Finnish Romani as a Northwestern dialect of Romani. Kimmo Granqvist University of Helsinki Kielitieteen päivät, Tampere, May 3, PDF

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Finnish Romani as a Northwestern dialect of Romani Kimmo Granqvist University of Helsinki Kielitieteen päivät, Tampere, May 3, 2013 NW vs. NE Dialects (Scandoromani) (Angloromani) (Caló) Northern Features

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Finnish Romani as a Northwestern dialect of Romani Kimmo Granqvist University of Helsinki Kielitieteen päivät, Tampere, May 3, 2013 NW vs. NE Dialects (Scandoromani) (Angloromani) (Caló) Northern Features (Bakker 1999) 1. Prothetic j in 3rd person pronouns jov/joj/jon-. 2. Separate quantificational pronouns čiči nothing, čimoni something, kuti little, keti how much. 3. Locations deicticsadaj/adoj/akaj (vs. kate/kote, katka/kotka). 4. Case endings of demonstrative pronouns -va/-ja/-la (m./f./pl.) vs. -o/-i/-la. 5. Long genitives and possessives: -kir- vs. -k-. 6. Negations kek. 7. Prothetics v in vaver other. 8. Loss of r in korkoro kokoro alone. 9. vr r in vraker- raker- to speak. Finland as a periphery(1) The northern innovation center is located in the German-speaking areas of NW Europe (Matras 2002: 9). Finland constitutes a geographically isolated periphery: Far away from the innovation center of the dialect group Gulf of Finland, Gulf of Bothnia as natural boundaries (marked with a blue line in the maps that will follow) Various political boundaries Finland as a periphery(2) Sweden in 1658 (http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/co mmons/c/cd/sweden_in_1658.png) The first Roma were attested in Finland in 1559 a large-scale movement of Roma to Karelia (Eastern Finland) first took place at the end of the 18th century. (Miika Tervonen, p.c. July 20, 2010.) A few families are known to have arrived from Sweden at the turn of the 19th century. (Miika Tervonen, p.c. July 20, 2010.) Finland as a periphery(3) Grand Duchy of Finland ( ) Part of the Russian empire (http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/ commons/7/7b/meyers_b14_s0080 a.jpg) visits of Roma from Eastern and Central Europe almost yearly between the end of the 19th century and the beginning of 20th century Typically northern innovations and conservative features in FR From the center in German-speaking areas of NW Europe many typically northern innovations have spread out: many of them are characteristic for Finnish Romani, too: the elision of light initial syllable, e.g. maal friend, khaar- to call, sa- to laugh (c.f. South amal, akhar-, asa-), initial jotation in certail lexical items, e.g. jaaro egg, jou he, joi she, joon they (c.f. South varo, vov, voj) loss of suppletion in the Oblique of koon who (FR koones vs. South kas) ṇḍř r, e.g. aṇḍřo jaaro egg maṇḍřo maaro bread Conservative features: lack of prothetic a: bjau (South abjav wedding ) lack of palatalization in dives (South džes day ) (Matras 2002: 9, 2005: ) Northern innovations not found/late attested in FR loss of ablative preposition katar loss of participal preterites such as džeelo gone, aulo/veelo come, diilo given; gave, liilo got, muulo died s - s/h alternation Periphery is in these cases more conservative than the center Finnish Romani and NE dialects A. Contact-induced changes: (superficially) shared with NE dialects (but not with Sinti): Loss of definite determiners (Finnish has no such; close contact languages of NE dialects have no such) Definite determiners occurred regularly still during the 19th century, but were mostly lost at the beginning of the 20th century (sporadically still used). douva it has become functionally determiner-like Specific location deictics/demonstratives in k- are lost/rare (Finnish has a three-term system; Russian, Polish and Latvian have two-term-systems (Tenser 2008: 92-3)) FR retained still at the turn of the 20 the century, all four permutations of location deictics and demonstratives in k-/d- and carrier vowels -a-/-o-. The short specific proximate demonstrative (a)ka this has remained in use, but the long form (a)kava disappeared. The specific remote (kouva that ) occurs, but is very rare. Finnish Romani and NE dialects full modifier agreement Hierarchy: demonstrative adjective indifenite + noun (doolesta siivesta it-obl.sg-abl non-rom-obl.sg-abl (SP), dola phuranesko komujesko neer it-obl.sg old-obl.sg-gen- M person-obl.sg-gen-m near (SP), phuranengo kaalengo old-obl.pl-gen-m Rom-Obl.Pl-Gen-M (SP); saaronenge israelinge all-obl.pl-dat Israeli-Obl.Pl-Dat (RB) ; sakkonengo džeenengo every-obl.pl-gen-m man-obl.pl- Gen-M (S), tšekken kaalen any-obl.pl Rom-Obl.Pl. (S) B. Innovative simplifications: (superficially) shared with NE (but not with Sinti): Lenition instead of fortition of final v: Lenition v u is shared with Est. Čuxny, LV Čuxny, Loftika and some of variants Lithuanian Romani; however, lenition is most natural in word-final position (Bauer 1988) Marker vowel -e- in preterite 2pl: loss of an -e- shared with NE dialects, -en- shared with Russ. and Pol. dialects of