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ESTUDIOS DE FONÉTICA EXPERIMENTAL XXIII Barcelona, 2014 La revista Estudios de Fonética Experimental está recogida en: CARHUS Plus+2014 Revistes Científiques de Ciències Socials i Humanitats de la Generalitat

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ESTUDIOS DE FONÉTICA EXPERIMENTAL XXIII Barcelona, 2014 La revista Estudios de Fonética Experimental está recogida en: CARHUS Plus+2014 Revistes Científiques de Ciències Socials i Humanitats de la Generalitat de Catalunya (AGAUR): Valoración: A. Ámbito Filología, Lingüística i Sociolingüística IN-RECH. Ámbito: Lingüística general y aplicada. Índice de impacto : primer cuartil (1 de 51). SUMARIOS ISOC-Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades, producidos por el CINDOC del CSIC: LATINDEX: Criterios latindex cumplidos: 33 SCOPUS: SJR (SCImago Journal & Contry Rank). Language & Linguistics 0,101; H index: 1. DIALNET Plus de la Universidad de La Rioja: MIAR Live 2014 (UB): Difusión ICDS: CIRC 2012 (Clasific.Integrada de Revistas Científicas). Grupo B. ULRICH'S Serials Analysis System: Num. Dewey: 401. Mat: Ling. RESH (Revistas Españolas de Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades). Valoración: C. Opinión expertos 2009: 1.5. Impacto : LINGUISTIC BIBLIOGRAPHY. REBIUN (Red de Bibliotecas Universitarias). Todos los volúmenes de la revista en pdf son accesibles desde las siguientes direcciones: Lab. Fonética UB: Consorci de Biblioteques Universitàries de Catalunya. RACO: ISSN electrónico: Laboratori de Fonètica Universitat de Barcelona Dipòsit Legal: B ISSN: Impressió: Gráficas Rey, S.L. Tiratge: 300 exemplars Todos los trabajos publicados por Estudios de Fonética Experimental en línea están sujetos a una licencia Creative Commons Reconocimiento-NoComercial- SinObraDerivada 3.0-España, si no se indica lo contrario. Lic. completa: Estudios de Fonética Experimental Director-Editor: Coordinadora: Comité de Redacción: Comité Científico: Dirección de «EFE» EUGENIO MARTÍNEZ CELDRÁN (Universitat de Barcelona) ANA Ma. FERNÁNDEZ PLANAS (Universitat de Barcelona) ELSA MORA GALLARDO (Universidad de los Andes-VEN) LOURDES ROMERA BARRIOS (Universitat de Barcelona-ESP) PAOLO ROSEANO (Universitat de Barcelona-ESP) VALERIA SALCIOLI GUIDI (Universitat de Barcelona-ESP) LAURA COLANTONI (University of Toronto-CA) MICHEL CONTINI (Université Stendhal Grenoble-3 FR) JOSEFA DORTA LUIS (Universidad de La Laguna-ESP) MANUEL GONZÁLEZ GONZÁLEZ (Universidade de Santiago de Compostela-ESP) JOSÉ IGNACIO HUALDE (University of Illinois en Urbana- Champaign-EEUU) VICTORIA MARRERO AGUIAR (Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia-ESP) ANTONIO PAMIES BERTRÁN (Universidad de Granada-ESP) DANIEL RECASENS VIVES (Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona-ESP) ROSA MIREN PAGOLA PETRIRENA (Universidad de Deusto- ESP) PILAR PRIETO VIVES (Universitat Pompeu Fabra-ESP) ANTONIO ROMANO (Universitá di Torino-IT) Ma. JOSEP SOLÉ SABATER (Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona-ESP) Estudios de Fonética Experimental Laboratori de Fonètica Universitat de Barcelona Aulari Josep Carner, 5è Gran Via de les Corts Catalanes, BARCELONA T Han actuado como revisores anónimos para uno o más artículos propuestos para este número los siguientes investigadores (por orden alfabético), tanto para los artículos aceptados como para los artículos rechazados: Gotzon Aurrekoetxea Olabarri José Joaquín Atria Lemaitre Charles B. Chang Jordi Cicres Bosch Matt Coler Yolanda Congosto Martín Eva Christina Orzechowski Dias Josefa Dorta Luis Christoph Gabriel Juan María Garrido Almiñana Jorge A. Gurlekian José Ignacio Hualde Martin Kohlberger Joan Carles Mora Bonilla Eugenio Martínez Celdrán Andreia Schurt Rauber Lucrecia Rallo Fabra Xosé Luis Regueira Fernández Domingo Román Montes de Oca Antonio Romano Marco Rohena Madrazo Ma. Josep Solé Sabaté Universidad de País Vasco-Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea-ESP) (University College London-ING) (Rice University-USA) (Universitat de Girona-ESP) (Free University of Amsterdam-HOL) (Universidad de Sevilla-ESP) (Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina- BRA) (Universidad de La Laguna-ESP) (Universität Hamburg-ALEM) (Universitat Pompeu Fabra-ESP) (CONICET y Universidad de Buenos Aires-ARG) (University of Illinois at Urbana- Champaign-USA) (Leiden Univesity-HOL) (Universitat de Barcelona-ESP) (Universitat de Barcelona-ESP) (Universidade Católica de Pelotas-BRA) (Universitat de les Illes Balears-ESP) (Universidade de Santiago de Compostela-ESP) (Universidad Católica de Chile-CH) (Universitá di Torino-IT) (Midlebury College- USA) (Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona- ESP) ÍNDICE Artículos Análisis de las propiedades acústicas de las emociones básicas simuladas en bilingües precoces de vasco-español [Analysis of the acoustic properties of basic emotions simulated in early bilingual Spanish-Basque people] Iñaki Gaminde, Asier Romero, Urtza Garay y Aintzane Extebarria p. 11 La prosodia del español del