Dor em adolescentes x atletas adultos pós lca

1. Journal of Athletic Training 2003;38(2):154–157 by the National Athletic Trainers’ Association, Incwww.journalofathletictraining.orgComparing Postoperative Pain…

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  • 1. Journal of Athletic Training 2003;38(2):154–157 by the National Athletic Trainers’ Association, Incwww.journalofathletictraining.orgComparing Postoperative Pain Experiencesof the Adolescent and Adult Athlete AfterAnterior Cruciate Ligament SurgeryDean A. Tripp*; William D. Stanish†; Gerald Reardon†; Catherine Coady†;Michael J. L. Sullivan‡*Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario; †Queen Elizabeth II Health Sciences Centre, Halifax, Nova Scotia;‡University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, CanadaDean A. Tripp, PhD, contributed to conception and design; acquisition and analysis and interpretation of the data; and drafting,critical revision, and final approval of the article. William D. Stanish, MD, Gerald Reardon, MD, and Catherine Coady, MD,contributed to conception and design; acquisition of the data; and drafting, critical revision, and final approval of the article.Michael J. L. Sullivan, PhD, contributed to conception and design; analysis and interpretation of the data; and drafting, criticalrevision, and final approval of the article.Address correspondence to Dean A. Tripp, PhD, Departments of Psychology & Anesthesiology, Humphrey Hall, Queen’sUniversity, Kingston, Ontario, Canada K7L 3N6. Address e-mail to Objective: To examine age-related differences in pain, ca- greater pain, catastrophizing, and anxiety than adults. Ancillarytastrophizing, and affective distress (depression and anxiety) analyses showed that helplessness and rumination were sig-after athletic injury and knee surgery. nificant contributors to the differences in catastrophizing. Fur- Design and Setting: Participants were assessed with mea- ther, an analysis of covariance showed that controlling for thesures of pain intensity, pain-related catastrophizing, depression, effects of catastrophizing, the adolescent and adult differencesand anxiety symptoms at 24 hours after anterior cruciate liga- in pain scores were reduced to a null effect.ment (ACL) surgery. Conclusions: After ACL surgery, athletic adolescents and Subjects: Twenty patients (10 adolescents, 10 adults) with adults differed significantly in pain, catastrophizing, and acute complete tear of the ACL. Catastrophizing seemed to be a particularly strong factor in Measurements: Pain was assessed by Visual Analog Scale postoperative pain differences between adolescents and adults,(VAS), catastrophizing with the Pain Catastrophizing Scale with clinical-management implications. These data indicate the(PCS), depressive symptoms with the Beck Depression Inven- need for continued research into specific pain- and age-relatedtory (BDI), and anxiety with the state form of the State-Trait factors during the acute postoperative period for athletes un-Anxiety Inventory (STAI-S). dergoing ACL surgery. Results: At 24 hours postsurgery, adolescents reported Key Words: catastrophizing, knee surgery intensity in athletes,11 and given that no published reports haveA s many as 20 million children and adolescents partic- ipate in organized sport programs in the United States examined postoperative pain for adolescents after ACL sur- alone,1 and more than $8 million was spent on child- gery, we examined acute postoperative pain, catastrophizing,hood sport injuries in 1987.2 In addition to the monetary costs, and affective distress (depression and anxiety) after ACL sur-sport injuries are important because an athlete’s physical and gery across adolescents and adults.psychological well-being are threatened.3 Issues of adjustmentand pain after sport injury are salient for adolescents because METHODSof incomplete development in both the physical and emotionalrealms4 and the fact that pain is the most pervasive and de-bilitating obstacle to effective rehabilitation of sport-related Participantsinjury.5,6 We also recognize that research on pain after sport Twenty recreational athletes participated in this study. Allinjury is limited, and adolescents have received little attention were scheduled for arthroscopic ACL reconstructive surgery us-as a group. ing the patellar-tendon autograft procedure and were recruited Most sport injuries for 8- to 17-year-olds involve lower ex- from the orthopaedic surgery service of the Queen Elizabeth IItremities (73%), with a significant proportion occurring in the Health Sciences Centre in Halifax, Nova Scotia. Of the 10 ad-knee (22%).7 Injuries to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) olescent patients (range, 16–18 years of age), 5 were femaleare prevalent and debilitating knee injuries.8–10 With current and 6 had a noncontact injury, with all reporting significantresearch suggesting that catastrophizing (ie, an exaggerated desire to return to their sport. Of the 10 adult patients (range,negative mental set brought to bear during actual or anticipated 20–53 years), 4 were female and 8 had a noncontact injury,painful experience) about pain is a significant predictor of pain with all reporting significant desire to return to their sport.154 Volume 38 • Number 2 • June 2003
