Farmácia Popular Program: changes in geographic accessibility of medicines during ten years of a medicine subsidy policy in Brazil - PDF

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Emmerick et al. Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice (2015) 8:10 DOI /s x RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Farmácia Popular Program: changes in geographic accessibility of medicines

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Emmerick et al. Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice (2015) 8:10 DOI /s x RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Farmácia Popular Program: changes in geographic accessibility of medicines during ten years of a medicine subsidy policy in Brazil Isabel Cristina Martins Emmerick 1,3*, José Miguel do Nascimento Jr 2, Marco Aurélio Pereira 2, Vera Lucia Luiza 3, Dennis Ross-Degnan 1 and ISAUM-Br Collaborative Group 3 Abstract Objectives: The Brazilian constitution guarantees the right to health, including access to medicines. In May 2004, Brazil s government announced the Farmácia Popular Program (FPP) as a new mechanism to improve the Brazilian population s access to medicines. Under FPP, a selected list of medicines is subsidized by the government and provided in public and private pharmacies. The aim of this study is to describe the historical stages of the FPP and to identify associated changes in the geographical accessibility of medicines through the FPP over time. Methods: It was performed documentary review and an ecological study assessing program coverage in terms of number of facilities and a FPP Pharmacy Facilities Density (PFD) index at national and regional levels from 2004 to 2013, using the FPP database. We used geographic information system mapping to depict a pharmaceutical facilities density (PFD) index at the municipality level on thematic maps. Results: A growth of the PFD index coincident with the phases of the FPP was noticed. In the public sector, the program started in 2004; by 2006, there was a sharp increase in the numbers of participating pharmacies, stabilizing in In the private sector, the program started in 2006; by 2009 the PFD ratio had increased substantially and it continued to grow through There was an increase in FPP coverage in most regions between 2006, when the private pharmacy component started, and 2013, but participating pharmacies remain unequally distributed across geographical regions. Specifically, the wealthy areas in the South and Southeast have higher coverage, with lower coverage mostly in the North and Northeast, relatively poorer areas with greater need for access to medicines, health care, and other basic services such as potable water and sanitization. Conclusions: There has been a substantial increase in the number of pharmacies participating in the FPP over time. This has led to greater program coverage and has potentially improved access to FPP medicines in the country. Nevertheless, disparities in pharmacy coverage remain among the regions. Keywords: Government programs, Brazil, Essential medicines, Access, Co-payment * Correspondence: 1 Department of Population Medicine, Harvard Medical School and Harvard Pilgrim Health Care Institute, 133 Brookline Avenue, 6th Floor, Boston, MA 02215, USA 3 Nucleus for Pharmaceutical Policies, National School of Public Health, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, 1480, Rua Leopoldo Bulhões # 624, Manguinhos, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil Full list of author information is available at the end of the article 2015 Emmerick et al.; licensee BioMed Central. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated. Emmerick et al. Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice (2015) 8:10 Page 2 of 10 Introduction Equitable access to health care and medicines is a challenge worldwide. The World Health Organization (WHO) considers equitable access to safe and affordable medicines as vital to achieving the highest possible standard of health for all [1]. In the Latin America and Caribbean (LAC) region, health expenditures are estimated to account for more than one-third of all household expenditures [2], of which a large proportion is dedicated to medicines. The high prices of medicines and the need for high out-ofpocket payments by patients represent important barriers in their access [3]. A government subsidy system is one method to expand access to medicines in a sustainable way. In Brazil, total expenditures on health services accounted for 5.5% of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and total expenditures on medicines accounted 1.9% of GDP in [4]. Data from the most recent household expenditures survey shows that health is the fourth most important expenditure category, after housing, food and transportation; medicines accounted for about 47% of total household expenditures on health, with higher expenditure burden among the poorest [5]. Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the leading causes of death in the world, responsible for 63% of the 57 million deaths that occurred in The majority of these deaths, were attributed to cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, cancers, and chronic respiratory diseases [6]. NCDs are also the leading causes of premature death and illness throughout the Americas [7]. In Brazil, 72% of deaths in 2007 are attributed to NCDs, with heart disease being the leading cause [8,9]. About 12.2% of all hospitalizations not related to pregnancies and 15.4% of all hospital costs in the period could be attributed to diabetes. Control of NCDs continues to be one of top health priorities in Brazil, addressed through a set of integrated policies [8]. Access to and appropriate use of medicines are crucial for controlling NCDs, especially hypertension and diabetes, contributing to improved health outcomes and quality of life. Governments or third-party payers subsidize medicines when they pay a percentage of the cost, with patients responsible for the remained. One important question that arises regarding the effect of medicine subsidies is whether subsidies increase overall access to medicines for all population segments. Currently, there are few studies conducted in LMIC that attempt to address this critical question. Most existing studies have weak designs and limited analytic scope. Lack of knowledge about the effectiveness of subsidy policies in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) presents a barrier to [10]. In Brazil, access to health care, including access to medicines, is a citizen s constitutional right and the government s responsibility. The Brazilian health system, known as SUS (Unified Health System Sistema Único de Saúde ), is organized by the principles of universal coverage, management decentralization, health assistance integrity, and community participation [11]. The National Health System consists of a tax-funded public sector, where care is offered free of charge to the entire population, and a private sector, comprising diverse prepayment mechanisms such as health insurance and out-of-pocket financing. Private sector health facilities and practitioners also provide health services under contracts with the government [12]. Before 2004, medicines in Brazil were obtained through two pathways, either free in public health care facilities or paid out-of-pocket in the private sector (retail pharmacies). In May 2004, Brazil s government announced an additional mechanism to improve the Brazilian population s access to medicines [13]. The policy called Farmácia Popular do Brasil Program (FPP) specified a list of essential medicines to be subsided initially in by the government and supplied in public pharmacies; some years later, this program was expanded to contracted private pharmacies. Brazil has historically exhibited important regional socioeconomic and health system disparities (Table 1) in terms of social indicators and urban infrastructure [14]. The lower reported prevalence of hypertension and diabetes may be attributed in part to lower diagnostic capacity. Marked geographic inequalities in access to health services and health outcomes are also present; while the prevalence of morbidity is inversely proportional to household income per capita and thus higher in the North and Northeast, the rate of health services use in those regions is lower [15]. This paper was developed under a broader study denominated Impact of consecutive subsidies policies on access to and use of medicines in Brazil (ISAUM-Br Project) [16,17]. The main project goal is to evaluate the impact Brazilian subsidies policies Farmácia Popular Program (FPP) in its four consecutive phases on access and use of medicines. This paper describes the Farmácia Popular Program (FPP) in its four consecutive phases and the changes in coverage and geographic scope of the program that have occurred over time. Understanding the geographic impacts of these changes in Brazilian medicines subsidy policy will increase knowledge about whether large government subsidies for specific categories of medications can reduce disparities in access. Methods It was performed a documentary review of the FPP from 2004 to 2013 and an ecological study that assessed coverage in terms of the number of participating Emmerick et al. Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice (2015) 8:10 Page 3 of 10 Table 1 Economic, health structure and health indicators, Brazil and regions, 2006 to GDP per capita(usd)* Brazil 5,824 7,215 8,715 8,470 11,229 12,856 - North 3,667 4,469 5,568 5,320 7,215 8,291 - Northeast 2,767 3,421 4,081 4,089 5,432 6,196 - Southeast 7,764 9,556 11,544 11,088 14,763 16,925 - South 6,499 8,224 9,950 9,675 12,908 14,556 - West-Center 7,137 8,962 11,117 11,197 14,175 16,614 - Life expectancy on birth (years) Brazil North Northeast Southeast South West-Center Number of MD per inhabitant** Brazil North Northeast Southeast South West-Center Diabetes prevalence per 100 inhabitants Brazil North Northeast Southeast South West-Center Hypertension prevalence per 100 inhabitants (Population 25 years old and over) Brazil North Northeast Southeast South West-Center Source: Basic data and indicators - Brazil IDB-2012 Department of Informatics of the National Health System (DATASUS) available in: http://tabnet.datasus.gov.br/cgi/idb2012/matriz.htm *regional data is not available for 2012; **Medical Doctors registered in the national database of health establishments. facilities and a Pharmacy Facilities Density (PFD) index at national and regional levels, using data from the FPP and the Ministry of Health. The documentary review intended to describe the FPP and its stages of implementation according to official regulations, including technical changes in the program. We performed a search of documents in Saúde Legis a database containing all legislation related to health in Brazil-and the Brazilian Ministry of Health website, that contains all technical guidelines formulated at the federal level. The keywords used were farmácia popular or farmacia AND popular from January 2004 to January All documents concerning Farmacia Popular regulations were included, and exclusion criteria do not apply. In order to identify changes in geographical coverage of the FPP program over time, three indicators were used: number of facilities; percentage of municipalities covered (i.e., municipalities with one or more pharmacies in the FPP); and Pharmacy Facilities Density (PFD, number of pharmacies affiliated with the FPP per 100,000 inhabitants). These measures were applied separately for public and private pharmacies. A growth index was calculated summarizing the percentage change over time, considering 2006 as baseline year for comparison, since the number of facilities in 2004 on the different stratum are zero. When facilities did not exist in a specific population stratum in 2006, we used 2008 as the base year. The selected years correspond to the years before and after each Farmácia Popular intervention. These indicators were calculated for the population of Brazil as a whole, for each region, and by municipality size, which was considered as a proxy for urban/rural, considering small municipalities (rural) as those with 20,000 inhabitants or less and medium/large municipalities (urban) as those with greater than 20,000 inhabitants. Additionally, geographic information system mapping was used [18] to allow visualization of the PFD ratio at municipality level on thematic maps for the years 2006 and The ISAUM-Br project [17] was reviewed and approved by the World Health Organization Research Ethics Review Committee (WHO ERC) under the protocol identification number RPC554 and the Brazilian National Ethical Committee under the protocol number Results In the literature review, 211 relevant documents were found; 30 documents in the Ministry of Health website and 176 in the Saúde Legis. (Complete results of the documents search in Additional file 1). The Farmácia Popular Program (FPP) was created in 2004 and during the succeeding 10 years the FPP experienced three main changes (Figure 1). In 2006, the government expanded the program to the private retail Emmerick et al. Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice (2015) 8:10 Page 4 of 10 Figure 1 Time line of the Farmácia Popular Program. A FPP (May 2004): Programa Farmácia Popular do Brasil -Brazilian Popular Pharmacy Program-Initiation of Farmácia Popular rede própria. B AFP I (March 2006): Aqui tem farmácia Popular Popular Pharmacy is Available Here Phase I Private Sector public private partnership. C AFPII(April2009): Aqui tem farmácia Popular -Popular Pharmacy is Available Here Phase II. After changes on administrative procedures and on medicines covered. D SNP (February 2011): Saúde não tem preço -Health has no price. Free of Charge medicines for Hypertension and Diabetes. pharmacies; in 2009 the medicines list (Additional file 2) was expanded and some administrative requirements changed; and in 2011, medicines for diabetes and hypertension started to be fully subsidized. The medicines list covered also changed over time, becoming broader and covering more diseases. Three modalities of Farmácia Popular are concurrently in place at this time: FPP in public facilities; AFP in accredited private retail pharmacies; and SNP which covers a subset of medicines targeting relevant chronic diseases that are dispensed to patients with no co-payment in both the FPP and AFP. These modalities are described below. In 2004, Brazil s government announced Farmácia Popular do Brasil (FPP) a new mechanism to improve the Brazilian population s access to medicines [13]. This policy specified a list of medicines to be subsided by the government and supplied in public pharmacies and it was especially aimed at low income people covered by private health care insurance, since in Brazil, few private insurance programs include outpatient medicines as a benefit [19]. Considering the size of Brazil, the total number of pharmacies was low, especially in the north and northeast regions. The FPP, initiated in May 2004 involved a public network of