centro de México en el marco del proyecto AMPER [The prosody of central Mexican Spanish in the framework of the Project AMPER] Paola R. Sagastuy y Ana Ma. Fernández Planas p. 47 Variabilidad intra- e inter-hablante de la fricativa sibilante /s/ en el español de Argentina [Intra- and inter-speaker variability of sibilant fricative /s/ in Argentine Spanish] Pedro Univaso, Miguel Martínez Soler y Jorge A. Gurlekian... p. 95 Prosodia fonética de enunciados representativos e interrogativos absolutos: elementos locales y globales [Phonetic prosody of representative and absolute interrogative utterances: local and global effects] Pedro Martín Butragueño p. 125 Parámetros acústicos dos sons fricativos da lingua galega [Acoustic parameters of fricative sounds of Galician] Sabela Labraña Barrero p. 203 Miscelánea GLASÚN 1.0: A new data management and prompting system for research in acoustic phonetics [GLASÚN 1.0: Un nuevo sistema de gestión de datos para la investigación en fonética acústica] Mark Gibson e Ignacio de Lorenzo Rodríguez p. 247 Notas y reseñas Pilar Prieto y Teresa Cabré (coords) (2013): L'entonació dels dialectes catalans, Barcelona, Publicacions de l'abadia de Montserrat. Wendy Elvira García p. 267 Josefa Dorta Luis (ed) (2013): Estudio comparativo preliminar de la entonación de Canarias, Cuba y Venezuela, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, La Página ediciones. Paolo Roseano p. 271 Pedro Martín Butragueño (2014): Fonología variable del español de México, Vol. I: Procesos segmentales, México DF, El Colegio de México. Lourdes Romera Barrios p. 276 Daniel Recasens i Vives (2014): Fonètica i fonologia experimentals del català. Vocals i consonants, Barcelona, Institut d'estudis Catalans Eva Bosch i Roura p. 283 Ma. Azucena Penas Ibáñez (ed) (2013): Panorama de la fonética española actual, Madrid, Arco/Libros SL. Ramon Cerdà Massó p. 289 Sun-Ah Jun (ed) (2014): Prosodic Typology II. The Phonology of Intonation and Phrasing, Oxford, Oxford University Press Nicolas Henriksen, Lorenzo Amaya y Sarah Harper p. 296 «Estudios de Fonética Experimental» informa: Procedimiento y normas para la presentación de originales.. p. 303 Suscripciones p. 308 Anuncios: Máster oficial en fonética y fonología. CSIC-UIMP p. 311 Publicación del libro La lingüística en España: 24 autobiografías p. 312 GLASÚN 1.0: A NEW DATA MANAGEMENT AND PROMPTING SYSTEM FOR RESEARCH IN ACOUSTIC PHONETICS GLASÚN 1.0: UN NUEVO SISTEMA DE GESTIÓN DE DATOS PARA LA INVESTIGACIÓN EN FONÉTICA ACÚSTICA MARK GIBSON Universidad de Navarra IGNACIO DE LORENZO RODRÍGUEZ Universidad de Navarra Artículo recibido el día: 31/10/2013 Artículo aceptado definitivamente el día: 30/06/2014 Estudios de Fonética Experimental, ISSN , XXIII, 2014, pp GLASÚN 1.0: A new data management and prompting system ABSTRACT This methodological study presents the results of an initiative to create a new data management and prompting system which can be interfaced with acoustic data for research in acoustic phonetics. The objectives of this initiative were to provide an economical way to record, organize and manipulate acoustic data and to construct a system which allows the use of external recording equipment for production experiments. For the project, a program was designed with a built-in visual prompting system which simultaneously synchronizes the text in accordance with defined temporal regions in the long file for easy extraction for use in perception experiments. Results of external assessment were considerably positive due to the user-friendly platform which does not require scripting, meaning the organization and manipulation of data files is less time-consuming and more efficient. Keywords: data management system, acoustic phonetics research, visual prompting. RESUMEN Este estudio metodológico presenta los resultados de una iniciativa para crear un nuevo sistema de gestión de datos que se puede interconectar con un archivo acústico para la investigación en fonética acústica. Los objetivos de esta iniciativa eran crear una forma eficiente de registrar, organizar y manipular los datos acústicos y de diseñar un sistema que permita el uso de un equipo de grabación externo para los experimentos de producción. Para el proyecto, se diseñó un programa que presenta el corpus al sujeto de una manera visual y organiza de forma simultánea los datos de acuerdo con las regiones temporales definidas en el archivo largo para una fácil extracción para su uso en experimentos de percepción. Los resultados de la evaluación externa fueron en general positivos debido a la plataforma que no requiere shell scripting, lo cual significa que la organización y la manipulación de los archivos de datos eran menos laboriosas y más eficientes. Palabras clave: sistema de gestión de datos, investigación en fonética acústica, presentación visual del corpus. 