  • 2. Table 1. Measures of Pain, Catastrophizing, Depression, and Anxiety in Adults and Adolescents 24 h After Surgery Degrees Adults Adolescents of Mean (SD) Mean (SD) t Value Freedom P ValueVisual Analog Scale—pain 5.04 (2.10) 7.35 (1.70) 2.663 18 .01*Pain Catastrophizing Scale (total) 12.60 (10.8) 18.00 (7.22) 2.667 18 .01*Beck Depression Inventory 7.00 (6.48) 10.00 (4.37) 1.214 18 NS†State-Trait Anxiety Inventory—state form 33.80 (8.78) 44.40 (12.43) 2.202 18 NS*Significant finding when analyses were corrected for number of statistics computed.†NS indicates not significant.Measures Procedure Demographic and Injury-Related Variables. We obtained During initial contact, we provided potential participantsdemographic and specific data regarding the injury through a with general information about the nature of the study; thosequestionnaire inquiring about age, sex, type of injury, and the interested were screened according to eligibility requirementsdesire to return to preinjury sport. All athletes were under- (ie, scheduled for arthroscopically assisted ACL patellar-ten-going their primary ACL surgery, and no bilateral surgeries don autograft; injury incurred through sport; no history ofwere performed. No athletes reported a history of chronic knee chronic pain, current dementia, or acute psychopathology; nopain or chronic knee injury before the ACL injury. history of neurologic disease). We informed participants that Pain. Pain intensity was assessed with 2 separate Visual if a significant postoperative complication developed after sur-Analog Scale (VAS) measures. Patients were asked to rate gery (eg, additional corrective surgery was needed), their datatheir pain intensity while resting and while moving. The VAS might be excluded. We collected data 24 hours postoperativelyconsisted of a 10-cm horizontal line with 2 endpoints, or an- at 10 AM after ACL surgery in the hospital. Patients completedchors, labeled ‘‘no pain’’ (0) and ‘‘worst pain ever’’ (10). The the VAS, PCS, BDI, and STAI-S. There were no cases ofVAS pain measures provide a simple and efficient measure of significant postoperative complications. An institutional ethicspain intensity, widely used in both clinical and experimental review board approved the study, and we obtained written in-pain research, offering a quick assessment of pain, sensitivity formed consent from participants before data both pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic interventions toreduce pain,12 and high association with pain measured on Data Analysesverbal and numeric pain-rating scales.13 The major advantageof VAS measures of pain intensity is their ratio scale proper- Descriptive statistics and t tests were used to examine theties,14 which imply equality of ratios, thus allowing one to associations and differences in the dependent measures be-compare percentage differences between VAS assessments tween the adolescent and adult groups for the 24-hour post-made over time. operative assessment. The t tests were conservatively corrected Catastrophizing. The Pain Catastrophizing Scale15 (PCS) for multiple test error.22 A one-way analysis of covariancewas used to assess catastrophizing. The PCS asks the respon- (ANCOVA) was used to examine the particular contributiondents to reflect upon past painful experiences and to rate the of catastrophizing to pain to which they experienced each of the thoughts or feel-ings that are the items of the scale. Each item is rated in ref- RESULTSerence to being in pain on a 5-point scale from 0 (not at all)to 4 (all the time). Examples of items representing each of the Reports of 24-hour pain while moving and resting were3 PCS subscales follow: rumination, ‘‘I can’t seem to keep it highly correlated (r 0.80, P .01) and were therefore col-out of my mind’’; magnification, ‘‘I think of other painful ex- lapsed to form a single pain index.22 The differences acrossperiences’’; helplessness, ‘‘I feel I can’t go on.’’ The PCS has the adolescent and adult groups at the 24-hour postoperativedemonstrated reliability and validity.15 Scores range from 0 to assessment are presented in Table 1. Although there were no52, with higher values representing greater catastrophizing. significant differences for depressive symptoms, the adolescent Depressive Symptoms. The Beck Depression Inventory16 sample reported greater pain intensity (t18 2.66, P .01)(BDI) was used to assess depressive symptoms. The BDI has and catastrophizing (t18 2.67, P .01) when compared withbeen used as a measure of depressive symptoms in several adults. Ancillary analyses were conducted for the subscales ofmedical populations, including chronic pain patients and sur- the PCS (Table 2). Adolescents reported greater catastrophicgical patients.17 The BDI is both reliable16,18 and valid19 and helplessness (t18 2.97, P .001) and rumination-basedis a standard measure