The UN Secretary-General has stated that the process cannot be an open-ended one. The window of opportunity cannot remain open forever. The last round of talks that took place between 2008 and 2012 did not produce a settlement agreement due to the Greek Cypriots intransigence. We are now at a critical point. The confidence building measures proposed by the Turkish Cypriot side are very important to facilitate a settlement. 15 We hope for and support a meaningful process that will lead to a fair and comprehensive solution in We are also extremely concerned with the Greek Cypriot Administration s (GCA) decision to start offshore drilling activities in the south of Cyprus. Since it is directly related to sovereignty, we believe this issue should be a part of the comprehensive settlement in Cyprus. Both sides have equal rights and say over the natural resources of the island. This decision has the potential to undermine the talks for a comprehensive settlement and provoke a crisis. Turkey and Turkish Cypriots will do everything to protect their rights stemming from international law. To this end, an agreement was signed between Turkey and the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus on 21 September 2011 for the delimitation of continental shelf. We want the Greek Cypriots to stop unilateral drilling and exploration activities and start cooperating with the Turkish Cypriots under UN supervision. Natural resources including water could potentially serve as building blocks for peace within the framework of a just and long lasting solution. 16 A solution to the Cyprus question will bring peace, stability and an atmosphere of cooperation to the Eastern Mediterranean. Cyprus is no exception to Turkey s zero problems with neighbours policy. A settlement in Cyprus will be crucial in helping regional and global stability efforts. 17 TERÖRLE MÜCADELE Terrorism is a vital and long-lasting threat to global security. Today it is more complex and networked. It is a danger for all of us. International determination and cooperation is necessary for a counter terrorism strategy. Respect for human rights and addressing the main causes of terrorism are equally important. Turkey has been fighting different forms of terrorism for nearly four decades. Turkey has consistently and clearly condemned all forms of terrorism. We are committed to combating terrorism in all its forms and manifestations. The fight against terrorism in recent years became a global priority and sensitivities of Turkey are broadly shared. However it is still not enough. Some countries have selective approaches and some other countries don t have enough capacity. There could be no justification for terrorism. Regardless of their motivation, all kinds of terrorism are a crime against humanity. There are no exceptions. No religion, race, culture or ethnicity should be associated with terrorism. 18 The fight against terror cannot be selective. We need to cooperate against all terrorist organizations with equal will and determination. PKK is a terrorist organization. It targets peace and stability in Turkey. PKK has murdered more than Turkish citizens so far. Those who have suffered most from the PKK are Turkish citizens of Kurdish origin. In the meanwhile, PKK has enjoyed support of some neighboring countries. On the other hand, PKKaffiliated seemingly legal structures also benefit from the democratic and pluralistic environment in Europe. Therefore, Turkey is in constant dialogue with the European countries in order to prove the true nature of these structures and expect that necessary measures should be taken by these countries for curbing PKK s illegal criminal activities and propaganda in Europe. Turkey is dealing with PKK terror on a comprehensive basis. Security measures have been complemented by social, economic and cultural steps. We are determined to continue the ongoing democratic process aimed at enhancing individual rights and freedoms as well as democratic standards in Turkey. Through the said process, Kurdish is now freely spoken across the country. There is an official TV and private TV and radio channels are broadcasting in Kurdish. 19 Turkey has launched a process to put an end to the attacks and the activities of the PKK terrorist organization. This process demonstrates Turkish Government s sincere and comprehensive approach in countering terrorism. The ultimate target of these talks is to disarm the PKK and provide suitable environment for democratic and legitimate politics to everyone. The success of our fight against PKK terrorism also depends on our efforts to put an end to PKK activities mainly financing of terrorism in third countries.
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