250 Mark Gibson & Ignacio de Lorenzo Rodríguez 1. INTRODUCTION The following initiative arose out of the need to create a data management system for acoustic data collection which permitted the use of an external recording system during the data collection phase of a Master s thesis entitled L aspiration du /s/ en position coda dans l espagnol d Andalousie occidentale : analyse acoustico-perceptive autour de l ambigüité du message (Ivent, 2013) at the Université Sorbonne Nouvelle Paris 3. This acoustic-perceptual study presented a variety of challenges for conventional acoustic analysis. The first of these challenges was related to the topic under study, aspiration of coda /s/ in the Western Andalusian dialect of Southern Spain. In this dialect, /s/ is aspirated or eliminated in a gradient way in a variety of prosodic, phonological, morphological, syntactic and pragmatic contexts. As has been well established in the literature, the aspiration of /s/ in Spanish involves the substitution of the oral features of /s/ by a glottal [h], characterized by a gradient current of air with no frication quality. Articulatorily, aspiration is characterized by a parameter setting specifying a wide glottis which is superimposed on the form of the oral cavity (for a partial review of /s/ aspiration and deletion in Spanish, as well as their residual effects, please see Alonso et al 1950; Salvador 1957; Alarcos Llorach 1958; Mondéjar 1970; Contreras Jurado 1975; Salvador 1977; Terrell 1979; Lipski 1983, 1984, 1986; Penny 2000; Gerfen 2002; O Neill, 2005, among many others). Ladefoged and Maddieson (1996:50) suggest that for breathy voice (most akin to the process of aspiration in Spanish) the rate of airflow through the glottis for an average adult male registers between ml/s. Aspiration and deletion manifest in a number of ways in the spectrogram. Features of the segment may appear in the temporal position of the gesture they replace (/s/), but the effects of aspiration also appear as residual effects over the following consonant (and emerge as a post aspiration for the consonant at the right margin of the segment). In many cases, the energy concentrates around the higher frequencies, making it difficult to discern clear cases of aspiration from ambient noise. The extent to which this phonetic cue is perceptibly salient, or at least audible, depends on many factors such as the prosodic position and the following consonant. Often, the timing of aspiration does not coincide with that of /s/ and the only phonetic cues available for analysis reside in the residual effects on the following or preceding segment. In the event that the following segment is consonantal, aspiration often centers as noise around F4 and F5 (figure 1): GLASÚN 1.0: A new data management and prompting system (a) (b) Figure 1. The first image (a) shows aspiration in the intervocalic context (las alas the wings ). The second image (b) is an example of aspiration in coda position preceding a stop across word boundaries. As opposed to standard segments in the Spanish phonological inventory, there is relatively low stability with regard to phonetic realization. The variant nature of the segment in the phonetic environment and the fact that the effects of aspiration are often times not discernible from ambient noise motivated the need to collect the data for the study in an unconventional way. The fact that the acoustic data would be used for perception testing following the post-data processing required that there be minimal ambiguity in the auditory signal which may distort the subjects responses. The second challenge which emerged in the planning stages of the study was related to the nature of the corpus. For the study, we wanted to collect samples of aspiration, deletion and full realization of /s/ in a variety of contexts. One of the weaknesses we discovered in past studies treating the aspiration and deletion of /s/ was that the corpus was restricted to very few phonological, prosodic and morphological contexts. This means that statistics may be skewed with regard to the emergence of aspiration and deletion, and the environment which triggers these processes. 252 Mark Gibson & Ignacio de Lorenzo Rodríguez The corpus for the present study contained 328 total phrases, of which 151 contained the target structure (20 tokens of lexical /s/ and 131 tokens of morpheme /s/). The remaining 177 tokens contained the target structure in different prosodic contexts. Three repetitions of the entire corpus were solicited by two native speakers of Western Andalusian Spanish, rendering a total of 1968 phrases for post-data processing. Given the robust quantity of tokens, an economical way to organize, fragment and annotate the tokens was crucial. These two challenges were resolved by designing a program which permitted the use of a powerful recording design and facilitated the fragmentation of the acoustic data. The program was designed for use when laboratory instrumentation and environmental controls are either insufficient or unavailable. For the present study, the program was designed for use in the 98.3 Radio recording studio of the University of Navarra because of the superior quality of the recording equipment and the double-insulated sound-attenuating booth. 