დემოკრატია ძველ საბერძნეთში ქავთარია

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  grani qavTaria  demokratia Zvel saberZneTSi demokratia ( demos  _ xalxi, kratos  _ Zala-ufleba), rogorc marTva-gamgeobis sistema, Zvel saberZneTSi Camoyalibda. misi dabadeba ioniis qalaqebSi moxda, magram klasikur formas balkane-Tze (aTenSi) miaRwia.berZnuli civilizaciis ayvavebis xanaSi aTenma da spartam gaba-tonebuli mdgomareoba daikaves da arsebiTi roli Seasrules elin-uri samyaros politikur, ekonomikur da kulturul cxovrebaSi. unda aRiniSnos, rom demokratiis Camoyalibeba aTensa da spartaSi gansxvavebuli formebiT warimarTa. berZeni avtorebi pirdapir werd-nen, rom spartasa da aTenSi gansxvavebuli saxelmwifo wyobileba arsebobda. mizezad asaxelebdnen demokratiuli nakadis sisustes spartaSi. saistorio wyaroebis ganmartebiT, sparta uCveulo da saidumloebiT moculi polisi iyo, romelic saukuneebis manZilze rCeboda umniSvnelovanes politikur da samxedro Zalad, elinuri samyaros bedis ganmsazRvrelad.spartis Zlierebis mwvervals warmoadgenda gamarjveba pelopo-nesis omSi, magram man saberZneTis saTaveSi dgoma ver SeZlo da dam-arcxebul mxares (aTens) gauTanabrda. sruluflebiani spartelis brZolisunarianoba bavSvobidanve iwrToboda, xolo zrdasruli elinur samyarosa da mis sazRvrebs gareTac Seudarebel meomrad iTvleboda. 1   did berZnul kolonizaciaSi sparta ar CarTula, misi interese-bi peloponesis naxevarkunZuls ar gascdenia. igi Caiketa pelopon- 1   am realobis SesaniSnav dadasturebas warmoadgens saxelovani istorikosis qseno- fontis informacia, romelSic aRwerilia sparseTis dinastiur omSi berZeni mo- qiravneebis monawileobis faqti (Zv. w. 401 wels). berZen molaSqreTa rigebSi myofi  aTeneli qsenofonti xazgasmiT miuTiTebs, rom aqemenidebis taxtis pretendenti  kirosi gansakuTrebuli yuradRebiT ekideboda lakedemoneli (sparta lakedemonis  qalaqi iyo) meomrebis daqiravebas (qsenofonti, anabasisi, I, I, 6).  114 grani qavTaria esSi da CamoSorda saerTo berZnul ganviTarebas. amgvarma gandgomam uaryofiTad imoqmeda spartis saSinao mdgomareobaze. amis gamo, ar aris SemTxveviTi, rom elinuri samyaros warmatebani klasikur xa-naSi politikis, ekonomikurisa da gansakuTrebiT kulturis sfer-oSi, spartis monawileobis gareSe iqna miRweuli.spartis saxelmwifo wyobilebis fuZemdeblad miCneulia nax-evrad legendaruli kanonmdebeli likurgosi. werilobiT wyaroe-bSi misi moRvaweoba bundovnad aris gadmocemuli, magram kanonebs saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi cvlileba ar ganucdia. likurgosis dawe-sebuli normebi cxovrebis yvela sferos moicavda da maTi odnavi darRvevac samSoblos Ralats utoldeboda, samSoblos Ralati ki, umkacresad isjeboda. spartis kanonebi sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis ganviTarebis Semaferxebeli debulebebis siuxviT gamoirCeoda. mis amRiarebels warTmeuli hqonda damoukidebeli moqmedebis unari, rac iwvevda danarCeni elinuri polisebisagan izolirebas da su-lieri sferos dakninebas. spartaSi uaryofili iyo adamianis har-moniuli ganviTarebis principebi da saxelmwifos umTavres amocanas spartelis fizikur Zlierebaze zrunva Seadgenda.likurgosis kanonebiT dauSvebeli iyo, codnis gaRrmavebis