Romani, e.g khel-den, kin-dl-en; however, -e- is motivated as a spread of the unmarked 3p form; -en- analogical to pres.2/3p -en FR-specific innovations (not contactinduced) Feature FR Sinti Nasal leakage exhibited by voiced stops jag jang [jaŋk] fire Loss of initial r- rakkav-/akkav- puhua rakr- Affrication and metathesis of kh kher škeer house (idiolects.) Loss of Locative case yes no Suffix of abstract nouns Non-suppletive inflection of abstract nouns Oblique case of adjective modifiers Vowel in non-participal preterite -pa (found in Swedish Romani, too) jag Yes no -? Yes no -i-: traadidas drive- Pret.3sg, rannidom write- Pret.1sg (but ranlo) Pret Pl = Pret Sg Idiolects no kher -ben yes no Contact-induced changes Structural influence of Finnish language on Romani is visible since the latter half of the 19th century, suggesting that first at that time, Finnish was the linguistically dominant language of the Roma. No other close contact language has had such a deep influence on FR as Finnish. Germanic influence has been predominantly phonological (quantity-sentivity, š x (šeel ȟeel hundred ) and lexical. The latter half of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century: phonological imposition: during that period were adopted a Finnish-like vowel harmony and svarabhakti vowel, and long vowels were diphthongized replication of Finnish morphosyntactic patterns (pattern transfer): Finnish has supplied most of the abstract grammatical structure such as the syntax including the word order and the principles of case licensing. Contact with Finnish has caused a number typological changes FR. categories and oppositions not found in Finnish have been lost transfer of lexical items from Finnish has been extremely limited in contrast to the influence of Scandinavian languages in particular in the 20th century, increasing use of Finnish morphological exponents: secondary cases oblique verb forms Decreasing use of Romani (in particular after WII) Contact-induced changes: FR specific - The great reconstruction of verbal system 18th-19th Century Modern FR Indicative Indicative Conditional Present: Present: Present: tšeereha you do tšeereha you do tšeerehas you would do Imperfect: tšeerehas you did Morphological aspect was lost preterite/aorist tšerdal do did preterite/aorist/imperfect: tšerdal(las) you did Analytic past tenses do due to contact with Finnish Perfect: sal tšerdal(las) you have done Perfect: aaȟȟelas tšerdal(las) you would have done Pluperfect: tšerdallas you had done Pluperfect: sallas tšerdal(las) you had done Summary FR in periphery: Sinti innovations have not rearched it/have reached late: loss of ablative preposition katar, loss of participal preterites, s - s/h alternation A few similarities with NE dialects: Contact-induced changes: (superficially) shared with NE dialects (but not with Sinti) Innovative simplifications: (superficially) shared with NE (but not with Sinti) A number of FR-specific innovations (not contact-induced): loss of Locative case, loss of non-suppletive inflection of abstract nouns, loss of Oblique case of adjective modifiers A number of FR-specific changes induced by the contact with Finnish References Bakker, Peter 1999 The Northern branch of Romani. Mixed and non-mixed varieties. See. Halwachs, Dieter W. & Florian Menz (1999, eds., ). Boretzky & Igla 2004 Kommentierter Dialektatlas des Romani. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag. Halwachs, Dieter W. & Florian Menz 1999, eds. Die Sprache der Roma. Perspektiven der Romani-Forschung in Österreich im interdisziplinären und internationalen Kontext. Klagenfurt: Drava. Halwachs, Dieter W, Barbara Schrammel & Gerd Ambrosch 2005, eds. General and applied Romani linguistics. Munich: Lincom Europa. Hedman, Henry Sar me sikjavaa romanes. Romanikielen kielioppiopas. Jyväskylä: Opetushallitus. Koivisto, Viljo Rakkavaha romanes. Kaalengo tšimbako sikjibosko liin. Helsinki: Ammattikasvatushallitus Valtion painatuskeskus Romano-finitiko-angliko laavesko liin. Romani-suomi-englanti sanakirja. Romany-Finnish-English Dictionary. (Kotimaisten kielten tutkimuskeskuksen julkaisuja, 74.) Helsinki: Painatuskeskus. Matras, Yaron 1999d s/h alternation in Romani. An historical and functional interpretation. Grazer Linguistische Studien 51: Romani. A Linguistic Introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press The classification of Romani dialects: A geographic-historical perspective. See Halwachs, Dieter W., Barbara Schrammel & Gerd Ambrosch, (2005, eds., 7 26). RMS = The Romani Morpho-Syntax (RMS) Database. Developed by Yaron Matras and Viktor Elšík. Tenser, Anton The northeastern group of Romani dialects. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Manchester. Thesleff, Arthur Wörterbuch des Dialekts der finnländischen Zigeuner. (Acta Societatis Scientiarum Fennicae 29(6).) Helsinki: Finnische Litteratur-Gesellschaft. Valtonen, Pertti Suomen mustalaiskielen kehitys eri aikoina tehtyjen muistiinpanojen valossa. Lisensiaatintyö. Helsingin yliopisto.
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