facilities such as university hospitals and NGOs that were coordinated by the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (Fiocruz) on behalf of the Ministry of Health (MoH) and developed through partnerships with states and municipalities [13]. The project to install a Farmácia Popular facility is standardized and includes minimum infrastructure requirements, human resources (quantity, qualification, and uniform), and equipment. The federal government, through Fiocruz management, is responsible for funding infrastructure and maintenance, including training, employee payment, and purchase of medicines [19]. The sale price of medicines, which means the price paid by the patients, in these pharmacies is established by the federal government and comprises the medicine value, purchased through open bidding, plus the pharmacy operating costs [19]. In March 2006, the government expanded this policy to include retail pharmacies in the private sector [20]. Under this policy, 90% of the reference price of a limited list of medicines would be subsided by the government in private pharmacies, with the remaining paid by the consumer [21]. Prices paid by patients varied depending on the relation between the reference price (RP) (established by the MoH for each medicine) and its selling price (SP). If the SP is lower than the RP, the government pays 90% of the SP. If the SP is equal to or greater than the RP, the government pays 90% of the reference value [17]. The AFP Phase I was implemented through partnerships with private retail pharmacies, but with a limited set of the medicines than available in the public sector program [21]. This allowed rapid expansion of the number of establishments, enabling wider program coverage, from around 3,000 pharmacies in 2006 to 6,500 in 2008 (Table 2). The management is carried out directly by the Department of Pharmaceutical Services/Office of Science Technology and Strategic Resources-Ministry of Health (Departamento de Assistência Farmacêutica/ Secretaria de Ciência Tecnologia e Insumos estratégicos Ministério da Saúde Brasil-DAF/SCTIE/MS). The minimum requirements for the establishments, which included sanitary authorization of operation, presence of a technically responsible pharmacist, fiscal capability, and infrastructure for a computerized system) were requirements for accreditation of the participating private pharmacies [21]. Emmerick et al. Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice (2015) 8:10 Page 5 of 10 Table 2 Number of Farmácia Popular Facilities in public and private sectors, Brazil and regions, 2004 to Public sector facilities Brazil North Northeast Southeast South West-Center Private sector facilities Brazil 2,955 5,052 6,459 10,790 14,000 20,165 25,120 25,150 North Northeast ,027 1,839 2,758 2,766 Southeast 1,746 2,916 3,700 6,416 7,742 10,291 12,423 12,443 South 581 1,157 1,592 2,780 3,857 5,673 6,824 6,833 West-Center ,015 1,775 2,422 2,415 In April 2009, the government expanded the list of medicines while retaining the same degree of subsidy as FPP under a program named Aqui Tem Farmácia Popular phase II (AFP Phase II) [22]. The expanded list contains medicines for hypertension, diabetes, and contraception [23]. In 2010, the list was further broadened to include medicines for rhinitis, asthma, Parkinson disease, osteoporosis, glaucoma, and adult diapers [24]. In the AFP Phase II, reorganization included changes in the methodology for accreditation, changes in the computerized system, and greater accuracy in MoH payment to retail pharmacies [22]. The number of establishments reached 25,120 in 2012, covering 63.4% of Brazilian municipalities, but with higher coverage in the medium/large municipalities (84.0%) compared to small municipalities (54.6%) (Table 3). Advertising of the program is standardized by the government and visual inspection of the retail pharmacy facilities is mandatory [25]. Display of an easily visible document (such as a chart) containing the medicines list and corresponding price list is required for pharmacies in the program [26]. During these successive policies, a physician prescription has always been required for dispensing even for OTC medicines. The Saúde não tem preço (SNP, Health Has No Price) program, which began in February 2011 granted 100% subsidy (i.e., no patient copayment) under the Farmácia Popular program for medicines used to treat diabetes and hypertension [23]. It was implemented in both public and private pharmacies that were already enrolled in the FPP or AFP under the previous policies. In June 2012, medicines indicated for asthma treatment were also included [27]. The number of pharmacies under the programs has increased over time (Table 2). In the public sector FPP, the largest growth was between the implementation in 2004 (27 facilities) and 2009 (530 facilities), when investment in developing additional public pharmacies stopped. The private sector AFP has a greater number of pharmacy outlets compared with the publ
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