mizniT, mSobliuri qalaqis datoveba. spartisagan gansxvavebiT, ber-Znuli polisebis moqalaqeebi wlebis ganmavlobaSi mogzaurobdnen  Soreul qveynebSi (egvipteSi, babilonSi da sxv.) da ecnobodnen ucxoeTSi dagrovil miRwevebs mecnierebisa da xelovnebis sferoe-bSi. am dainteresebam ganapiroba azrovnebis miuwvdomeli simaRle, romelmac saberZneTi gadaaqcia Zveli samyaros sulieri kultu-ris kanonmdeblad. elinuri saocrebis am did zeimSi spartas monaw-ileoba ar miuRia. peloponesis naxevarkunZulze Caketili mtkiced ganagrZobda Tavis yazarmul cxovrebas da moqalaqis daniSnulebad mxolod brZolis velze Tavis gamoCena miaCnda. amis gamo, did berZen moazrovneTa Soris (literatura, filosofia, xelovneba, istoria) spartelis saxeli ar figurirebs.spartis izolirebis mizezebs antikuri mwerloba iq arsebul kanonebSi xedavda. plutarqe wers, `likurgosi nebas ar aZlevda arc erT msurvels samSoblodan gamgzavrebuliyo da sxva qveynebSi exetiala. igi SiSobda, spartidan wasulebs ar SemoetanaT ucxo Cvevebi da ar miebaZaT sxvebis uweso cxovrebisa da nair-nairi sax-elmwifo wyobilebisaTvis. spartaSi Camosul ucxoelebs aZevebda qalaqidan... ucxo pirebTan erTad qalaqSi ucxo sityvebic Semo-dis... axali sityvebi axal azrebs iwvevs: es ki Tavis mxriv did vnebas ayenebs ers, mraval survils badebs da damkvidrebul saxelmwifo  115 demokratia Zvel saberZneTSi wyobilebaSi iseT arev-darevas iwvevs, rogorsac Seuxmatkbilebeli xmebi musikaSi. likurge fiqrobda, qalaqi cudi Cvevebisagan ufro metad unda daecva, vidre Semotanili gadamdebi senisagan~ (plu-tarqe, likurgosi, 27). likurgosis kanonmdebloba efuZneboda TavisufalTa qonebriv gaTanabrebas, cxovrebis mkacri wesebis dan-ergvas, simdidrisa da fufunebis sagnebis uaryofas. `likurgosma moZravi qonebis gadanawilebac ganizraxa. mas surda am RonisZiebiT Zirfesvianad moespo jer kidev arsebuli uTanasworoba moqalaqeTa  Soris. magram roca dainaxa, spartelebi winaaRmdegobis gauwevlad pirad qonebaze Znelad Tu aiRebdnen xels, sxva gzas mimarTa da da-faruli xerxebiT bolo mouRo TanamemamuleTa sixarbes. man jer akrZala oqrosa da vercxlis fuli da xmarebaSi SemoiRo rkinis fuli, romelic mcire RirebulebebTan erTad... mZime iyo... rkinis fulis SemoRebiT likurgosma mravali saxis boroteba gandevna lakedemoniidan~ (plutarqe, likurgosi, 9).imave politikis gagrZelebas warmoadgenda brZola xelovnebis winaaRmdeg. `likurgosma spartidan gaaZeva yovelgvari usargeblo da uqmi xelovneba. Tumca romc ar gaeZevebina, xelovnebis didi nawili Zvel fulTan erTad TavisTavad gaqreboda. sakuTari nawar-mis gasaReba SeuZlebeli gaxdeboda... fufuneba, romelsac waerTva is, rac mas sicocxlesa da Zalas aZlevda, TandaTanobiT TviTonve daWkna. mdidrebi upiratesobiT veRar sargeblobdnen, maT qonebas Zala daekarga. spartelebma SesaniSnavad daiwyes keTeba yoveldRiu-rad saxmari iseTi aucilebeli sagnebisa, rogoricaa sawoli, skami, magida. sparteli xelosnebi iZulebuli gaxdnen uqmi saqmeebisaTvis Tavi daenebebinaT da TavianTi didostatoba aucilebeli sagnebis damzadebaSi gamoeCinaT~ (likurgosi, 9).spartis Tavisufali moqalaqeebis gaTanabrebis saukeTeso sa- Sualebad likurgosma miiCnia sajaro sasadiloebi _ sisitiebi. srulasakovani spartelebi valdebulni iyvnen