of depression in medical and psycho- catastrophic thought (t18 2.44, P .02) with regard to theirsocial research. pain than did adults. An ANCOVA model produced a nonsig- Anxiety. The state form of the State-Trait Anxiety Inven- nificant pain-score difference between groups after controllingtory20 (STAI-S) was used to assess situation-specific anxiety. for the variance contributed by catastrophizing (F1,19 2.52,The STAI is a 40-item self-report questionnaire that measures P .05) (Table 3).state and trait anxiety. The STAI has high internal consistencyand validity20 and has been successfully used in surgical pop- DISCUSSIONulations.21 Total scores are obtained by summing the valuesassigned to each response and range from a minimum of 20 Pain and catastrophizing were greater in adolescents at 24to a maximum of 80, with higher scores indicating more severe hours postsurgery. Further, catastrophizing may have mediat-anxiety symptoms. ing effects on the observed pain-score differences between the Journal of Athletic Training 155
  • 3. Table 2. Measures on the Subscales of the Pain Catastrophizing involvement in sport. Ultimately, for high catastrophizers, theScale in Adults and Adolescents 24 h After Surgery negative effect of heightened pain experience may lead to pre- Degrees mature termination of involvement in sport. Although it is not Adults Adolescents of direct evidence of termination in athletic sport, recent re- Mean Mean Free- searchers have documented that catastrophizing is predictive (SD) (SD) t Value dom P Value of activity intolerance in sedentary undergraduate students af-Helplessness 2.30 (2.49) 8.20 (5.77) 2.967 18 .001* ter an exercise protocol designed to induce muscle soreness.Rumination 5.30 (3.27) 9.50 (4.35) 2.440 18 .02* In particular, under conditions in which movement is associ-Magnification 2.90 (3.31) 4.10 (2.42) 0.924 18 NS† ated with pain, catastrophizing appears to contribute to a re-*Significant finding when analyses were corrected for number of statis- duction in the maximal weight study participants were able ortics computed. willing to lift.28 These data relate to previous findings in that†NS indicates not significant. individuals higher in catastrophizing will not avoid sporting activities when no pain is present,29 but catastrophizers are more likely to avoid activity when pain is present.28 Cognitive-adolescent and adult samples because controlling for catastro- based strategies reduce catastrophizing and acute pain and mayphizing eliminated the group difference for pain. Catastro- be useful for athletes in acute pain management.11 Indeed,phizing is a significant factor in the postoperative period in stress inoculation training procedures have been efficacious inother adolescent samples,23 and these data are the first to in- decreasing postoperative pain, anxiety, and the number of daysdicate that catastrophizing is significant in athletic adolescents to return to physical functioning for athletes after arthroscopicafter ACL procedures, with adolescents reporting greater pain- meniscal-repair surgery.30related helplessness and rumination than adults. Perhaps these Although not significant after correcting for the number ofdata support previous suggestions that hospital patients may analyses, elevated anxiety at the 24-hour postoperative assess-experience increased fear or helplessness because of the reg- ment is also noteworthy. Previous data show that adolescentimented, technologic system with little opportunity to exercise pain on the first and third postoperative days is influenced byself-control behaviors.24 Thus, greater catastrophizing in ado- the presence of anxiety and the patient’s maturational stage,lescents may be influenced by their relative lack of understand- and anxiety is often correlated with catastrophizing in paining about the nature of their injury, their lack of experience studies.15 Gillies et al31 suggested that surgery in adolescentswith recovery from injury, and the potential threat to the loss should include more effective pain management by raisingof competitive status. awareness of the importance of both the psychological state Catastrophizing is associated with pain15 in many reports, and the adjustment to adolescence. Our study did not involveand catastrophic helplessness has been suggested to function patients less than 16 years of age, so maturational influencesas a secondary appraisal of one’s confidence in the ability tomanage pain.15,25 Cognitive appraisal models have shown that must await future research.negative thinking may hinder rehabilitation through increased Several limitations of our study are present, including sam-emotional disturbance,26 lending support to the notion that ple size. A larger sample would allow for increased flexibilitycontrolling catastrophizing in the athlete may act to decrease in hypotheses to be addressed. Also, the acute postoperativenegative outcomes. Speculation as to how catastrophizing may period may not be reflective of the overall perioperative ex-affect pain suggests impairment in the ability to make