2. ACOUSTIC DESIGN The data for the acoustic experiments were to serve two purposes. First, a production analysis was performed in order to categorize the acoustic parameters of aspiration and deletion in syllable-final position. Afterward, the data were to be extracted from their carrier phrases and used as stimuli for a series of perception tests. To collect the data, a recording design was devised which used three Sennheiser 441 professional microphones connected to an AEQ BC2500 audio mixer which directed the acoustic signal to a personal computer outfitted with an M-audio fast-track pro sound card (permitting a resolution of 16 bytes and signal compression of 256 KB/second (figure 2): Figure 2. Design scheme to extract the acoustic signal. GLASÚN 1.0: A new data management and prompting system The acoustic signal was channeled through a super-cardioid microphone for use in speech recording. The particular model used for data collection rejects auditory feedback and allowed for accurate signal response and low distortion at high sound pressure levels. A compensation coil prevented ambient noise from registering in the sound file. The signal was directed to the audio mixer where it was pre-processed by a radiofrequency filter of 100 (Hz) before being directed and registered to the PC sound card. This process permitted the adjustment of signal saturation by an LED (Light Emitting Diode) which alerts to maximum levels. A potentiometer regulated channel output signal balance. The result was a registered signal with minimum noise and natural saturation levels. An external sound card was chosen to register the signal in order to avoid EMI/RF (electromagnetic interference/radio frequency) and PSU (power supply unit) noise. The signal was received by the external sound card and registered digitally before being transferred to the PC for analysis. The subjects for the production study repeated the tokens contained in the corpus and the acoustic system registered the repetitions in one long file. The data management system was superimposed over the acoustic file, and the temporally defined acoustic regions were synchronized to the data text automatically. Thus, two types of files were generated for the two distinct purposes of the study: (1) long file which permitted signal analysis using Matlab, and (2) automatically fragmented acoustic files to allow easy extraction for perception stimuli. In the following section, a description of the data management system will be outlined. 3. DATA MANAGEMENT SYSTEM: GLASÚN 1.0 The acoustic data were collected for both production analysis and use in perception tests. For the former, long files are desirable in order to easily extract duration and frequency values by way of a script. However, very long acoustic files with various repetitions per token render extraction for perception tests time-consuming. The data management system interfaces two readily available programs: Microsoft Access, which was amplified and modified with Visual Basic (VB), and Sound Forge. For simple functions such as window design and display, Access was employed. The more complex functions such as the exportation of temporal 254 Mark Gibson & Ignacio de Lorenzo Rodríguez regions and recording control were structured with VB codes (but may be done in Java). The information in the data base was organized according to the scheme in figure 3: Figure 3. Conceptual scheme of GLASÚN 1.0. The different elements of the data base include: 1. Projects (proyectos in the original Spanish version): can be composed of one or various sessions. This permits the transferal of data pertaining to different projects within the same system. 2. Sessions (sesiones): within the same project corresponds to diverse recordings of various texts. 3. Texts (textos): correspond to the tokens which will be recorded in each session. 4. Locutions (locuciones): are the result of the distinct locution sessions. These locutions are non-existent until recording is realized. The texts are shared between the distinct projects and sessions in such a way that within the same projects, the sessions can be varied to include determined texts, but not others. This organization is expressed in the data base in the following way: 1. Projects (fields: Id, name of project, author, starting date of the project). GLASÚN 1.0: A new data management and prompting system Sessions (fields: Id, Locutor, Id of the project, date of recording, starting and end times of the recording sessions). 3. Text (fields: Id of interlocutor and text to be recorded). 4. Locutions (fields: Id of interlocutor, text to be read, start and end times for recordings). 5. Unisesiontexto: This is a table which permits association between texts and sessions, as well as their organization. The fields are (1) identification of subject, (2) text, (3) session and (4) order. This table interfaces the identification fields of the subjects of the individual sessions as well as the text. These data are displayed afterward in a window which faci
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