Sekrebiliyvnen da erTad esadilaT saerTo sasadiloSi. sakvebi (sakmaod ugemuri) ka-noniT iyo dadgenili. akrZaluli iyo sakuTar ojaxSi kerZis mirT-meva. vinc am wess daarRvevda, mkacrad kicxavdnen, rac spartelis RirsebisaTvis Seuferebeli iyo. kanons emorCilebodnen mefeebic. sisitiebis danergviT simdidrem dakarga mimzidveloba. plutarqe wers, rom mdidarTa protests likurgosi TavganwirviT aRudga win da sisitiebi, rogorc cxovrebis gansxvavebuli forma, dakanonda. saerTo sasadiloSi TiToeul moqalaqes yovelTviurad unda mieta-na gansaRvruli raodenobis sursaTi. farTod iyenebdnen Sewirulo-basac: nadirobidan dabrunebul spartels, nanadirevis saukeTeso  116 grani qavTaria nawili sisitiaSi unda mietana. visac sapatio mizezi hqonda, ufle-ba eZleoda, saxlSi esadila.likurgosis kanonmdebloba iTvaliswinebda, rogorc werilo-biT, ise dauwerel kanonebs, romelTac RvTisagan momdinared Tvli-da. misi azriT, `yvelaze mniSvnelovansa da fasdebuls saxelmwifos keTildReobisa da RirsebisaTvis fesvebi mtkiced unda hqondes gadgmuli moqalaqeTa xasiaTsa da qcevaSi. nebisyofa... iZulebaze ufro Zlieri borkilia. aseT nebisyofas ki adamianSi qmnis aRzrda, romelsac am SemTxvevaSi namdvili kanonmdeblis Zala eniWeba~ (li-kurgosi, 13).meore retrad plutarqes dasaxelebuli aqvs brZola simdid-risa da fufunebis winaaRmdeg. masSi gaidealebulia ubralo saxli, Raribuli avejiT.mesame retra `spartelebs ukrZalavda erTsa da imave mterze xSirad laSqrobas, raTa es mteri Tavdacvas ar daCveoda da mamaci mebrZoli ar gamxdariyo.~ 2 likurgosi Tanmimdevrulad icavda gvarovnuli aristokrati-is privilegiebs. hilotebsa da periekebze batonobis SenarCuneba moiTxovda mudmiv saomar mzadyofnas. am ideas emsaxureboda spar-tis Zlierebis safuZveli _ spartanuli skola da aRzrda. li-kurgosi bavSvTa patriotuli suliskveTebiT aRzrdis winapirobad miiCnevda ojaxisa da qorwinebis problemas. am kuTxiT sayuradRe-boa is faqti, ron kanonmdebeli ar zRudavda qalebs da maTTvisac moiTxovda mamakacebisaTvis aucilebel rTul fizikur varjiSebs, radgan kanonmdeblis azriT, jansaRi qalebi jansaR STamomavlobas miscemdnen spartas.berZnul polisebSi (gansakuTrebiT aTenSi) farTod gavrcele-bul harmoniuli ganaTlebis sistemas upirispirdeboda spartanuli skola, romelSic mTavari yuradReba fizikur wvrTnas eqceoda. spar-teli bavSvebi, 8 wlidan 18 wlamde, ojaxs mowyvetilebi gadiodnen mkacr samxedro momzadebas. skolis ZiriTadi mizani iyo samSoblos Rirseuli damcvelis aRzrda. momaval meomars bavSvobidanve unda aeTvisebina iaraRis flobis sirTule. yoveldRiuri varjiSi amtan da Zlier meomrad Camoyalibebas uwyobda xels. spartanul skolaSi wera-kiTxvas elementarul doneze aswavlidnen, radgan es sfero meo- 2  plutarqes azriT, likurgosis anderZis daucvelobam sparta seriozul damar- cxebamde miiyvana. igi wers, `amitom iyo, rom SemdgomSi metismetad kicxavdnen  mefe agesilaoss, romelmac beotiaSi xSiri laSqrobiT da TavdasxmebiT Tebelebi  spartelTa dari meomrebi gaxada. TebelebTan daWrili agesilaosi rom ixila, an- talkidem uTxra: `kargi jildo ki miiRe Tebelebisagan, romelTac maSin aswavle  brZola, roca es arc undodaT da arc icodneno~ (plutarqe, likurgosi, 13).
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