effective perience for adolescents and adults. Following initial reactionsuse of particular coping strategies such as distraction.27 Pos- after surgery, adolescents may go on to do as well as adults.sibly, the more uncertainty characterizes the situation for the In collecting prospective data after ACL surgery, researchersadolescent, the greater the tendency to be catastrophic about would be able to document effects of catastrophizing, pain,the probability of negative outcomes. It is important to note and affective distress in adolescent and adult athletes into thethat controlling for catastrophizing eliminates the significance recovery/rehabilitation period of ACL surgery. Also, causalof pain differences between the adolescents and adults, indi- relations among these variables are not supported by the pres-cating that clinical postoperative pain management should tar- ent analyses. Finally, as with all research defined to a partic-get catastrophizing for intervention, especially in adolescents. ular setting, these data may not be reflective of populations Catastrophizing may have implications beyond the acute outside the geographic and ethnic populations in our sample.ACL postoperative period, when the adolescent’s responses to Although not the focus of this study, cultural influences oninjury might play a significant role in the decision to continue pain reports are well documented. However, they do not pre-Table 3. Analysis of Covariance Model Examining Tests of Between-Subjects Effects (Adolescents and Adults) for Pain at 24 hPostoperative, Controlling for Catastrophizing (Pain Catastrophizing Scale) Type III Degrees Sums of of Mean Source Squares Freedom Square F P ValueCorrected model 33.356 2 16.678 4.645 .025Intercept 126.711 1 126.711 35.291 .000Pain Catastrophizing Scale 6.675 1 6.675 1.859 .191Group 9.039 1 9.039 2.518 .131Error 61.039 17 3.591Total 861.955 20Corrected total 94.395 19156 Volume 38 • Number 2 • June 2003
  • 4. sent any convincing direction because they vary by measure- 14. Price DD, Harkins SW. The combined use of experimental pain and visualment modality used.32 analogue scales in providing standardized measurement of clinical pain. Along with the other suggestions for future studies, exam- Clin J Pain. 1987;3:1–8. 15. Sullivan MJL, Bishop SR, Pivik J. The Pain Catastrophizing Scale: de-ining pain coping in adolescent athletes is important because velopment and validation. Psychol Assess. 1995;7:524–532.coping may mediate postoperative distress and catastrophizing. 16. Beck AT, Ward CH, Mendelson M, Mock J, Erbaugh J. An inventory forFranck et al33 suggested that adolescents may cope by attend- measuring depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1961;4:561– to what is causing the pain, or they may try to distract 17. Croog SH, Baume RM, Nalbandian J. Pre-surgery psychological char-themselves from it, with remaining in control being an im- acteristics, pain response, and activities impairment in female patientsportant factor in adolescents. If the individual is an ‘‘attender’’ with repeated periodontal surgery. J Psychosom Res. 1995;39:39–51.(ie, wants information before and after the procedure) or a 18. Beck AT. Depression: Causes and Treatment. Philadelphia, PA: Univer-‘‘distractor’’ (ie, prefers not being told anything about the pro- sity of Pennsylvania Press; 1970.cedure, tries to distract himself or herself after the procedure), 19. Bumberry W, Oliver JM, McClure JN. Validation of the Beck Depressionmatching pain interventions to coping may be the most effi- Inventory in a university population using psychiatric estimate as the criterion. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1978;46:150–155.cacious approach.34 20. Spielberger CD, Gorsuch RL, Lushene R, Vagg PR, Jacobs GA. State- Trait Anxiety Inventory for Adults: Sampler Set, Manual, Test, ScoringREFERENCES Key. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press; 1983. 21. Nelson FV, Zimmerman L, Barnason S, Nieveen J, Schmaderer M. The 1. Brustad RJ. Youth in sport: psychological considerations. In: Singer RN, relationship and influence of anxiety on postoperative pain in the coro- Murphey M, Tennant LK, eds. Handbook of Research in Sport Psychol- nary artery bypass graft patient. J Pain Symptom Manage. 1998;15:102– ogy. New York, NY: Macmillan; 1993:695–717. 109. 2. Landry GL. The Benefits of Sport Participation. Vol 2. Boston, MA: 22. Tabachnick BG, Fidell LS. Using Multivariate Statistics. 3rd ed. Boston, American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, American Academy of Pe- MA: Addison-Wesley; 1996. diatrics; 2000. 23. Bennett-Branson SM, Craig KD. Postoperative pain in children: devel- 3. Danish S. Psychological aspects in the case and treatment of athletic opmental and family influences on spontaneous coping strategies. Can J injuries. In: Vinger P, Hoerner E, eds. Sport Injuries: The Unthwarted Behav Sci. 1993;25:355–383. Epidemic. Boston, MA: Year Book-Medical Publishers; 1986:195–219. 24. Stoudemire A. Psychologic and em
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